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Marcus Aurelius

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  • Breno Bastos
    Marcus Aurelius, Capitoline Museums, Rome Marcus Aurelius Marcus Annius Verus (AD 121 - AD 180) Marcus Annius Verus was born at Rome on 26 April AD 121. His
    Message 1 of 15 , Apr 3, 2007
      aurelius.gif - 9829 Bytes
      Marcus Aurelius, Capitoline Museums, Rome
       
      'Marcus Aurelius'
      Marcus Annius Verus
      (AD 121 - AD 180)

       

       

      Marcus Annius Verus was born at Rome on 26 April AD 121.
      His paternal great-grandfather, Annius Verus from Uccubi (near Corduba) in Baetica, had brought the family, wealthy through the production of olive oil, to prominence by gaining the rank of senator and praetor.
      After this, his paternal grandfather (also Marcus Annius Verus) held the office of consul three times. It was this grandfather who adopted Marcus Aurelius after his father's death, and at whose grand residence the young Marcus grew up.
      His father, also called Marcus Annius Verus, married Domitia Lucilla, cam came from a wealthy family which owned a tile factory (which Marcus would inherit) close to Rome. But he would die young, when his son was only about three years old.
      Early on in his life Marcus had the additional names 'Catilius Severus' to his name. This was in honour of his maternal step-grandfather who had been consul in AD 110 and 120.
      To complete the picture of Marcus' family ties, one needs also to mention his paternal aunt, Annia Galeria Faustina (Faustina the Elder), who was the wife of Antoninus Pius.

      No emperor since Tiberius had spent such a long time in preparing and waiting to accede to the throne as Marcus Aurelius.
      It remains unknown just how it was that the young boy Marcus so early in his life attracted the attention of Hadrian, who affectionately nicknamed him 'Verissimus', enrolled him to equestrian rank at the age of only six, made him a priest of the Salian order at the age of eight and had him educated by the best teachers of the day.
      Then in AD 136, Marcus was betrothed to Ceionia Fabia, the daughter of Lucius Ceionius Commodus, by wish of emperor Hadrian. Shortly after this Hadrian announced Commodus as his official heir.
      As son-in-law to the imperial heir, Marcus now found himself at the very highest level of Roman political life.

      Though Commodus was not to be heir apparent for long. He already died on 1 January AD 138.
      Hadrian though needed an heir fo he was growing old and his health was beginning to fail him. He clearly appeared to like the idea of seeing Marcus on the throne one day, but knew he was not old enough. And so Antoninus Pius became the successor, but only by and in turn adopting Marcus, and Commodus' orphaned son, Lucius Ceionius Commodus as his heirs.
      Marcus was 16 when the adoption ceremony took place on 25 February AD 138. It was on this occasion that he assumed the name Marcus Aurelius. The accession to the throne of the joint emperors was to set a precedent, which should be repeated many times in the coming centuries.

      As Hadrian died shortly after and Antoninus Pius assumed the throne, Marcus soon shared in the work of the high office. Antoninus sought for Marcus to gain experience for the role he would one day have to play. And with time, both seemed to have shared true sympathy and affection for each other, like father and son. As these bonds grew stronger Marcus Aurelius broke off his engagement to Ceionia Fabia and instead became engaged to Antoninus' daughter Annia Galeria Faustina (Faustina the Younger)in AD 139. An engagement which should lead to marriage in AD 145.
      Faustina would bear him no fewer than 14 children during their 31 years of marriage. But only one son and four daughters were to outlive their father.
      In AD 139 Marcus Aurelius was officially made caesar, junior emperor to Antoninus, and in AD 140, at the age of only 18, he was made consul for the first time.

      Just as there was no doubt whom of his two adopted sons Antoninus favoured, it was clear that the senate, too, preferred Marcus Aurelius. When in AD 161 Antoninus Pius died, the senate sought to make Marcus sole emperor. It was only due to Marcus Aurelius' insistence, reminding the senators of the wills of both Hadrian and Antoninus, that his adoptive brother Verus was made his imperial colleague.

      Had the rule of Antoninus Pius been a period of reasonable calm, the the reign of Marcus Aurelius would be a time of almost continuous fighting, made yet worse by rebellions and plague.

      When in AD 161 war broke out with the Parthians and Rome suffered setbacks in Syria, it was emperor Verus who left for the east in order to lead the campaign. And yet, as Verus spent most of his time pursuing his pleasures at Antioch, leadership of the campaign was left in the hands of the Roman generals, and - to some degree - even in the hands of Marcus Aurelius back in Rome.

      As if it were not enough trouble that, when Verus returned in AD 166, his troops brought with them a devastating plague which racked the empire, then the northern frontiers should also see successive attacks across the Danube by ever more hostile Germanic tribes.
      By autumn AD 167 the two emperors set out together, leading an army northward. But only on hearing of their coming, the barbarians withdrew, with the imperial army still in Italy.
      Marcus Aurelius though deemed it necessary for Rome to reassert its authority to the north. The barbarians should not grow confident that they could attack the empire and withdraw as they pleased.
      And so, with a reluctant co-emperor Verus, he set out for the north for a show of strength. When they thereafter returned to Aquileia in northern Italy plague ravaged the army camp and the two emperors decided it wiser to head for Rome. But emperor Verus, perhaps affected by the disease, never made it back to Rome. He died, only after a short while into journey, at Altinum (early AD 169).
      This left Marcus Aurelius sole emperor of the Roman world.

      But already in late AD 169 the very same Germanic tribes which had caused the trouble which had taken Marcus Aurelius and Verus over the Alps launched their yet biggest assault across the Danube. The combined tribes of Quadi and Marcomanni broke through the Roman defences, crossed the mountains into Italy and even laid siege to Aquileia.

      Meanwhile further east the tribe of the Costoboci crossed the Danube and drove south into Greece. Marcus Aurelius, his armies enfeebled by the plague gripping his empire, had great trouble re-establishing control. It was only achieved in an arduous, embittered campaign lasting for years. Harsh conditions only yet further strained his forces. One battle took place in the deepest winter on the frozen surface of the river Danube.

      Though throughout these gruesome wars Marcus Aurelius still found the time for governmental affairs. He administered government, dictated letters, heard court cases in an exemplary fashion, with a remarkable sense of duty. He is said to have spent up to eleven to twelve days on a difficult court case, at times even dispensing justice at night.

