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Thermal Management System

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  • Wade Perry
    Greetings all- I ve driven over 1,000 miles on lithium now. I drove a fair bit today, it was mostly empty when I was coming back home from the last errand so I
    Message 1 of 29 , Dec 1, 2012
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      Greetings all- I've driven over 1,000 miles on lithium now.

      I drove a fair bit today, it was mostly empty when I was coming back home
      from the last errand so I thought I'd take the long way home and discharge
      a bit more than I usually do. Until today the maximum I'd taken out is
      probably around 45 Ahr. I had set my limit around 50 to be safe.
      So after I got home I drove the block a few times with the heater on. Went
      well past 50. I measured pack voltage and some individual cells while I
      did this and felt fairly safe as I was getting down towards the bottom.
      Finally drove it around one last time in econ with no heater and it was
      around 57.5 when I was done. Then I ran the heater by itself to get it to
      59. Took the voltage on each cell.
      Made a new column to my battery balancing spreadsheet, it's here-
      https://docs.google.com/spreadsheet/pub?key=0An5nm8itUMMcdHhQV3RsSUdfbzRTQkFlNmtaSy05MHc&output=html

      The cells were springing back as I was measuring them. When I was done I
      went back and measured CK, where I'd started measuring the pack. it was
      .04 volts higher than I'd written down the first time. By the time I was
      finishing measuring, all the cells were coming in around 3.04 or 3.05. So
      they're reasonably well balanced.

      One cell stands out. JA. It measured 2.93 when its adjacent cells were
      measuring an entire ~0.10 volt higher. I haven't figured it out yet.
      Other than it happens to be the one that I noticed arrived from the
      factory at 4.23% below 50% SOC. You can see that on the sheet. It stood
      out at the time because all the other cells came in at 1 or 2% over 50.
      This was the only one that was below, and by a fair amount.

      Anyway then I ran the heater some more, watching JA in particular. It
      would have been cool to have a graph of all the cells at once. But they
      were falling off quite quickly. Some dipped down to 2.75 or so. JA dipped
      all the way down to 2.50. But I discharged down to a full 60.00 Ahr on my
      counter! Finished with a pack voltage of around 160. (which was
      undoubtedly springing up also. I didn't wait around to check but plugged
      in the charger so I can drive again tomorrow)

      This is great, because I had feared I was losing capacity permanently by
      charging below freezing. I'd hoped this wasn't the case, but was concerned
      because on especially cold days there'd be +1.00 or +2.00 Ahr still left on
      the counter when the charger shut off. Warmer days I'd be back to -0.14 or
      something like that. I'd been worried that I was gradually damaging the
      cells.

      Apparently I'm not. Or at least not to the extent I'd feared. This is
      with a battery box that's not even put together yet- the 60 Ahr cells are
      taller than the gels I took out, so when I finally do get things put
      together properly, I'll need to shim the cover over the battery box. Right
      now it rests on top of the cells, so there's probably a 1" space all
      around, letting cold air in. I did put in a 60watt incandescent light bulb
      back there to keep things warmer (and bright and cheery) in the battery
      box, whenever the car's plugged in.

      So. What I'd really like to do is hook up the Solectria heating mats to AC
      power, so I can be more setup for winter. I myself took it apart back in
      August, but obviously didn't pay much attention to what I was doing. I've
      searched this list repeatedly but can't find anything that talks about
      where the AC power hooks up to the heaters / sensors... Can anyone point
      me to a resource about this?

      Thanks for the help!

      Wade Perry
      1998 Force
      56 CALB CA 60 Ahr


      [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
    • Chandler Chip
      On the file listing for this website, check out the 1998 Force Service manual (Silverman), pages 49 and 53 in the appendix. They show the wiring for the
      Message 2 of 29 , Dec 2, 2012
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        On the file listing for this website, check out the 1998 Force Service manual (Silverman), pages 49 and 53 in the appendix. They show the wiring for the Thermal Management System starting from the AC junction box near the charger and leading to the temp sensor boxes, one in each battery box, if you still have the components for them. Those sensor boxes should be installed on top of the batteries. Are your heating mats still in the battery boxes under your new batteries? What insulation do you plan on installing under and around your cells?


        Chip Chandler
        cchandler66@...

        On Dec 2, 2012, at 1:47 AM, Wade Perry <perrypeas@...> wrote:

        > Greetings all- I've driven over 1,000 miles on lithium now.
        >
        > I drove a fair bit today, it was mostly empty when I was coming back home
        > from the last errand so I thought I'd take the long way home and discharge
        > a bit more than I usually do. Until today the maximum I'd taken out is
        > probably around 45 Ahr. I had set my limit around 50 to be safe.
        > So after I got home I drove the block a few times with the heater on. Went
        > well past 50. I measured pack voltage and some individual cells while I
        > did this and felt fairly safe as I was getting down towards the bottom.
        > Finally drove it around one last time in econ with no heater and it was
        > around 57.5 when I was done. Then I ran the heater by itself to get it to
        > 59. Took the voltage on each cell.
        > Made a new column to my battery balancing spreadsheet, it's here-
        > https://docs.google.com/spreadsheet/pub?key=0An5nm8itUMMcdHhQV3RsSUdfbzRTQkFlNmtaSy05MHc&output=html
        >
        > The cells were springing back as I was measuring them. When I was done I
        > went back and measured CK, where I'd started measuring the pack. it was
        > .04 volts higher than I'd written down the first time. By the time I was
        > finishing measuring, all the cells were coming in around 3.04 or 3.05. So
        > they're reasonably well balanced.
        >
        > One cell stands out. JA. It measured 2.93 when its adjacent cells were
        > measuring an entire ~0.10 volt higher. I haven't figured it out yet.
        > Other than it happens to be the one that I noticed arrived from the
        > factory at 4.23% below 50% SOC. You can see that on the sheet. It stood
        > out at the time because all the other cells came in at 1 or 2% over 50.
        > This was the only one that was below, and by a fair amount.
        >
        > Anyway then I ran the heater some more, watching JA in particular. It
        > would have been cool to have a graph of all the cells at once. But they
        > were falling off quite quickly. Some dipped down to 2.75 or so. JA dipped
        > all the way down to 2.50. But I discharged down to a full 60.00 Ahr on my
        > counter! Finished with a pack voltage of around 160. (which was
        > undoubtedly springing up also. I didn't wait around to check but plugged
        > in the charger so I can drive again tomorrow)
        >
        > This is great, because I had feared I was losing capacity permanently by
        > charging below freezing. I'd hoped this wasn't the case, but was concerned
        > because on especially cold days there'd be +1.00 or +2.00 Ahr still left on
        > the counter when the charger shut off. Warmer days I'd be back to -0.14 or
        > something like that. I'd been worried that I was gradually damaging the
        > cells.
        >
        > Apparently I'm not. Or at least not to the extent I'd feared. This is
        > with a battery box that's not even put together yet- the 60 Ahr cells are
        > taller than the gels I took out, so when I finally do get things put
        > together properly, I'll need to shim the cover over the battery box. Right
        > now it rests on top of the cells, so there's probably a 1" space all
        > around, letting cold air in. I did put in a 60watt incandescent light bulb
        > back there to keep things warmer (and bright and cheery) in the battery
        > box, whenever the car's plugged in.
        >
        > So. What I'd really like to do is hook up the Solectria heating mats to AC
        > power, so I can be more setup for winter. I myself took it apart back in
        > August, but obviously didn't pay much attention to what I was doing. I've
        > searched this list repeatedly but can't find anything that talks about
        > where the AC power hooks up to the heaters / sensors... Can anyone point
        > me to a resource about this?
        >
        > Thanks for the help!
        >
        > Wade Perry
        > 1998 Force
        > 56 CALB CA 60 Ahr
        >
        > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
        >
        >



