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  • Thomas
    I just received an e-mail marked [stoics] from Sue Caroll, with the text of my last post to the group, plus the reply: take a look at the attachment. The
    Message 1 of 3 , Aug 6, 2001
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      I just received an e-mail marked [stoics] from Sue Caroll, with the text of
      my last post to the group, plus the reply: take a look at the attachment.
      The attachment is "hamster ZIP.scr" and contains the dangerous
      W32.Badtrans.133112@mm.
      It is a worm virus that sends itself to all the senders of mail that is
      opened on an infected computer. Norton detects it and the Norton site
      provides disinfection procedures. I didn't open the attachement, just
      scanned it and deleted it.

      Thomas
    • Sue
      Thank you for informing me about the virus. I am so sorry that I sent you an attachment which was infected, I was however unaware that it had been sent to you
      Message 2 of 3 , Aug 7, 2001
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        Thank you for informing me about the virus. I am so sorry that I sent
        you an attachment which was infected, I was however unaware that it
        had been sent to you - I think an effect of the virus.

        Could you help me with my coursework? The title is how Stoicism
        influenced early Christianity and I am having real difficulties
        producing the coursework as I have had various difficulties in
        finding information on how Stoicism influenced early Christianity,
        and why it did. Stoicism as I understand it was a key part of the
        Roman education System, which later spread Chrisitianity. The
        two 'philosophies' are supposed to be linked with Stoicism
        influencing the foundations that formed Christianity. However, it
        appears to me that the Stoic beliefs often conflict with that of
        Christianity. So, I was wondering whether the influence that Stoicism
        had on Christianity in the beginning are less apparent today.
        Hopefully others will be able to help me reach a conclusion on that
        one.
        Thank you for your reponses they were all greatly recieved.
        Thanks
        Sue
      • Thomas
        I hope you successfully removed the virus. The Britannica CD-Rom has this article, that shows a quite profound influence. /Thomas Stoic elements in Pauline
        Message 3 of 3 , Aug 7, 2001
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          I hope you successfully removed the virus. The Britannica CD-Rom has
          this article, that shows a quite profound influence. /Thomas

          "Stoic elements in Pauline and patristic thought:
          There is much disagreement as to the measure of Stoic influence on
          the writings of St. Paul, the Apostle of Christ. At Tarsus, Paul
          certainly had opportunities for hearing Stoic lectures on philosophy.
          And it may be that his discussion of nature and the teaching of it (I
          Cor. 11:14) is Stoic in origin, for it has a parallel in the Manual
          of Epictetus 1.16, 10. Although not a Stoic technical term,
          syneidesis, which Paul used as "conscience," was generally employed
          by Stoic philosophers. In I Cor. 13 and in the report of Paul's
          speech at Athens (Acts 17), there is much that is Hellenistic, more
          than a little tinged by Stoic elements--e.g., the arguments
          concerning man's natural belief in God and the belief that man's
          existence is in God.

          The assimilation of Stoic elements by the Church Fathers was
          generally better understood by the 4th century. Stoic influence can
          be seen, for example, in the relation between reason and the passions
          in the works of St. Ambrose, one of the great scholars of the church,
          and of Marcus Minucius Felix, a Christian Apologist. Each took a
          wealth of ideas from Stoic morality as Cicero had interpreted it in
          De officiis. In general, whereas the emerging Christian morality
          affirmed its originality, it also assimilated much of the pagan
          literature, the more congenial elements of which were essentially
          Stoic.

          Earlier, in the 3rd century, Quintus Tertullian, often called the
          father of Latin Christian literature, seems to have been versed in
          Stoic philosophy; e.g., in his theory of the agreement between the
          supernatural and the human soul, in his use of the Stoic tenet that
          from a truth there follow truths, and in his employment of the idea
          of universal consent. Even in his polemical writings, which reveal an
          unrelenting hostility to pagan philosophy, Tertullian showed a
          fundamental grasp and appreciation of such Stoic themes as the world
          logos and the relation of body to soul. This is well illustrated in
          his argument against the Stoics, particularly on their theme that God
          is a corporeal being and identified with reason as inherent in matter-
          -also to be found in his polemics against Marcion, father of a
          heretical Christian sect, and against Hermogenes of Tarsus, author of
          an important digest of rhetoric. Yet in his doctrine of the Word, he
          appealed directly to Zeno and Cleanthes of the Early Stoa. Another
          important polemic against the Stoics is found in the treatise Contra
          Celsum, by Origen, the most influential Greek theologian of the 3rd
          century, in which he argued at some length against Stoic doctrines
          linking God to matter.

          Also, St. Cyprian, bishop of Carthage in the 3rd century, revealed
          the currency of Stoic views; e.g., in his Ad Demetrianum, a
          denunciation of an enemy to Christianity, in which Cyprian castigates
          the ill treatment of slaves, who, no less than their masters, are
          formed of the same matter and endowed with the same soul and live
          according to the same law. The beliefs in the brotherhood of man and
          in the world as a great city, commonly found in early Christian
          literature, were current Stoic themes. The Christian attitude appears
          in what St. Paul said of Baptism: "You are all sons of God through
          Faith. For as many of you as were baptized into Christ have put on
          Christ" (Gal. 3:26-27)."
          Jason Lewis Saunders: Former Professor of Philosophy, City College,
          City University of New York. Author of Early Stoic Philosophy.
          Copyright © 1994-2001 Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.
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