      If Marcus Aurelius' reign was to be one of almost constant warfare, then it stands in stark contrast to his being a deeply intellectual man of a peaceful nature. He was an ardent student of Greek 'stoic' philosophy and his rule is perhaps the closest to that of a true philosopher king, the western world ever came to know.
      His work 'Meditations', an intimate collection of his profound thoughts, is perhaps the most famous book ever written by a monarch.

      But if Marcus Aurelius was a profound and peaceful intellect, then he bore little sympathy for followers of the Christian faith. To the emperor Christians seemed mere fanatical martyrs, who stubbornly refused to have any part in the greater community which was the Roman empire. If Marcus Aurelius saw in his empire the union of the people of the civilized world, then the Christians were dangerous extremists who sought to undermine this union for the sake of their own religious beliefs. For such people Marcus Aurelius had no time and no sympathy. The Christians were persecuted in Gaul during his reign.

      In AD 175 yet another tragedy occurred to an emperor so haunted by bad fortune. As Marcus Aurelius fell ill when was fighting on campaign on the Danube, a false rumour appeared to have emerged which announced he was dead. Marcus Cassius, the governor of Syria who had been appointed to the command of the east of the empire, was hailed emperor by his troops. Cassius was a loyal general to Marcus Aurelius. It is very unlikely that he would have acted, if he had not thought the emperor dead. Though it is likely that the prospect of Marcus' son Commodus taking the throne might have spurned Cassius on to act quickly at hearing of the throne having fallen vacant. It is also believed that Cassius enjoyed the support of the the empress, Faustina the Younger, who was with Marcus' but feared him dying from illness.
      But with Cassius hailed emperor in the east and Marcus Aurelius still alive there was no going back. Cassius now couldn't simply resign. Marcus prepared to move east to defeat the usurper. But shortly after news reached him that Cassius had been killed by his own soldiers.
      The emperor, aware of the misunderstanding which had led to Cassius' unwitting revolt, did not begin a witch hunt to seek out any conspirators. Perhaps because he knew of his wife's own support of Cassius in this tragedy.

      In order however to avert any future chance of civil war, should rumours of his death arise again, he now (AD 177) made his son Commodus his co-emperor.
      Commodus had already held the position of caesar (junior emperor) since AD 166, but now his status of co-Augustus made his succession inevitable.
      Then, with Commodus alongside him, Marcus Aurelius toured the east of the empire, where Cassius revolt had arisen.

      The wars along the Danube however were not at an end. In AD 178 Marcus Aurelius and Commodus left for the north where Commodus would play a prominent role alongside his father in leading the troops.
      If the fortunes of war were with the Romans this time and the Quadi were seriously mauled in their own territory beyond the Danube (AD 180), then any joy was offset by the old emperor now being seriously ill.A long lasting illness, - he had for some years complained of stomach and chest pains -, finally overcame the emperor and Marcus Aurelius died on 17 March AD 180 near Sirmium.
      His body was laid to rest in the Mausoleum of Hadrian .

       

      fonte: http://www.roman-empire.net/highpoint/marcaurelius-index.html
       

      Cordialmente,
      Breno Bastos
       
       
       

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    • Breno Bastos
      Marcus Aurelius Eine Seite zu Kaiser Marc Aurel und seiner Zeit mit Links und einer Bibliographie Links zu Marc Aurel und seiner Zeit Marc Aurels
      Message 2 of 15 , Apr 3, 2007

        Marc Aurel

        Marcus Aurelius

        Faustina


        Eine Seite zu Kaiser Marc Aurel und seiner Zeit mit Links und einer Bibliographie

         


         

        Links zu Marc Aurel und seiner Zeit

         

        Marc Aurels Selbstbetrachtungen

        Marc Aurel, Meditations (englische Übersetzung von George Long, London 1891)

        englisch ebenfalls verfügbar unter: Marc Aurel, Meditations

         

        nach oben

         

        Quellen

        Aurelius Victor, Liber de Caesaribus

        Cassius Dio, Roman History  (in englischer Übersetzung):  Buch 71 und Buch 72

        Eutropius, Breviarium VIII 9-14

        Historia Augusta, vita Antonini Pii

        Historia Augusta, vita Marci Antonini Philosophi

        Historia Augusta, vita Veri

        Historia Augusta, vita Avidii Cassii

        Historia Augusta, vita Commodi

         

        nach oben

         

        Schriftsteller aus der Zeit der Antonine

        Apuleius

        Epiktet, Reden und das Enchiridion  englisch

        Aulus Gellius, Noctes Atticae

        Lukian  deutsch in Auswahl

         

        nach oben

         

        Biographische Darstellungen zu Marc Aurel

        Marcus Aurelius  (Herbert W. Benario, »De Imperatoribus Romanis. An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors«)  hervorragende Darstellung mit Literatur

         

        Marcus Aurelius  (Encyclopaedia Britannica)

        Marcus Aurelius Antoninus  (Catholic Encyclopedia)

         

        Marc Aurèle  (»Empereurs romains«)  kurze Biographie und Links

        Mark Aurel  (Wilhelm Blum, »Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon«)  mit Literatur

        Marc Aurel. Kaiser und Philosoph  (Inga Hafemann)  kurzer Überblick, für Schüler gedacht

        Marcus Aurelius  (Thinkquest) Überblick

         

        nach oben

         

        Biographische Darstellungen zu Angehörigen seiner Familie

        Hadrian  (Herbert W. Benario, »De Imperatoribus Romanis«)  hervorragende Darstellung

        Hadrien  (»Empereurs romains«)  kurze Biographie und Links

         

        Antoninus Pius  (Richard D. Weigel, »De Imperatoribus Romanis«)  hervorragende Darstellung

        Antonin le Pieux   (»Empereurs romains«)  kurze Biographie und Links

         

        Lucius Verus  (Phoebe B. Peacock, »De Imperatoribus Romanis«)

        Lucius Verus  (»Empereurs romains«)  kurze Biographie und Links

         

        Commodus  (Dennis Quinn, »De Imperatoribus Romanis«)

        Commode  (»Empereurs romains«)  kurze Biographie und Links

         

        nach oben

         

         

        Biographische Darstellungen und Linkseiten zu wichtigen Zeitgenossen

        Apuleius Web Page

        Fronto  (Encyclopaedia Britannica)

        Galen  (Encyclopaedia Britannica)

        Herodes Atticus  (Encyclopaedia Britannica);  seine Büste aus dem Pariser Louvre; sein Odeion in Athen

         

        nach oben

         

        Marc Aurel

        Das Reiterstandbild Marc Aurels auf der Piazza del Campidoglio in Rom

         

        Philosophie

        Stoicism  (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

        Epiktet  kurze Informationen, Links

         

        nach oben

         