        [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
      • d. Bouton Baldridge
        Hi Wade,  In my opinion, the balance thing has been greatly over blown and your readings are perefectly acceptable especially after using so much capacity
        Message 3 of 29 , Dec 2, 2012
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          Hi Wade,
           In my opinion, the balance thing has been greatly over blown and your readings are perefectly acceptable especially after using so much capacity having only +/-.1 v or so from the mean is fantastic. The big thing is avoiding going beyond the knees and your system seems to be working just fine doing that. As for the Ahmeter issue, It has been my experience that voltage is not a reliable means for determining capacity. In my case I have found the reaching the limiting voltage was caused by the pack warming up; for me it was the sun. Now that the ambient temperature is lower in the winter season my charge resets closer to zero, but in summer it stops on the plus side by .1 ah each cycle when the outside temp is above 80 degrees. My guess for you is that when you charge for a few hours, the pack temp increases higher than when you were driving and the voltage is slightly higher as a result this stops the charger earlier than the previous Ahour
          reading. I am not sure if this is happening as a function of breaking in or aging. But it was not an issue with lead since it woul be overcharged routinely and had the automatic reset.  I am a few months shy of 4 years and this slight precession is only an annoyance it has not seemed to impact the utility of my pack. Since I have a pretty long warm season I would just occasionaly reset the Ah meter to zero just so I wouldn't have to remember every time. Now that my cells are getting twice as old as any Pb pack would last, I am getting into new territory for longevity and at some point I might find some of these answers, but for now I am saying congratulation on your project FWIW,
          Bouty


          ________________________________
          From: Wade Perry <perrypeas@...>
          To: solectria_ev@yahoogroups.com
          Sent: Sunday, December 2, 2012 1:47 AM
          Subject: [solectria_ev] Thermal Management System

           
          Greetings all- I've driven over 1,000 miles on lithium now.

          I drove a fair bit today, it was mostly empty when I was coming back home
          from the last errand so I thought I'd take the long way home and discharge
          a bit more than I usually do. Until today the maximum I'd taken out is
          probably around 45 Ahr. I had set my limit around 50 to be safe.
          So after I got home I drove the block a few times with the heater on. Went
          well past 50. I measured pack voltage and some individual cells while I
          did this and felt fairly safe as I was getting down towards the bottom.
          Finally drove it around one last time in econ with no heater and it was
          around 57.5 when I was done. Then I ran the heater by itself to get it to
          59. Took the voltage on each cell.
          Made a new column to my battery balancing spreadsheet, it's here-
          https://docs.google.com/spreadsheet/pub?key=0An5nm8itUMMcdHhQV3RsSUdfbzRTQkFlNmtaSy05MHc&output=html

          The cells were springing back as I was measuring them. When I was done I
          went back and measured CK, where I'd started measuring the pack. it was
          .04 volts higher than I'd written down the first time. By the time I was
          finishing measuring, all the cells were coming in around 3.04 or 3.05. So
          they're reasonably well balanced.

          One cell stands out. JA. It measured 2.93 when its adjacent cells were
          measuring an entire ~0.10 volt higher. I haven't figured it out yet.
          Other than it happens to be the one that I noticed arrived from the
          factory at 4.23% below 50% SOC. You can see that on the sheet. It stood
          out at the time because all the other cells came in at 1 or 2% over 50.
          This was the only one that was below, and by a fair amount.

          Anyway then I ran the heater some more, watching JA in particular. It
          would have been cool to have a graph of all the cells at once. But they
          were falling off quite quickly. Some dipped down to 2.75 or so. JA dipped
          all the way down to 2.50. But I discharged down to a full 60.00 Ahr on my
          counter! Finished with a pack voltage of around 160. (which was
          undoubtedly springing up also. I didn't wait around to check but plugged
          in the charger so I can drive again tomorrow)

          This is great, because I had feared I was losing capacity permanently by
          charging below freezing. I'd hoped this wasn't the case, but was concerned
          because on especially cold days there'd be +1.00 or +2.00 Ahr still left on
          the counter when the charger shut off. Warmer days I'd be back to -0.14 or
          something like that. I'd been worried that I was gradually damaging the
          cells.

          Apparently I'm not. Or at least not to the extent I'd feared. This is
          with a battery box that's not even put together yet- the 60 Ahr cells are
          taller than the gels I took out, so when I finally do get things put
          together properly, I'll need to shim the cover over the battery box. Right
          now it rests on top of the cells, so there's probably a 1" space all
          around, letting cold air in. I did put in a 60watt incandescent light bulb
          back there to keep things warmer (and bright and cheery) in the battery
          box, whenever the car's plugged in.

