Re: Metatron = God ??
- --- In email@example.com, Aaron@L... wrote:
> "Metatron acts as the voice of God. Any documented occasionGreetings!
> when some yahoo claims to have spoken with God, they're
> speaking to me. Or they're speaking to themselves." - The
> Metatron (Dogma)
This was just posted to the MWG list, and I thought you folks would
find it interesting, since we've discussed Metetron and Enoch here before:
Name of an angel found only in Jewish literature. Elisha b. Abuyah,
seeing this angel in the heavens, believed there were "two powers" or
divinities (?ag. 15a, above). When God wept over the destruction of
the Temple, Metatron fell on his face and said: "I will weep; but weep
not Thou." God answered and said: "If thou wilt not suffer Me to weep,
I will go whither thou canst not come, and there will I lament" (Lam.
R., Introduction, § 24; comp. Jer. xiii. 17). Me?a?ron bears the
Tetragrammaton; for Ex. xxiii. 21 says, "My name is in him." Yet he
may not be worshiped; for the same passage says, "Exchange Me not for
him" (dialogue between a heretic and a Babylonian teacher, in Sanh.
38b, below; Targ. Yer. to Ex. xxiv. 1 has Michael instead of
Metatron).Moses begs Metatron to intercede with God for him, that he
may not die; but the angel answers: "It is useless; for I heard the
words behind the veil, 'Thy prayer will not be answered'" (both
editions of Tan., Wa'et?anan, 6). When God sorrowed for the death of
Moses, Metatron fell down before Him and consoled Him (Grünhut,
"Li??u?im," v. 105a), and when Moses died, this angel with three
others, "the princes of wisdom," cared for him (Targ. Yer. to Deut.
xxxiv. 6). The early commentators with good reason identified the
prince of the world (?ul. 60a; Zeb. 16b; Sanh. 94a) with Metatron
(Joël, "Blicke in die Religionsgesch." i. 124 et seq.). God instructs
children in the Torah during the last quarter of the day; Me?a?ron,
during the first three-quarters ('Ab. Zarah 3b). It was this angel who
caused Sham?azai to say before the Flood, "God will destroy the world"
(Yal?. i., § 44). He is, moreover, Enoch, the great scribe (Targ. Yer.
to Gen. v. 24; in ?ag. 15a he is likewise represented as a scribe).
In Later Records.
These statements, found in the earlier sources, contain all the
characteristic traits ascribed to Metatron in the later mystical
works. The latter call him the "prince of the presence" (Jellinek, "B.
H." ii., pp. xvi., 55 et seq., v. 171; "Responsen der Gaonen," ed.
Harkavy, No. 373, p. 372; comp. Isa. lxiii. 9), and "prince of the
ministering angels" (Jellinek, l.c. v. 172). He is the "mighty scribe"
(ib. ii. 68), the lord of all the heavenly hosts, of all treasures,
and of secrets (ib. ii. 114, v. 174), and bears the lesser divine name
(ib. ii. 61, 114, 117; v. 175). The Zohar defines his nature exactly
by declaring that he is little lower than God (after Ps. viii. 6;
Yal?. ?adash, 7, No. 51; comp. especially Jellinek, l.c. v. 174). He
is identical in all respects with Enoch; the "Hekalot" (ib. v.
170-190), in which he is the chief personage, is called also "The Book
of Enoch" (comp. ib. ii., p. xvi. and vi. 58: "Enoch whose name is
Identical with Enoch.
In the Apocrypha likewise Enoch appears as the heavenly scribe (Book
of Jubilees, iv. 23; II Enoch liii. 2), although elsewhere he is
called Michael (Ascensio Isaiæ, ix. 21), while, as noted above, Targ.
Yer. to Ex. xxiv. 1 substitutes the name of Michael for Me?a?ron,
which is found in the other sources. In the Hebrew writings Metatron
fills the rôle of Enoch in the Apocrypha in bearing witness to the
sins of mankind. Since both sources represent him as a youth, it may
be assumed that the first versions of the Hebrew mystical works,
though they received their present form in the geonic period,
originated in antiquity, so that the conception of Metatron must
likewise date from an early period.The views regarding the source of
this conception differ widely. The name "Metatron," which, as stated
above, occurs only in Hebrew writings, is in itself striking. The
derivation from the Latin "metator" (="guide") is doubtless correct,
for Enoch also is represented as a guide in the apocryphal work which
bears his name; and the Hebrew Book of Enoch, in which, however,
reference to Metatron is constantly implied, says: "He is the most
excellent of all the heavenly host, and the guide [Metatron] to all
the treasuries of my [God]" (B. H. ii. 117).
Views as to Origin.
Mysticism prefers obscurity, and intentionally chooses a foreign word
instead of the well-known name of Enoch. Kohut identifies Metatron
with the Zoroastrian Mithra; but probably only a few traits were
borrowed from the latter. Sachs, Grünbaum, Weinstein, and others think
that Metatron is identical with Philo's Logos; but L. Cohn, the
eminent Philonist, contradicts this view. M. Friedländer, on the other
hand, takes Metatron to be, both in name and in nature, none other
than Horus, the "frontier guardian" and "surveyor of the frontier" of
the early Gnostics. These divergent views clearly indicate that
Metatron combines various traits derived from different systems of
thought. Grunwald (in "Jahrb. für Jüdische Gesch. und Literatur,"
1901, pp. 127 et seq.) has yet another solution for the problem of
Me?a?ron. The ancients had already noticed that the numerical value of
the letters in the word "Metatron" corresponded with those of the word
"Shaddai" (= 314), and "Metatron" is also said to mean "palace"
("metatrion"), and to be connected with the divine name ("place"), etc.
In medieval mysticism Metatron plays the same rôle as in antiquity and
in the period of the Geonim (passages in Schwab, s.v.), thus
furnishing a further proof of the tenacity and stability of mystic and
Exerted from the The Jewish Encyclopedia, which recently became part
of the public domain,