        Archäologische Quellen

        Porträts der Antonine  (Photosammlung der Antikensammlung Erlangen)

         

        Porträtkopf des Antoninus Pius  (Basel, Sammlung Ludwig; Abguß der Universität Münster)

        Porträtkopf des Marcus Aurelius  (Potsdam-Sanssouci; Abguß der Universität Münster)

        Reliefkopf des Marcus Aurelius  (Kopenhagen, Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek; Abguß der Universität Münster)

        Porträtkopf des Commodus  (München, Glyptothek; Abguß der Universität Münster)

         

        Marcus-Säule  kurze Informationen, Bilder

         

        Marc Aurel, Reiterstatue  kurze Informationen, Bilder

        Kapitol mit Reiterstatue  kurze Informationen, Bilder

        Capitoline Hill/ Pza. Campidoglio  Bildersammlung

         

        nach oben

         

        Andere Linksammlungen zu Marc Aurel

        Marcus Aurelius Antoninus  (Paul Niester)

        Temple of Marcus Aurelius  Informationen, Links, Bilder, Bücher

         

        nach oben

         

        Links zur Kirchengeschichte

        BBKL (Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon)  [mit Literaturangaben]

        Catholic Encyclopedia

         

        Links zur Antike allgemein

        Werkzeuge für Althistoriker  

         

        nach oben

         

         

        Marcus Aurelius

        Marc Aurel, Büste im Louvre

         

         

        Bibliographie zu Marc Aurel und seiner Zeit

         

        Biographien

        Birley, Anthony Richard: Marcus Aurelius, London ²1987 [grundlegend; deutsche Übersetzung der Erstauflage von 1966: Mark Aurel. Kaiser und Philosoph, München 1968]

        Carrata Thomes, Franco: Il regno di Marco Aurelio, Torino 1953

        Cresson, André: Marc-Aurèle, sa vie son oeuvre, Paris ³1947

        Dankwarth, Gerhard: Marc Aurel. Römischer Kaiser und Philosoph, Heere 1997 [populärwissenschaftlich]

        Farquharson, Arthur Spenser Loat: Marcus Aurelius. His life and his world, Oxford ²1952

        Görlitz, Walter: Marc Aurel. Kaiser u. Philosoph, Stuttgart 1954

        Grimal, Pierre: Marc Aurèle, Paris 1991

        Loisel, Gustave: La Vie de Marc-Aurèle, philosophe et empereur, Paris 1929

        Monti, Enrico: Marc' Aurelio. Imperatore del dovere, Milano 1988 [deutsch: Marc Aurel. Kaiser aus Pflicht, Regensburg 2000]

        Parain, Charles: Marc-Aurèle, Bruxelles 1982

        Proyart, Pierre de: Marc Aurèle. Un empereur citoyen du monde, Clamart 1962

        Renan, Ernest: Marc-Aurèle et la fin du monde antique, Paris 1882

        Rosen, Klaus: Marc Aurel, Reinbek bei Hamburg 1997 [Einführung]

        Schall, Ute: Marc Aurel. Der Philosoph auf dem Cäsarenthron, Esslingen/ München 1991

        Soleri, Giacomo: Marc' Aurelio, Brescia 1947

        Wilamowitz-Moellendorff, Ulrich von: Kaiser Marcus, Berlin 1931 [nur 17 S.]

         

        Kaiser Marc Aurel und seine Zeit. Das römische Reich im Umbruch, hrsg. v. Klaus Stemmer, Berlin 1988 [Ausstellungskatalog]

         

        nach oben

         

        Forschung

        Marc Aurel, hrsg. von Richard Klein, Darmstadt 1979 (Wege der Forschung, Bd. 550)

        Hammond, Mason: The Antonine Monarchy. 1959-1971, in: ANRW II 2 (1975), S. 329-353

        Petit, P.: Le IIe siècle après J.-C. État des questions et problèmes, in: ANRW II 2 (1975), S. 354-380

        Stanton, G. R.: Marcus Aurelius, Lucius Verus, and Commodus. 1962-1972, in: ANRW II 2 (1975), S. 478-549

         

        nach oben

         

        Überblick über das 2. Jahrhundert n. Chr.

        Bellen, Heinz: Die Kaiserzeit von Augustus bis Diocletian, Darmstadt 1994 (Grundzüge der römischen Geschichte, Teil 2)

        Birley, Anthony Richard: Hadrian to the Antonines, in: The Cambridge Ancient History. Second Edition, Bd. XI The High Empire, A.D. 70-192, hrsg. v. Alan K. Bowman, Peter Garnsey u. Dominic Rathbone, Cambridge 2000, S. 132-194

        The Cambridge Ancient History. Second Edition, Bd. XI The High Empire, A.D. 70-192, hrsg. v. Alan K. Bowman, Peter Garnsey u. Dominic Rathbone, Cambridge 2000

        Grant, Michael: The Antonines. The Roman Empire in transition, London 1994

        Hammond, Mason: The Antonine monarchy, Rome 1959

        Kienast, Dietmar: Römische Kaisertabelle, 2. Aufl., Darmstadt 1996 [Nachschlagewerk]

        Martin, Jean-Pierre: Le siècle des Antonins, Paris 1977

        Schmidt, Joël: Les Antonins, Lausanne 1969

         

        Bennett, Julian: Trajan: optimus princeps. A life and times, London 1997

        Birley, Anthony Richard: Hadrian. The restless emperor, London 1998

        Guey, Julien: Essai sur la guerre parthique de Trajan (114-117), Bucarest 1937

        Lepper, Frank A.: Trajan's Parthian war, London 1948

         

        nach oben

         

        Seine Philosophie

        Asmis, E.: The Stoicism of Marcus Aurelius, in: ANRW II 36.3 (1989), S. 2228-2252

        Bodson, Arthur: La morale sociale des derniers stoiciens, Sénèque, Épictète et Marc Aurèle, Paris 1967

        Forstater, Mark: The spiritual teachings of Marcus Aurelius, New York 2000

        Görgemanns, Herwig: Der Bekehrungsbrief Marc Aurels, in: Rheinisches Museum 134 (1991), S. 96-109

        Hendrickx, B.: Once again: Marcus Aurelius, Emperor and Philosopher, in: Historia 23 (1974), S. 254-256

        Jäkel, Siegfried: Das politische und gesellschaftliche Weltbild im Denken Marc-Aurels, in: Eos 80 (1992), S. 245-263

        Krier, Jean: Zum Brief des Marcus Aurelius Caesar an den dionysischen Kultverein von Smyrna, in: Chiron 10 (1980), S. 449-456