          So. What I'd really like to do is hook up the Solectria heating mats to AC
          power, so I can be more setup for winter. I myself took it apart back in
          August, but obviously didn't pay much attention to what I was doing. I've
          searched this list repeatedly but can't find anything that talks about
          where the AC power hooks up to the heaters / sensors... Can anyone point
          me to a resource about this?

          Thanks for the help!

          Wade Perry
          1998 Force
          56 CALB CA 60 Ahr

          [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]




          [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
        • Tom Hudson
          The Ah precession is something I have been very curious about. Our car is up to 2Ah now after charging, and it s pretty cool out in the garage (in the 50s).
          Message 4 of 29 , Dec 2, 2012
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            The Ah "precession" is something I have been very curious about. Our car is up to 2Ah now
            after charging, and it's pretty cool out in the garage (in the 50s). So it's not real
            warm, which seems to be what you're indicating causes the charge to terminate before the
            Ah counter reaches zero.

            What is your charge profile setup? Mine charges to 3.4V per module (190.4V) at 20A then
            switches to 190.4V until the current drops below 1A, then the charger turns off. I'm
            wondering if this is similar to what you're using to charge your pack, and want to make
            sure I'm not chronically undercharging or something. I was tempted to change the charge
            so that it used a lower termination current, just in case stopping at 1A was too early and
            causing undercharging.

            At least I know that others see a similar precession on charge, so I'm less concerned than
            I might be, but I'd like to know what your charge profile does. You are doing very well
            with your pack and I could do worse than emulate you!

            -Tom

            On 12/2/2012 9:26 AM, d. Bouton Baldridge wrote:
            >
            > Hi Wade,
            > In my opinion, the balance thing has been greatly over blown and your readings are
            > perefectly acceptable especially after using so much capacity having only +/-.1 v or so
            > from the mean is fantastic. The big thing is avoiding going beyond the knees and your
            > system seems to be working just fine doing that. As for the Ahmeter issue, It has been
            > my experience that voltage is not a reliable means for determining capacity. In my case
            > I have found the reaching the limiting voltage was caused by the pack warming up; for me
            > it was the sun. Now that the ambient temperature is lower in the winter season my charge
            > resets closer to zero, but in summer it stops on the plus side by .1 ah each cycle when
            > the outside temp is above 80 degrees. My guess for you is that when you charge for a few
            > hours, the pack temp increases higher than when you were driving and the voltage is
            > slightly higher as a result this stops the charger earlier than the previous Ahour
            > reading. I am not sure if this is happening as a function of breaking in or aging. But
            > it was not an issue with lead since it woul be overcharged routinely and had the
            > automatic reset. I am a few months shy of 4 years and this slight precession is only an
            > annoyance it has not seemed to impact the utility of my pack. Since I have a pretty long
            > warm season I would just occasionaly reset the Ah meter to zero just so I wouldn't have
            > to remember every time. Now that my cells are getting twice as old as any Pb pack would
            > last, I am getting into new territory for longevity and at some point I might find some
            > of these answers, but for now I am saying congratulation on your project FWIW,
            > Bouty
            >
            > ________________________________
            > From: Wade Perry <perrypeas@... <mailto:perrypeas%40gmail.com>>
            > To: solectria_ev@yahoogroups.com <mailto:solectria_ev%40yahoogroups.com>
            > Sent: Sunday, December 2, 2012 1:47 AM
            > Subject: [solectria_ev] Thermal Management System
            >
            >
            > Greetings all- I've driven over 1,000 miles on lithium now.
            >
            > I drove a fair bit today, it was mostly empty when I was coming back home
            > from the last errand so I thought I'd take the long way home and discharge
            > a bit more than I usually do. Until today the maximum I'd taken out is
            > probably around 45 Ahr. I had set my limit around 50 to be safe.
            > So after I got home I drove the block a few times with the heater on. Went
            > well past 50. I measured pack voltage and some individual cells while I
            > did this and felt fairly safe as I was getting down towards the bottom.
            > Finally drove it around one last time in econ with no heater and it was
            > around 57.5 when I was done. Then I ran the heater by itself to get it to
            > 59. Took the voltage on each cell.
            > Made a new column to my battery balancing spreadsheet, it's here-
            > https://docs.google.com/spreadsheet/pub?key=0An5nm8itUMMcdHhQV3RsSUdfbzRTQkFlNmtaSy05MHc&output=html
            >
            > The cells were springing back as I was measuring them. When I was done I
            > went back and measured CK, where I'd started measuring the pack. it was
            > .04 volts higher than I'd written down the first time. By the time I was
            > finishing measuring, all the cells were coming in around 3.04 or 3.05. So
            > they're reasonably well balanced.
            >
            > One cell stands out. JA. It measured 2.93 when its adjacent cells were
            > measuring an entire ~0.10 volt higher. I haven't figured it out yet.
            > Other than it happens to be the one that I noticed arrived from the
            > factory at 4.23% below 50% SOC. You can see that on the sheet. It stood
            > out at the time because all the other cells came in at 1 or 2% over 50.
            > This was the only one that was below, and by a fair amount.
            >
            > Anyway then I ran the heater some more, watching JA in particular. It
            > would have been cool to have a graph of all the cells at once. But they
            > were falling off quite quickly. Some dipped down to 2.75 or so. JA dipped
            > all the way down to 2.50. But I discharged down to a full 60.00 Ahr on my
            > counter! Finished with a pack voltage of around 160. (which was
            > undoubtedly springing up also. I didn't wait around to check but plugged
            > in the charger so I can drive again tomorrow)
            >
            > This is great, because I had feared I was losing capacity permanently by
            > charging below freezing. I'd hoped this wasn't the case, but was concerned
            > because on especially cold days there'd be +1.00 or +2.00 Ahr still left on
            > the counter when the charger shut off. Warmer days I'd be back to -0.14 or
            > something like that. I'd been worried that I was gradually damaging the
            > cells.
            >
            > Apparently I'm not. Or at least not to the extent I'd feared. This is
            > with a battery box that's not even put together yet- the 60 Ahr cells are
            > taller than the gels I took out, so when I finally do get things put
            > together properly, I'll need to shim the cover over the battery box. Right
            > now it rests on top of the cells, so there's probably a 1" space all
            > around, letting cold air in. I did put in a 60watt incandescent light bulb
            > back there to keep things warmer (and bright and cheery) in the battery
            > box, whenever the car's plugged in.
            >
            > So. What I'd really like to do is hook up the Solectria heating mats to AC
            > power, so I can be more setup for winter. I myself took it apart back in
            > August, but obviously didn't pay much attention to what I was doing. I've
            > searched this list repeatedly but can't find anything that talks about
            > where the AC power hooks up to the heaters / sensors... Can anyone point
            > me to a resource about this?
            >
            > Thanks for the help!
            >
            > Wade Perry
            > 1998 Force
            > 56 CALB CA 60 Ahr
            >
            > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
            >
            > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
            >
            >

            --
            Thomas Hudson
            http://portev.org -- Electric Vehicles, Solar Power & More
            http://klanky.com -- Animation Projects



            [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
          • Wolf
            I would not charge lithium ion batteries that are below freezing, you will electroplate metallic lithium and ruin the battery. Do a quick Google search on
            Message 5 of 29 , Dec 2, 2012
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              I would not charge lithium ion batteries that are below freezing, you will
              electroplate metallic lithium and ruin the battery.

              Do a quick Google search on electroplating lithium when charging below
              freezing.
              On Dec 2, 2012 12:47 AM, "Wade Perry" <perrypeas@...> wrote:

              > **
              >
              >
              > Greetings all- I've driven over 1,000 miles on lithium now.
              >
              > I drove a fair bit today, it was mostly empty when I was coming back home
              > from the last errand so I thought I'd take the long way home and discharge
              > a bit more than I usually do. Until today the maximum I'd taken out is
              > probably around 45 Ahr. I had set my limit around 50 to be safe.
              > So after I got home I drove the block a few times with the heater on. Went
              > well past 50. I measured pack voltage and some individual cells while I
              > did this and felt fairly safe as I was getting down towards the bottom.
              > Finally drove it around one last time in econ with no heater and it was
              > around 57.5 when I was done. Then I ran the heater by itself to get it to
              > 59. Took the voltage on each cell.
              > Made a new column to my battery balancing spreadsheet, it's here-
              >
              > https://docs.google.com/spreadsheet/pub?key=0An5nm8itUMMcdHhQV3RsSUdfbzRTQkFlNmtaSy05MHc&output=html
              >
              > The cells were springing back as I was measuring them. When I was done I
              > went back and measured CK, where I'd started measuring the pack. it was
              > .04 volts higher than I'd written down the first time. By the time I was
              > finishing measuring, all the cells were coming in around 3.04 or 3.05. So
              > they're reasonably well balanced.
              >
              > One cell stands out. JA. It measured 2.93 when its adjacent cells were
              > measuring an entire ~0.10 volt higher. I haven't figured it out yet.
              > Other than it happens to be the one that I noticed arrived from the
              > factory at 4.23% below 50% SOC. You can see that on the sheet. It stood
              > out at the time because all the other cells came in at 1 or 2% over 50.
              > This was the only one that was below, and by a fair amount.
              >
              > Anyway then I ran the heater some more, watching JA in particular. It
              > would have been cool to have a graph of all the cells at once. But they
              > were falling off quite quickly. Some dipped down to 2.75 or so. JA dipped
              > all the way down to 2.50. But I discharged down to a full 60.00 Ahr on my
              > counter! Finished with a pack voltage of around 160. (which was
              > undoubtedly springing up also. I didn't wait around to check but plugged
              > in the charger so I can drive again tomorrow)
              >
              > This is great, because I had feared I was losing capacity permanently by
              > charging below freezing. I'd hoped this wasn't the case, but was concerned
              > because on especially cold days there'd be +1.00 or +2.00 Ahr still left on
              > the counter when the charger shut off. Warmer days I'd be back to -0.14 or
              > something like that. I'd been worried that I was gradually damaging the
              > cells.
              >
              > Apparently I'm not. Or at least not to the extent I'd feared. This is
              > with a battery box that's not even put together yet- the 60 Ahr cells are
              > taller than the gels I took out, so when I finally do get things put
              > together properly, I'll need to shim the cover over the battery box. Right
              > now it rests on top of the cells, so there's probably a 1" space all
              > around, letting cold air in. I did put in a 60watt incandescent light bulb
              > back there to keep things warmer (and bright and cheery) in the battery
              > box, whenever the car's plugged in.
              >
              > So. What I'd really like to do is hook up the Solectria heating mats to AC
              > power, so I can be more setup for winter. I myself took it apart back in
              > August, but obviously didn't pay much attention to what I was doing. I've
              > searched this list repeatedly but can't find anything that talks about
              > where the AC power hooks up to the heaters / sensors... Can anyone point
              > me to a resource about this?
              >
              > Thanks for the help!
              >
              > Wade Perry
              > 1998 Force
              > 56 CALB CA 60 Ahr
              >
              > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
              >
              >
              >


              [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
            • d. Bouton Baldridge
              Hi Tom,  Where do I begin? My on board charger,  a Zivan NG3 is set for pretty much the same as yours with a 190v finish which quickly settled below 180v
              Message 6 of 29 , Dec 2, 2012
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                Hi Tom,
                 Where do I begin? My on board charger,  a Zivan NG3 is set for pretty much the same as yours with a 190v finish which quickly settled below 180v because my controller balks over 180v and I noticed the precession only in thr warm weather so it was outside heating up with solar gain all day ever so slightly increasing in voltage. At days end the charger would go on and likely acheived the 190v a little sooner because of the extra heat in the pack. Since I use the car for only short hops I put the solar panel with the MPPT which only takes it to 170v and then just cuts out. This not only avoids the controller issue, but also is much handyer for daytime charging on the go and makes nightime charging unnecessary. But the car is outside all of the time now, so it is subjected to the daily temperature variances, which in summer rarely drops below 75 degrees but the winter can drop in the 30's fairly often which is way to low for my 40Ah pack. So I heat
                the pack with a waterbed heater to keep the pack above 50 degrees until the sun comes up but since the pack is pretty cool by daytime standards there is very little precession. I am guessing right now but I have noticed that using the pack does warm it some but charging especially during the cc/cv high amp phase might heat it even more given that is steady state. Not anything dangerous  or even a concern but enough to raise the voltage to shut down a little early as far as Amphours go. As the cells age this might not be the case, I'll let you know next summer in my 5th year.
                Bouty         


                ________________________________
                From: Tom Hudson <tdhudson@...>
                To: solectria_ev@yahoogroups.com
                Sent: Sunday, December 2, 2012 11:58 AM
                Subject: Re: [solectria_ev] Thermal Management System

                 
                The Ah "precession" is something I have been very curious about. Our car is up to 2Ah now
                after charging, and it's pretty cool out in the garage (in the 50s). So it's not real
                warm, which seems to be what you're indicating causes the charge to terminate before the
                Ah counter reaches zero.