        Maier, Barbara: Philosophie und römisches Kaisertum. Studien zu ihren wechselseitigen Beziehungen in der Zeit von Caesar bis Marc Aurel, Wien 1985

        Mirgeler, Josef: Die Stellung des Menschen in der Gesellschaft der ausgehenden Antike entwickelt aus den Selbstgesprächen Marc Aurels, Diss., Köln 1948

        Neuenschwander, Hans R.: Mark Aurels Beziehungen zu Seneca und Poseidonios, Stuttgart 1951

        Pesce, Domenico: Epicuro e Marco Aurelio. Due studi sulla saggezza antica, Firenze 1959

        Pohlenz, Max: Die Stoa, Göttingen 1964

        Pflaum, K. B.: Marcus Aurelius: Ruler-Philosopher, in: Prudentia 2 (1970), S. 59-70

        Pire, Georges: Stoïcisme et pédagogie: de Zenon à Marc-Aurèle, de Sénèque à Montaigne et à J.-J. Rousseau, Liège 1958

        Rosen, Klaus: Herrschaftstheorie und Herrschaftspraxis bei Marc Aurel. Eine antike Kontroverse, in: Motiv und Motivation, hrsg. v. Peter Neukam, München 1993, S. 94-105

        Rosen, Klaus: Marc Aurel und das Ideal des civilis princeps, in: Stimuli. Exegese und ihre Hermeneutik in Antike und Christentum. Festschrift für Ernst Dassmann, hrsg. v. Georg Schöllgen u. Clemens Scholten, Münster 1996, S. 154-160

        Stanton, Greg R.: The cosmopolitan ideas of Epictetus and Marcus Aurelius, in: Phronesis 13 (1968), S. 183-195

        Stanton, Greg R.: Marcus Aurelius, Emperor and Philosopher, in: Historia 18 (1969), S. 570-587

        siehe auch unter Selbstbetrachtungen

         

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        Seine Familie

        Ameling, Walter: Die Kinder des Marc Aurel und die Bildnistypen der Faustina Minor, in: Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik 90 (1992), S. 147-166

        Birley, Anthony R.: Hadrian. The Restless Emperor, London 1998

        Boatwright, Mary T.: Faustina the Younger, Mater Castrorum, in: Les femmes antiques entre sphère privée et sphère publique, hrsg. v. Regula Frei-Stolba, Anne Bielman u. Olivier Bianchi, Bern u. a. 2003, S. 249-268

        Fittschen, Klaus: Die Bildnistypen der Faustina minor und die Fecunditas Augustae, Göttingen 1982

        Fittschen, Klaus: Prinzenbildnisse antoninischer Zeit, Mainz 1999

        Paratore, Ettore: Plotina, Sabina e le due Faustine, Roma 1945

         

        Lucius Verus, Ermitage

        Lucius Verus, Büste in der Ermitage

         

        nach oben

         

        Ereignisse der Regierungszeit

        Birley, Anthony Richard: Die Außen- und Grenzpolitik unter der Regierung Marc Aurels (1978), in: Marc Aurel, hrsg. v. Richard Klein, Darmstadt 1979, S. 473-502

        Dodds, Eric Robertson: Heiden und Christen in einem Zeitalter der Angst, Frankfurt/M. 1985

        Johne, Klaus-Peter: Zu den Siegernamen der Kaiser Marc Aurel und Commodus, in: Klio 48 (1967), S. 177-182

        Keil, Josef: Kaiser Marcus und die Thronfolge, in: Klio 31 (1938), S. 293-300

        Oliver, James H.: Marcus Aurelius. Aspects of civic and cultural policy in the east, Princeton 1970

        Schmitt, Marcelo Tilman: Die römische Außenpolitik des 2. Jahrhunderts n. Chr., Stuttgart 1997

         

        Regierung des Lucius Verus

        Barnes, Timothy D.: Hadrian and Lucius Verus, in: Journal of Roman Studies 57 (1967), S. 65-79

        Lambrechts, P.: L'empereur Lucius Verus. Essai de réhabilitation, in: Antiquité Classique 3 (1934), S. 173-201

        Rosen, Klaus: Die angebliche Samtherrschaft von Marc Aurel und Lucius Verus, in: Historiae Augustae Colloquium Parisinum, hrsg. v. G. Bonamente u. N. Duval, Macerata 1991, S. 271-285

         

        nach oben

         

        Parther

        Angeli Bertinelli, Maria G.: I Romani oltre l'Eufrate nel II secolo d.C., in: ANRW II 9.1 (1976), S. 3-45

        Das Partherreich und seine Zeugnisse, hrsg. v. Josef Wiesehöfer, Stuttgart 1998

        Schippmann, Klaus: Grundzüge der parthischen Geschichte, Darmstadt 1980 [Einführung]

        Strobel, Karl: Zeitgeschichte unter den Antoninen: Die Historiker des Partherkrieges des Lucius Verus, in: ANRW II 34.2 (1994), S. 1315-136

        Wiesehöfer, Josef: Das antike Persien, Zürich 1994

        Wolski, Józef: L'empire des Arsacides, Louvain 1993

        Ziegler, Karl-Heinz: Die Beziehungen zwischen Rom und dem Partherreich, Wiesbaden 1964

         

        nach oben

         

        Kriege gegen Markomannen und andere Donaubarbaren

        (vgl. die ausführliche Bibliographie zur Archäologie und Geschichte der Markomannenkriege von Dieter Vollmann)

        Alföldy, Géza: Der Friedensschluß des Kaisers Commodus mit den Germanen (1971), in: Marc Aurel, hrsg. v. Richard Klein, Darmstadt 1979, S. 389-428

        Barta, Gabor: Legende und Wirklichkeit - das Regenwunder des Marcus Aurelius (1968), in: Marc Aurel, hrsg. v. Richard Klein, Darmstadt 1979, S. 347-358

        Dittrich, Ursula-Barbara: Die Wirtschaftsstruktur der Quaden, Markomannen und Sarmaten im mittleren Donauraum und ihre Handelsbeziehungen mit Rom, in: Münstersche Beiträge zur antiken Handelsgeschichte 6 (1987), S. 9ff.