                What is your charge profile setup? Mine charges to 3.4V per module (190.4V) at 20A then
                switches to 190.4V until the current drops below 1A, then the charger turns off. I'm
                wondering if this is similar to what you're using to charge your pack, and want to make
                sure I'm not chronically undercharging or something. I was tempted to change the charge
                so that it used a lower termination current, just in case stopping at 1A was too early and
                causing undercharging.

                At least I know that others see a similar precession on charge, so I'm less concerned than
                I might be, but I'd like to know what your charge profile does. You are doing very well
                with your pack and I could do worse than emulate you!

                -Tom

                On 12/2/2012 9:26 AM, d. Bouton Baldridge wrote:
                >
                > Hi Wade,
                > In my opinion, the balance thing has been greatly over blown and your readings are
                > perefectly acceptable especially after using so much capacity having only +/-.1 v or so
                > from the mean is fantastic. The big thing is avoiding going beyond the knees and your
                > system seems to be working just fine doing that. As for the Ahmeter issue, It has been
                > my experience that voltage is not a reliable means for determining capacity. In my case
                > I have found the reaching the limiting voltage was caused by the pack warming up; for me
                > it was the sun. Now that the ambient temperature is lower in the winter season my charge
                > resets closer to zero, but in summer it stops on the plus side by .1 ah each cycle when
                > the outside temp is above 80 degrees. My guess for you is that when you charge for a few
                > hours, the pack temp increases higher than when you were driving and the voltage is
                > slightly higher as a result this stops the charger earlier than the previous Ahour
                > reading. I am not sure if this is happening as a function of breaking in or aging. But
                > it was not an issue with lead since it woul be overcharged routinely and had the
                > automatic reset. I am a few months shy of 4 years and this slight precession is only an
                > annoyance it has not seemed to impact the utility of my pack. Since I have a pretty long
                > warm season I would just occasionaly reset the Ah meter to zero just so I wouldn't have
                > to remember every time. Now that my cells are getting twice as old as any Pb pack would
                > last, I am getting into new territory for longevity and at some point I might find some
                > of these answers, but for now I am saying congratulation on your project FWIW,
                > Bouty
                >
                > ________________________________
                > From: Wade Perry <mailto:perrypeas%40gmail.com <mailto:perrypeas%40gmail.com>>
                > To: mailto:solectria_ev%40yahoogroups.com <mailto:solectria_ev%40yahoogroups.com>
                > Sent: Sunday, December 2, 2012 1:47 AM
                > Subject: [solectria_ev] Thermal Management System
                >
                >
                > Greetings all- I've driven over 1,000 miles on lithium now.
                >
                > I drove a fair bit today, it was mostly empty when I was coming back home
                > from the last errand so I thought I'd take the long way home and discharge
                > a bit more than I usually do. Until today the maximum I'd taken out is
                > probably around 45 Ahr. I had set my limit around 50 to be safe.
                > So after I got home I drove the block a few times with the heater on. Went
                > well past 50. I measured pack voltage and some individual cells while I
                > did this and felt fairly safe as I was getting down towards the bottom.
                > Finally drove it around one last time in econ with no heater and it was
                > around 57.5 when I was done. Then I ran the heater by itself to get it to
                > 59. Took the voltage on each cell.
                > Made a new column to my battery balancing spreadsheet, it's here-
                > https://docs.google.com/spreadsheet/pub?key=0An5nm8itUMMcdHhQV3RsSUdfbzRTQkFlNmtaSy05MHc&output=html
                >
                > The cells were springing back as I was measuring them. When I was done I
                > went back and measured CK, where I'd started measuring the pack. it was
                > .04 volts higher than I'd written down the first time. By the time I was
                > finishing measuring, all the cells were coming in around 3.04 or 3.05. So
                > they're reasonably well balanced.
                >
                > One cell stands out. JA. It measured 2.93 when its adjacent cells were
                > measuring an entire ~0.10 volt higher. I haven't figured it out yet.
                > Other than it happens to be the one that I noticed arrived from the
                > factory at 4.23% below 50% SOC. You can see that on the sheet. It stood
                > out at the time because all the other cells came in at 1 or 2% over 50.
                > This was the only one that was below, and by a fair amount.
                >
                > Anyway then I ran the heater some more, watching JA in particular. It
                > would have been cool to have a graph of all the cells at once. But they
                > were falling off quite quickly. Some dipped down to 2.75 or so. JA dipped
                > all the way down to 2.50. But I discharged down to a full 60.00 Ahr on my
                > counter! Finished with a pack voltage of around 160. (which was
                > undoubtedly springing up also. I didn't wait around to check but plugged
                > in the charger so I can drive again tomorrow)
                >
                > This is great, because I had feared I was losing capacity permanently by
                > charging below freezing. I'd hoped this wasn't the case, but was concerned
                > because on especially cold days there'd be +1.00 or +2.00 Ahr still left on
                > the counter when the charger shut off. Warmer days I'd be back to -0.14 or
                > something like that. I'd been worried that I was gradually damaging the
                > cells.
                >
                > Apparently I'm not. Or at least not to the extent I'd feared. This is
                > with a battery box that's not even put together yet- the 60 Ahr cells are
                > taller than the gels I took out, so when I finally do get things put
                > together properly, I'll need to shim the cover over the battery box. Right
                > now it rests on top of the cells, so there's probably a 1" space all
                > around, letting cold air in. I did put in a 60watt incandescent light bulb
                > back there to keep things warmer (and bright and cheery) in the battery
                > box, whenever the car's plugged in.
                >
                > So. What I'd really like to do is hook up the Solectria heating mats to AC
                > power, so I can be more setup for winter. I myself took it apart back in
                > August, but obviously didn't pay much attention to what I was doing. I've
                > searched this list repeatedly but can't find anything that talks about
                > where the AC power hooks up to the heaters / sensors... Can anyone point
                > me to a resource about this?
                >
                > Thanks for the help!
                >
                > Wade Perry
                > 1998 Force
                > 56 CALB CA 60 Ahr
                >
                > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                >
                > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                >
                >