        Dobesch, Gerhard: Aus der Vor- und Nachgeschichte der Markomannenkriege, in: Anzeiger der österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Phil.-hist. Kl. 131 (1994), S. 67-125

        Fowden, Garth: Pagan Versions of the Rain Miracle of A.D. 172, in: Historia 36 (1987), S. 83-95

        Instinsky, Hans Ulrich: Cassius Dio, Mark Aurel und die Jazygen, in: Chiron 2 (1972), S. 475-482

        Kellner, Hans-Jörg: Raetien und die Markomannenkriege, in: Bayerische Vorgeschichtsblätter 30 (1965), S. 154-175

        Langmann, Gerhard: Die Markomannenkriege 166/167 bis 180, Wien 1981

        Rosen, Klaus: Der Einfall der Markomannen und Quaden in Italien 167 n.Chr. und der Abwehrkampf des C. Macrinius Avitus (Amm. Marc. 29,6,1), in: Germani in Italia, hrsg. v. Barbara u. Piergiuseppe Scardigli, Roma 1994, S. 87-104

        Sage, Michael M.: Eusebius and the Rain Miracle: Some Observations, in: Historia 36 (1987), S. 96-113

        Scheidel, Walter: Der Germaneneinfall in Oberitalien unter Marcus Aurelius und die Emissionsabfolge der kaiserlichen Reichsprägung, in: Chiron 20 (1990), S. 1-18

        Scheidel, Walter: Probleme der Datierung des Costoboceneinfalls im Balkanraum unter Marcus Aurelius, in: Historia 39 (1990), S. 493-498

        Schindler-Horstkotte, Gudrun: Der »Markomannenkrieg« Mark Aurels und die kaiserliche Reichsprägung, Diss. Köln, 1985

        Stahl, Michael: Zwischen Abgrenzung und Integration: Die Verträge der Kaiser Mark Aurel und Commodus mit den Völkern jenseits der Donau, in: Chiron 19 (1989), S. 289-317

        Stroh, Wilfried: Marc Aurel in Carnuntum, in: Nachrichten der Gesellschaft der Freunde Carnuntums 2 (1998), S. 2-11

         

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        Usurpation des Avidius Cassius

        Astarita, Maria Laura: Avidio Cassio, Roma 1983

        Baldini, Antonio: La rivolta bucolica e l'usurpazione di Avidio Cassio, in: Latomus 37 (1978), S. 634-678

        Scheidel, Walter: GERMANICVS und SARMATICVS. Die Ereignisgeschichte des Jahres 175 bei Cassius Dio und die Emissionsabfolge der kaiserlichen Reichsprägung, in: Pomoerium 1 (1994), S. 69-74

        Schettino, Maria Teresa: L'usurpazione del 175 e la »clementia« di Marco Aurelio, in: Amnistia, perdono e vendetta nel mondo antico, hrsg. v. Marta Sordi, Milano 1997, S. 113-136

        Spieß, Jürgen: Avidius Cassius und der Aufstand des Jahres 175, Diss., München 1975

        Syme, Ronald: Avidius Cassius. His Rank, Age and Quality, in: Bonner Historia-Augusta-Colloquium 1984/1985, Bonn 1987, S. 207-222 (= Roman Papers, Bd. 5, Oxford 1988, 687-701)

         

        nach oben

         

        Pest

        Boak, A. E. R.: Egypt and the Plague of Marcus Aurelius, in: Historia 8 (1959), S. 248-250

        Duncan-Jones, Richard P.: The impact of the Antonine plague, in: Journal of Roman Archaeology 9 (1996), S. 108-136

        Ehmig, Ulrike: Die Auswirkungen der Pest in antoninischer Zeit, in: Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik 122 (1998), S. 206-207

        Gilliam, James Frank: Die Pest unter Marc Aurel (1961), in: Marc Aurel, hrsg. v. Richard Klein, Darmstadt 1979, S. 144-175

        Littman, Robert J.: Galen and the Antonine plague, in: American Journal of Philology 94 (1973), S. 243-255

         

        Marc Aurel und die Christen

        Barnes, Timothy D.: Legislation against the Christians, in: Journal of Roman Studies 58 (1968), S. 32-50

        Berwig, Dieter: Mark Aurel und die Christen, Bonn 1970

        Brunt, Peter A.: Marcus Aurelius and the Christians, in: Studies in Latin Literature and Roman History, Bd. 1, hrsg. v. C. Deroux, Bruxelles 1979, S. 483-520

        Colin, Jean: L'empire des Antonins et les martyrs Gaulois de 177, Bonn 1964

        Freudenberger, Rudolf: Das Verhalten der römischen Behörden gegen die Christen im 2. Jahrhundert, dargestellt am Brief des Plinius an Trajan und den Reskripten Trajans und Hadrians, München 1967

        Keresztes, Paul: Das Christenmassaker von Lugdunum im Jahre 177 (1967), in: Marc Aurel, hrsg. v. Richard Klein, Darmstadt 1979, S. 261-278

        Keresztes, Paul: War Marc Aurel ein Christenverfolger?, in: Marc Aurel, hrsg. v. Richard Klein, Darmstadt 1979, S. 279-303

        Speigl, Jakob: Der römische Staat und die Christen, Amsterdam 1970

        Das frühe Christentum bis zum Ende der Verfolgungen, Bd. 1 Die Christen im heidnischen Staat, hrsg., übers. u. komment. v. Peter Guyot u. Richard Klein, Darmstadt 1993 [Quellen mit Übersetzung u. Kommentar; Literatur]

         

        nach oben

         

        Tod Marc Aurels

        Alföldy, Géza: Herodian über den Tod Mark Aurels, in: Latomus 32 (1973), S. 345-353

        Bannert, Herbert: Der Tod des Kaisers Marcus (1977), in: Marc Aurel, hrsg. v. Richard Klein, Darmstadt 1979, S. 459-472

         

        nach oben

         

        Staat und Gesellschaft

        Alföldy, Géza: Konsulat und Senatorenstand unter den Antoninen. Prosopographische Untersuchungen zur senatorischen Führungsschicht, Bonn 1977

        Brunt, Peter A.: Marcus Aurelius and Slavery, in: Modus Operandi. Essays in Honour of Geoffrey Rickman, hrsg. v. Michel Austin, Jill Harries u. Christopher Smith, London 1998, S. 139-150

        The Cambridge Ancient History. Second Edition, Bd. XI The High Empire, A. D. 70-192, hrsg. v. Alan K. Bowman, Peter Garnsey u. Dominic Rathbone, Cambridge 2000

        Dalfen, Joachim: Marc Aurel. Sozialphilosophie und Sozialpolitik, in: Antike Rechts- und Sozialphilosophie, hrsg. v. Olof Gigon u. Michael W. Fischer, Frankfurt 1988, S. 129-137

        Jacques, François/ Scheid, John: Rom und das Reich in der hohen Kaiserzeit (44 v. Chr.-260 n. Chr.), Bd. 1 Die Struktur des Reiches, Stuttgart u.a. 1998

        Potter, David: Procurators in Asia and Dacia under Marcus Aurelius. A Case Study of Imperial Initiative in Government, in: Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik 123 (1998), S. 270-274

        Williams, W.: Individuality in the Imperial Constitutions: Hadrian and the Antonines, in: Journal of Roman Studies 66 (1976), S. 67-83

         

        nach oben

         

        Marcus-Säule

        Die Marcus-Säule auf der Piazza Colonna in Rom

         

        Quellenuntersuchungen

        Selbstbetrachtungen

        Marc Aurèle: Écrits pour lui-même, Bd. 1 Introduction générale, Livre I, hrsg. u. übers. v. Pierre Hadot, Paris 1998 (Collection des Universités de France, Série grecque, Bd. 388)

        Brunt, Peter A.: Marcus Aurelius in his Meditations, in: Journal of Roman Studies 64 (1974), S. 1-20

        Cortassa, Guido: Il filosofo, i libri, la memoria. Poeti e filosofi nei pensieri di Marco Aurelio, Torino 1989

        Dalfen, Joachim: Formgeschichtliche Untersuchungen zu den Selbstbetrachtungen Marc Aurels, Diss., München 1967

        Hadot, Pierre: La citadelle intérieure. Introduction aux »Pensées« de Marc Aurèle, édition révisée et remaniée, Paris 1997

        Humphries, Michael L.: Michel Foucault on Writing and the Self in the Meditations of Marcus Aurelius and the Confessions of St. Augustine, in: Arethusa 30 (1997), S. 125-138

        Martinazzoli, Folco: La »Successio« di Marco Aurelio. Struttura e spirito del primo libro del »Pensieri«, Bari 1951

        Rutherford, Richard B.: The meditations of Marcus Aurelius. A study, Oxford 1990

         

        Fronto und der Briefwechsel mit Marc Aurel

        Astarita, Maria Laura: Frontone oratore, Catania 1997

        Braund, David C.: Fronto and the Iberians: language and diplomacy at the Antonine Court, in: Ostraka 2 (1993), S. 53-55

        Brock, M. Dorothy: Studies in Fronto and his Age, Cambridge 1911

        Champlin, Edward: Fronto and Antonine Rome, Cambridge 1980

        Cova, Pier V.: I principia historiae e le idee storiografiche di Frontone, Napoli 1970

        Dalfen, Joachim: Ausbildung und persönliche Bildungsinteressen. Marc Aurels Briefwechsel mit seinem Lehrer Fronto, in: Otium - Negotium. Beiträge des interdisziplinären Symposions der Sodalitas zum Thema Zeit, hrsg. v. Ernst Sigot, Wien 2000, S. 121-136

        Eck, Werner: M. Cornelius Fronto, Lehrer Marc Aurels, consul suffectus im J. 142, in: Rheinisches Museum für Philologie 141 (1998), S. 193-196

        Gärtner, Hans: Ein Kronprinz und sein Lehrer. Marc Aurel in seiner Korrespondenz mit Fronto, in: Struktur und Gehalt, hrsg. v. Peter Neukam, München 1983, 25-49

        Grimal, Pierre: Ce que Marc Aurèle doit à Fronton, in: Revue des Etudes latines 68 (1990), S. 151-159

        Hout, Michael P. J. van den: A Commentary on the Letters of M. Cornelius Fronto, Leiden/ Boston/ Köln 1999

        Kasulke, Christoph T.: Fronto, Marc Aurel und kein Konflikt zwischen Rhetorik und Philosophie im 2. Jh. n. Chr., München u. a. 2005

        Levi, Mario A.: Ricerche su Frontone, Roma 1994

        Portalupi, Felicita: Marco Cornelio Frontone, Torino 1961

        Rosen, Klaus: Marc Aurel und Fronto. Eine Freundschaft zwischen Macht und Kultur, in: Macht und Kultur im Rom der Kaiserzeit, hsrg. v. Klaus Rosen, Bonn 1994, S. 121-135

        Staerk, Ekkehard: Deliramenta Masuriana. Ein Brief Marc Aurels aus Neapel, in: Rheinisches Museum für Philologie 134 (1991), S. 378-392

         

        nach oben

         

        Die Literatur der Zeit Marc Aurels

        Antonine literature, hrsg. v. Donald A. Russell, Oxford 1990

        Astarita, Maria Laura: La cultura nelle »Noctes Atticae«, Catania 1993

        Baldwin, Barry: Studies in Aulus Gellius, Lawrence 1975

        Harrison, Stephen J.: Apuleius. A Latin sophist, Oxford 2000

        Holford-Strevens, Leofranc: Aulus Gellius, Chapel Hill 1988

        Jones, Christopher P.: Culture and society in Lucian, Cambridge, Mass. 1986

        Pesce, Domenico: Saggio su Epicuro, Bari 1974

        Portalupi, Felicita: Frontone, Gellio, Apuleio. Ricerca stilistica, Bd. 1, Torino 1974

        Steinmetz, Peter: Untersuchungen zur römischen Literatur des zweiten Jahrhunderts nach Christi Geburt, Wiesbaden 1982

        Storia letteratura e arte a Roma nel secondo secolo dopo Cristo, Firenze 1995 [Kongreßband]

        Strobel, Karl: Zeitgeschichte unter den Antoninen: Die Historiker des Partherkrieges des Lucius Verus, in: ANRW II 34.2 (1994), S. 1315-136

        Swain, Simon: Hellenism and Empire. Language, Classicism, and Power in the Greek World AD 50-250, Oxford 1996

         

        nach oben

         

        Justin und Athenagoras

        Barnard, Leslie W.: Athenagoras, Galen, Marcus Aurelius, and Celsus, in: Church Quarterly Review 168 (1967), S. 168-181

        Barnard, Leslie W.: Justin Martyr. His life and thought, Cambridge 1967 [Klass. Phil.]