                --
                Thomas Hudson
                http://portev.org/ -- Electric Vehicles, Solar Power & More
                http://klanky.com/ -- Animation Projects

                [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]




                [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
              • Rex Allison
                I have one question for Bouty: How many miles do you have on your pack? One question for the group: Does anyone have the dimension for the inside of the front
                Message 7 of 29 , Dec 3, 2012
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                  I have one question for Bouty:
                  How many miles do you have on your pack?

                  One question for the group:
                  Does anyone have the dimension for the inside of the front battery box?



                  I'm really interesting in Bouty's configuration. After 7 years and 22,000 miles my poor old Pb pack is on it's last legs. I'm able to get 22 to 24Ahrs out of the pack which is enough for a round trip to work and a very short side trip. Since the pack is fairly weak it takes 1.5 to 1.6Ahr per mile.  I'm trying to hold out until summer for my switch to lithium when the weather is a little better and I have my battery monitor tested out. I'm interested in putting 49 40Ahr CALB "grey" cells (CA40BFI) for a couple of reasons:

                  1.  If my measurements are correct the complete pack should fit in the front battery box in a 7x7 array. By moving the charger up front all the 156V wiring will be under the hood with a very short run between the pack and the controller.

                  2. The pack cost
                  is comparable to if not cheaper than the Deka equivalent. 40Ahr CALBs are around $55 each. 49 x $55 = $2,695 before tax and shipping.  13 Deka batteries would have to be $207 just to be comparable ($2,695 / 13 = $207 approx.)

                  3. My car will be shedding 661lb. The CALB cells at 3.3lb each x 49 = 161 lb vs the 822lb (63.2lb x 13) of the current pack. I'm probably going to have to find the original springs for the Geo, otherwise the car will feel like it is permanently going down a hill.

                  4. The "blue" CALBs (SE40AHA) already have fantastic C ratings and the "grey" cells have better cold weather performance. The max current of the force at around 240A dc should be no problem for the 40Ahr cells, they should be able to handle C6. There is some interesting test data on the cells: http://blog.evtv.me/2012/06/battery-jump-shift/

                  I know the general consensus is that 60 Ahr or 100 Ahr is preferable, but I've been logging all my driving for the past 7 years, most days I use between 16Ahrs and 20Ahrs and only a few times did I even come close to 35Ahrs.








                  ________________________________
                  From: d. Bouton Baldridge <cfrkeepr@...>
                  To: "solectria_ev@yahoogroups.com" <solectria_ev@yahoogroups.com>
                  Sent: Sunday, December 2, 2012 7:26 AM
                  Subject: Re: [solectria_ev] Thermal Management System


                   
                  Hi Wade,
                   In my opinion, the balance thing has been greatly over blown and your readings are perefectly acceptable especially after using so much capacity having only +/-.1 v or so from the mean is fantastic. The big thing is avoiding going beyond the knees and your system seems to be working just fine doing that. As for the Ahmeter issue, It has been my experience that voltage is not a reliable means for determining capacity. In my case I have found the reaching the limiting voltage was caused by the pack warming up; for me it was the sun. Now that the ambient temperature is lower in the winter season my charge resets closer to zero, but in summer it stops on the plus side by .1 ah each cycle when the outside temp is above 80 degrees. My guess for you is that when you charge for a few hours, the pack temp increases higher than when you were driving and the voltage is slightly higher as a result this stops the charger earlier than
                  the previous Ahour
                  reading. I am not sure if this is happening as a function of breaking in or aging. But it was not an issue with lead since it woul be overcharged routinely and had the automatic reset.  I am a few months shy of 4 years and this slight precession is only an annoyance it has not seemed to impact the utility of my pack. Since I have a pretty long warm season I would just occasionaly reset the Ah meter to zero just so I wouldn't have to remember every time. Now that my cells are getting twice as old as any Pb pack would last, I am getting into new territory for longevity and at some point I might find some of these answers, but for now I am saying congratulation on your project FWIW,
                  Bouty

                  ________________________________
                  From: Wade Perry <perrypeas@...>
                  To: solectria_ev@yahoogroups.com
                  Sent: Sunday, December 2, 2012 1:47 AM
                  Subject: [solectria_ev] Thermal Management System

                   
                  Greetings all- I've driven over 1,000 miles on lithium now.

                  I drove a fair bit today, it was mostly empty when I was coming back home
                  from the last errand so I thought I'd take the long way home and discharge
                  a bit more than I usually do. Until today the maximum I'd taken out is
                  probably around 45 Ahr. I had set my limit around 50 to be safe.
                  So after I got home I drove the block a few times with the heater on. Went
                  well past 50. I measured pack voltage and some individual cells while I
                  did this and felt fairly safe as I was getting down towards the bottom.
                  Finally drove it around one last time in econ with no heater and it was
                  around 57.5 when I was done. Then I ran the heater by itself to get it to
                  59. Took the voltage on each cell.
                  Made a new column to my battery balancing spreadsheet, it's here-
                  https://docs.google.com/spreadsheet/pub?key=0An5nm8itUMMcdHhQV3RsSUdfbzRTQkFlNmtaSy05MHc&output=html

                  The cells were springing back as I was measuring them. When I was done I
                  went back and measured CK, where I'd started measuring the pack. it was
                  .04 volts higher than I'd written down the first time. By the time I was
                  finishing measuring, all the cells were coming in around 3.04 or 3.05. So
                  they're reasonably well balanced.