        Barnard, Leslie W.: Athenagoras. A study in second century Christian apologetic, Paris 1972

        Frede, Michael: Celsus' attack on the Christians, in: Philosophia togata II. Plato and Aristotle at Rome, hrsg. v. Jonathan Barnes u. Miriam Griffin, Oxford 1997, S. 218-240

        Pouderon, Bernard: Athénagore d'Athènes, Paris 1989

         

        nach oben

         

        Cassius Dio

        Hose, Martin: Erneuerung der Vergangenheit. Die Historiker im Imperium Romanum von Florus bis Cassius Dio, Stuttgart u.a. 1994

        Millar, Fergus: A study of Cassius Dio, Oxford 1964

         

        nach oben

         

        Historia Augusta

        Dubreuil, Alain: La biographie de l'empereur Marc-Aurèle dans le recueil de l'Histoire Auguste, Diss. Montréal, Ann Arbor 1991

        Dubreuil, Alain: Le message idéologique de la Vita Marci dans le recueil de l'Histoire Auguste, in: Cahiers des Etudes Anciennes 29 (1995), S. 171-178

        Johne, Klaus-Peter: Kaiserbiographie und Senatsaristokratie, Berlin 1976

        Kerler, Gerhard: Die Außenpolitik in der Historia Augusta, Bonn 1970

        Kolb, Frank: Untersuchungen zur Historia Augusta, Bonn 1987

        Lippold, Adolf: Die Historia Augusta: eine Sammlung römischer Kaiserbiographien aus der Zeit Konstantins, Stuttgart 1998 [Aufsatzsammlung mit Einleitung; durchgängig problematische Datierung der HA in konstantinische Zeit]

        Rosen, Klaus: Das Schlußkapitel der Marc Aurel-Vita und der Konflikt zwischen Gesinnung und Verantwortung, in: Historiae Augustae Colloquium Genevense, hrsg. v. G. Bonamente u. F. Paschoud, Bari 1994, S. 189-196

        Rosen, Klaus: Sanctus Marcus Aurelius, in: Historiae Augustae Colloquium Argentoratense, hrsg. v. G. Bonamente, F. Heim u. J.-P. Callu, Bari 1998, S. 285-296

        Schwendemann, Josef: Der historische Wert der Vita Marci bei den Scriptores historiae Augustae, Heidelberg 1923

        Straub, Johannes: Studien zur Historia Augusta, Bern 1952

        Syme, Ronald: Emperors and Biography, Oxford 1971

         

        nach oben

         

        Münzen

        Szaivert Wolfgang: Die Münzprägung der Kaiser Marcus Aurelius, Lucius Verus und Commodus (161-192), Wien 1986 (Moneta Imperii Romani, Bd. 18)

         

        Mittag, Peter Franz: Kaiser oder Philosoph? Zur Münzprägung Marc Aurels, in: Schweizerische numismatische Rundschau 73 (1994), S. 61-75

         

        Archäologische Zeugnisse der Zeit Marc Aurels

        Coarelli, Filippo: Rom. Ein archäologischer Führer, Freiburg u.a. 1989 (Neuauflage 2000)

         

        Reiterstatue

        Marc Aurel - der Reiter auf dem Kapitol, München 1999 [Bildband]

        Marco Aurelio - Mostra di cantiere. Le indagini in corso sul monumento, Roma 1984

        Marco Aurelio. Storia di un monumento e del suo restauro, hrsg. v. Alessandra Melucco Vaccaro, Cinisello Balsamo 1989

         

        Bergemann, Johannes: Marc Aurel als Orientsieger? Noch einmal zur Ikonographie der Reiterstatue auf dem Capitol in Rom, in: Archäologische Mitteilungen aus Iran 24 (1991), S. 135-140

        Knauer, Elfriede R.: Das Reiterstandbild des Kaisers Marc Aurel, Stuttgart 1968

        Knauer, Elfriede R.: Multa egit cum regibus et pacem confirmavit. The Date of the Equestrian Statue of Marcus Aurelius, in: Mitteilungen des Deutschen Archäologischen Instituts, Römische Abteilung 97 (1990), S. 277-306

        Saletti, Cesare: Una vexata quaestio: la datazione della statua capitolina di Marco Aurelio, in: Athenaeum 86 (1998), S. 487-496

         

        nach oben

         

        Marcus-Säule

        Die Marcus-Säule auf Piazza Colonna in Rom, hrsg. v. Eugen Petersen, Alfred von Domaszewski u. Guglielmo Calerini, München 1896

        La colonna di Marco Aurelio, hrsg. v. Catia Caprino u.a., Roma 1955

        La colonne Aurélienne. Autour de la colonne Aurélienne. Geste e image sur la colonne de Marc Aurèle à Rome, hrsg. v. John Scheid u. Valérie Huet, Turnhout 2000

        Jordan-Ruwe, Martina: Zur Rekonstruktion und Datierung der Marcussäule, in: Boreas 13 (1990), S. 53-69

        Pirson, Felix: Style and message on the Column of Marcus Aurelius, in: Papers of the British School at Rome 64 (1996), S. 139-179

         

        Weitere archäologische Quellen

        Aurigemma, Salvatore: L'arco di Marco Aurelio e di Lucio Vero in Tripoli, Roma 1938

        Gordon, Elizabeth: The panel reliefs of Marcus Aurelius, Diss. New York, Ann Arbor 1979

        Ryberg, Inez Scott: Panel reliefs of Marcus Aurelius, New York 1967

         

        nach oben

         

        Marc Aurel

        Relief im Konservatorenpalast, Rom: Marc Aurel bei einer Opferzeremonie in Rom

         


         
        Cordialmente,
        Breno Bastos
         
         
         

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      • JIM GODDARD
        Hello All, I m not so much writing about Marcus Aurelius as Frank McLynn s recent biography of him. I finished the book a couple of weeks back. He clearly
        Message 3 of 15 , Jul 1, 2011
          Hello All,

          I'm not so much writing about Marcus Aurelius as Frank McLynn's recent biography of him. I finished the book a couple of weeks back. He clearly likes Marcus Aurelius but to say he is harsh on Stoicism would be an understatement. I know that there has already been comment on McLynn's book and views on this Forum.

          I try to be fair-minded with everyone's views. However, it struck me that McLynn's criticisms of Stoicism were based on a poor, narrow-minded understanding of it. He seemed to take all the harshest, most unyielding bits and miss all the parts that encourage generosity, loyalty and care for others. I said as much in my review on Amazon.co.uk. Did anyone else have the same impressions of McLynn's views?

          Regards,

          Jim
        • TheophileEscargot
          Yes, I basically agree with you. McLynn is very hostile to stoicism, and selectively presents it in the worst possible light. However, about the book in
          Message 4 of 15 , Jul 1, 2011
            Yes, I basically agree with you. McLynn is very hostile to stoicism, and selectively presents it in the worst possible light.

            However, about the book in general: McLynn has clearly done a huge amount of research, I think he's accurate with the facts, the notes at the end are very comprehensive. While he may be narrow-minded, he's not narrow in his research: he certainly seems to have read a lot of  hostile accounts of stoicism, and repeats a lot of the attacks.

            I had a longer review on my blog here, about halfway down the page. 

            I think if you've mostly heard about McLynn from this forum, you should bear in mind he's not so much hostile to stoicism in particular, as  misanthropic in general. From my review:

            The second flaw is that the book is written with a general misanthropy, in which almost every individual and group ischastised.Hadrian was "vengeful, brooding and vindictive","a very dark character" with "psychopathic tendencies"and a "maddening know-all" to boot,Galen was "a tiresome show-off andknow-all, hugely self-loving and self-regarding".Tutor and correspondent Fronto was"fatuous and pedantic","a fusspot and hypochondriac" and a "philistine".The Roman proletariat were"drones in the hive", "as much part of a dependencyculture as those who live on welfare in Western societiestoday" though the wealthier classes are depicted asgreedy and self-indulgent too.McLynn particularly dislikes stoic philosophy and devotes a wholeappendix to rounding up the usual criticisms.He fondly mentionsH.L. Mencken and the satirist Lucian a few times, and seemsto see himself as a similar creature.However, they mostly mocked the present: mocking the distantpast doesn't seem quite as laudable: it's likely to makeus feel self-satisfied by comparison.

            I'm not sure whether this is McLynn's usual schtick or ifhe just despises this era. But it obscures the judgement abit: much of the time he criticizes Marcus Aurelius as a failure,but casually drops in that he still thinks he was the best and greatestRoman emperor of all. 


            I've read another biography of Marcus Aurelius by Anthony Birley, which is much calmer, and treats stoicism more reasonably. It's shorter than the McLynn book though, and doesn't have as much background.

            --- In stoics@yahoogroups.com, JIM GODDARD <jim.goddard1@...> wrote:
            >
            > Hello All,
            >
            > I'm not so much writing about Marcus Aurelius as Frank McLynn's recent biography of him. I finished the book a couple of weeks back. He clearly likes Marcus Aurelius but to say he is harsh on Stoicism would be an understatement. I know that there has already been comment on McLynn's book and views on this Forum.
            >
            > I try to be fair-minded with everyone's views. However, it struck me that McLynn's criticisms of Stoicism were based on a poor, narrow-minded understanding of it. He seemed to take all the harshest, most unyielding bits and miss all the parts that encourage generosity, loyalty and care for others. I said as much in my review on Amazon.co.uk. Did anyone else have the same impressions of McLynn's views?
            >
            > Regards,
            >
            > Jim
            >
          • JIM GODDARD
            Thanks for this. I read your review and found myself agreeing with most of it. One of the core problems I noted was that McLynn treats both the Meditations and
            Message 5 of 15 , Jul 1, 2011
              Thanks for this. I read your review and found myself agreeing with most of it.

              One of the core problems I noted was that McLynn treats both the Meditations and the works of Epictetus as standard philosophical texts that deserve to be critiqued as such, ignoring that the former, as you say, was essentially used for private reflective and meditative purposes and the latter was a set of lecture notes transcribed by a student. As I pointed out in my own comments, I'm sure that if my lectures were written up by a student then no matter how good they were there would be lots left out and they wouldn't be anything like as 'finished' as they would be I'd had the chance to write them up into a fully-blown text myself.

              If you went by McLynn's distorted and narrow account, you wouldn't understand the appeal of Stoicism to anybody.

              Regards,

              Jim

              --- On Fri, 1/7/11, TheophileEscargot <snailman100@...> wrote:

              From: TheophileEscargot <snailman100@...>
              Subject: [stoics] Re: Marcus Aurelius
              To: stoics@yahoogroups.com
              Date: Friday, 1 July, 2011, 20:33

               

              Yes, I basically agree with you. McLynn is very hostile to stoicism, and selectively presents it in the worst possible light.

              However, about the book in general: McLynn has clearly done a huge amount of research, I think he's accurate with the facts, the notes at the end are very comprehensive. While he may be narrow-minded, he's not narrow in his research: he certainly seems to have read a lot of  hostile accounts of stoicism, and repeats a lot of the attacks.

              I had a longer review on my blog here, about halfway down the page. 

              I think if you've mostly heard about McLynn from this forum, you should bear in mind he's not so much hostile to stoicism in particular, as  misanthropic in general. From my review:

              The second flaw is that the book is written with a general misanthropy, in which almost every individual and group ischastised.Hadrian was "vengeful, brooding and vindictive","a very dark character" with "psychopathic tendencies"and a "maddening know-all" to boot,Galen was "a tiresome show-off andknow-all, hugely self-loving and self-regarding".Tutor and correspondent Fronto was"fatuous and pedantic","a fusspot and hypochondriac" and a "philistine".The Roman proletariat were"drones in the hive", "as much part of a dependencyculture as those who live on welfare in Western societiestoday" though the wealthier classes are depicted asgreedy and self-indulgent too.McLynn particularly dislikes stoic philosophy and devotes a wholeappendix to rounding up the usual criticisms.He fondly mentionsH.L. Mencken and the satirist Lucian a few times, and seemsto see himself as a similar creature.However, they mostly mocked the present: mocking the distantpast doesn't seem quite as laudable: it's likely to makeus feel self-satisfied by comparison.

              I'm not sure whether this is McLynn's usual schtick or ifhe just despises this era. But it obscures the judgement abit: much of the time he criticizes Marcus Aurelius as a failure,but casually drops in that he still thinks he was the best and greatestRoman emperor of all. 


              I've read another biography of Marcus Aurelius by Anthony Birley, which is much calmer, and treats stoicism more reasonably. It's shorter than the McLynn book though, and doesn't have as much background.

              --- In stoics@yahoogroups.com, JIM GODDARD <jim.goddard1@...> wrote:
              >
              > Hello All,
              >
              > I'm not so much writing about Marcus Aurelius as Frank McLynn's recent biography of him. I finished the book a couple of weeks back. He clearly likes Marcus Aurelius but to say he is harsh on Stoicism would be an understatement. I know that there has already been comment on McLynn's book and views on this Forum.
              >
              > I try to be fair-minded with everyone's views. However, it struck me that McLynn's criticisms of Stoicism were based on a poor, narrow-minded understanding of it. He seemed to take all the harshest, most unyielding bits and miss all the parts that encourage generosity, loyalty and care for others. I said as much in my review on Amazon.co.uk. Did anyone else have the same impressions of McLynn's views?
              >
              > Regards,
              >
              > Jim
              >
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