                  One cell stands out. JA. It measured 2.93 when its adjacent cells were
                  measuring an entire ~0.10 volt higher. I haven't figured it out yet.
                  Other than it happens to be the one that I noticed arrived from the
                  factory at 4.23% below 50% SOC. You can see that on the sheet. It stood
                  out at the time because all the other cells came in at 1 or 2% over 50.
                  This was the only one that was below, and by a fair amount.

                  Anyway then I ran the heater some more, watching JA in particular. It
                  would have been cool to have a graph of all the cells at once. But they
                  were falling off quite quickly. Some dipped down to 2.75 or so. JA dipped
                  all the way down to 2.50. But I discharged down to a full 60.00 Ahr on my
                  counter! Finished with a pack voltage of around 160. (which was
                  undoubtedly springing up also. I didn't wait around to check but plugged
                  in the charger so I can drive again tomorrow)

                  This is great, because I had feared I was losing capacity permanently by
                  charging below freezing. I'd hoped this wasn't the case, but was concerned
                  because on especially cold days there'd be +1.00 or +2.00 Ahr still left on
                  the counter when the charger shut off. Warmer days I'd be back to -0.14 or
                  something like that. I'd been worried that I was gradually damaging the
                  cells.

                  Apparently I'm not. Or at least not to the extent I'd feared. This is
                  with a battery box that's not even put together yet- the 60 Ahr cells are
                  taller than the gels I took out, so when I finally do get things put
                  together properly, I'll need to shim the cover over the battery box. Right
                  now it rests on top of the cells, so there's probably a 1" space all
                  around, letting cold air in. I did put in a 60watt incandescent light bulb
                  back there to keep things warmer (and bright and cheery) in the battery
                  box, whenever the car's plugged in.

                  So. What I'd really like to do is hook up the Solectria heating mats to AC
                  power, so I can be more setup for winter. I myself took it apart back in
                  August, but obviously didn't pay much attention to what I was doing. I've
                  searched this list repeatedly but can't find anything that talks about
                  where the AC power hooks up to the heaters / sensors... Can anyone point
                  me to a resource about this?

                  Thanks for the help!

                  Wade Perry
                  1998 Force
                  56 CALB CA 60 Ahr

                  [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]

                  [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]




                  [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                • Charles Bliss
                  I have the front and rear packs modeled in CAD to very precise dimensions. I use it for laying out various battery configurations. ... [Non-text portions of
                  Message 8 of 29 , Dec 3, 2012
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                    I have the front and rear packs modeled in CAD to very precise
                    dimensions. I use it for laying out various battery configurations.

                    On 12/3/2012 8:33 AM, Rex Allison wrote:
                    >
                    > I have one question for Bouty:
                    > How many miles do you have on your pack?
                    >
                    > One question for the group:
                    > Does anyone have the dimension for the inside of the front battery box?
                    >
                    > I
                    >



                    [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                  • Rex Allison
                    I d like to do a reality check on the inside length and width. Also comments about anything I have oversimplified here. This illustration is pretty crude and
                    Message 9 of 29 , Dec 3, 2012
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                      I'd like to do a reality check on the inside length and width. Also comments about anything I have oversimplified here.
                      This illustration is pretty crude and it may not come out depending on your email text settings.

                      The CA40BFI cells are nominally 116mm x 46mm x 181mm

                      116mm 116mm 116mm 116mm 116mm 116mm 116mm
                      [o      o][o      o][o      o][o      o][o      o][o      o][o     o] 46mm
                      [o      o][o      o][o      o][o      o][o      o][o      o][o     o] 46mm
                      [o      o][o      o][o      o][o      o][o      o][o      o][o     o] 46mm
                      [o      o][o      o][o      o][o      o][o      o][o      o][o     o] 46mm
                      [o      o][o      o][o      o][o      o][o      o][o      o][o     o] 46mm
                      [o      o][o      o][o      o][o      o][o      o][o      o][o     o] 46mm
                      [o      o][o      o][o      o][o      o][o      o][o      o][o     o] 46mm

                      The overall dimensions are:
                      46mm x 7 = 322mm (12.7")

                      116mm x 7 = 812mm (32")

                      This is pretty close to the five 8G27Dekas

                      326mm x 167mm x 236mm

                         167mm     167mm     167mm     167mm      167mm
                      |             ||             ||             ||             ||             ||             ||             ||             ||             ||             |
                      |             ||             ||             ||             ||             ||             ||             ||             ||             ||             | 326mm
                      |             ||             ||             ||             ||             ||             ||             ||             ||             ||             |
                      |             ||             ||             ||             ||             |


                      The overall dimensions are:
                      326mm x 1 = 326mm (12.8")167mm x 5 = 835mm (32.9")





                      ________________________________
                      From: Charles Bliss <cbliss@...>
                      To: solectria_ev@yahoogroups.com
                      Sent: Monday, December 3, 2012 9:01 AM
                      Subject: Re: [solectria_ev] Thermal Management System


                       
                      I have the front and rear packs modeled in CAD to very precise
                      dimensions. I use it for laying out various battery configurations.

                      On 12/3/2012 8:33 AM, Rex Allison wrote:
                      >
                      > I have one question for Bouty:
                      > How many miles do you have on your pack?
                      >
                      > One question for the group:
                      > Does anyone have the dimension for the inside of the front battery box?
                      >
                      > I
                      >

                      [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]




                      [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                    • geo_homsy2
                      I have the two thermostat boxes, if anyone needs them. I damaged my factory heating mats with acid spills, from the old flooded cells that the previous owner
                      Message 10 of 29 , Dec 3, 2012
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                        I have the two thermostat boxes, if anyone needs them.

                        I damaged my factory heating mats with acid spills, from the old flooded cells that the previous owner put in :(

                        Fortunately I live in the Bay Area, CA, with mild climate. So I'm not in need of the heating system.

                        //Geo

                        --- In solectria_ev@yahoogroups.com, Chandler Chip <cchandler66@...> wrote:
                        >
                        > On the file listing for this website, check out the 1998 Force Service manual (Silverman), pages 49 and 53 in the appendix. They show the wiring for the Thermal Management System starting from the AC junction box near the charger and leading to the temp sensor boxes, one in each battery box, if you still have the components for them. Those sensor boxes should be installed on top of the batteries. Are your heating mats still in the battery boxes under your new batteries? What insulation do you plan on installing under and around your cells?
                        >
                        >
                        > Chip Chandler
                        > cchandler66@...
                        >
                        > On Dec 2, 2012, at 1:47 AM, Wade Perry <perrypeas@...> wrote:
                        >
                        > > Greetings all- I've driven over 1,000 miles on lithium now.
                        > >
                        > > I drove a fair bit today, it was mostly empty when I was coming back home
                        > > from the last errand so I thought I'd take the long way home and discharge
                        > > a bit more than I usually do. Until today the maximum I'd taken out is
                        > > probably around 45 Ahr. I had set my limit around 50 to be safe.
                        > > So after I got home I drove the block a few times with the heater on. Went
                        > > well past 50. I measured pack voltage and some individual cells while I
                        > > did this and felt fairly safe as I was getting down towards the bottom.
                        > > Finally drove it around one last time in econ with no heater and it was
                        > > around 57.5 when I was done. Then I ran the heater by itself to get it to
                        > > 59. Took the voltage on each cell.
                        > > Made a new column to my battery balancing spreadsheet, it's here-
                        > > https://docs.google.com/spreadsheet/pub?key=0An5nm8itUMMcdHhQV3RsSUdfbzRTQkFlNmtaSy05MHc&output=html
                        > >
                        > > The cells were springing back as I was measuring them. When I was done I
                        > > went back and measured CK, where I'd started measuring the pack. it was
                        > > .04 volts higher than I'd written down the first time. By the time I was
                        > > finishing measuring, all the cells were coming in around 3.04 or 3.05. So
                        > > they're reasonably well balanced.
                        > >
                        > > One cell stands out. JA. It measured 2.93 when its adjacent cells were
                        > > measuring an entire ~0.10 volt higher. I haven't figured it out yet.
                        > > Other than it happens to be the one that I noticed arrived from the
                        > > factory at 4.23% below 50% SOC. You can see that on the sheet. It stood
                        > > out at the time because all the other cells came in at 1 or 2% over 50.
                        > > This was the only one that was below, and by a fair amount.
                        > >
                        > > Anyway then I ran the heater some more, watching JA in particular. It
                        > > would have been cool to have a graph of all the cells at once. But they
                        > > were falling off quite quickly. Some dipped down to 2.75 or so. JA dipped
                        > > all the way down to 2.50. But I discharged down to a full 60.00 Ahr on my
                        > > counter! Finished with a pack voltage of around 160. (which was
                        > > undoubtedly springing up also. I didn't wait around to check but plugged
                        > > in the charger so I can drive again tomorrow)
                        > >
                        > > This is great, because I had feared I was losing capacity permanently by
                        > > charging below freezing. I'd hoped this wasn't the case, but was concerned
                        > > because on especially cold days there'd be +1.00 or +2.00 Ahr still left on
                        > > the counter when the charger shut off. Warmer days I'd be back to -0.14 or
                        > > something like that. I'd been worried that I was gradually damaging the
                        > > cells.
                        > >
                        > > Apparently I'm not. Or at least not to the extent I'd feared. This is
                        > > with a battery box that's not even put together yet- the 60 Ahr cells are
                        > > taller than the gels I took out, so when I finally do get things put
                        > > together properly, I'll need to shim the cover over the battery box. Right
                        > > now it rests on top of the cells, so there's probably a 1" space all
                        > > around, letting cold air in. I did put in a 60watt incandescent light bulb
                        > > back there to keep things warmer (and bright and cheery) in the battery
                        > > box, whenever the car's plugged in.
                        > >
                        > > So. What I'd really like to do is hook up the Solectria heating mats to AC
                        > > power, so I can be more setup for winter. I myself took it apart back in
                        > > August, but obviously didn't pay much attention to what I was doing. I've
                        > > searched this list repeatedly but can't find anything that talks about
                        > > where the AC power hooks up to the heaters / sensors... Can anyone point
                        > > me to a resource about this?
                        > >
                        > > Thanks for the help!
                        > >
                        > > Wade Perry
                        > > 1998 Force
                        > > 56 CALB CA 60 Ahr
                        > >
                        > > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                        > >
                        > >
                        >
                        >
                        >
                        > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                        >
                      • geo_homsy2
                        Rex- I have CAD models of both battery boxes. Would you like CAD models, or just numbers? //Geo
                        Message 11 of 29 , Dec 3, 2012
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                          Rex-

                          I have CAD models of both battery boxes. Would you like CAD models, or just numbers?

                          //Geo

                          --- In solectria_ev@yahoogroups.com, Rex Allison <ev64bug@...> wrote:
                          >
                          > I have one question for Bouty:
                          > How many miles do you have on your pack?
                          >
                          > One question for the group:
                          > Does anyone have the dimension for the inside of the front battery box?
                          >
                          >
                          >
                          > I'm really interesting in Bouty's configuration. After 7 years and 22,000 miles my poor old Pb pack is on it's last legs. I'm able to get 22 to 24Ahrs out of the pack which is enough for a round trip to work and a very short side trip. Since the pack is fairly weak it takes 1.5 to 1.6Ahr per mile.  I'm trying to hold out until summer for my switch to lithium when the weather is a little better and I have my battery monitor tested out. I'm interested in putting 49 40Ahr CALB "grey" cells (CA40BFI) for a couple of reasons:
                          >
                          > 1.  If my measurements are correct the complete pack should fit in the front battery box in a 7x7 array. By moving the charger up front all the 156V wiring will be under the hood with a very short run between the pack and the controller.
                          >
                          > 2. The pack cost
                          > is comparable to if not cheaper than the Deka equivalent. 40Ahr CALBs are around $55 each. 49 x $55 = $2,695 before tax and shipping.  13 Deka batteries would have to be $207 just to be comparable ($2,695 / 13 = $207 approx.)
                          >
                          > 3. My car will be shedding 661lb. The CALB cells at 3.3lb each x 49 = 161 lb vs the 822lb (63.2lb x 13) of the current pack. I'm probably going to have to find the original springs for the Geo, otherwise the car will feel like it is permanently going down a hill.
                          >
                          > 4. The "blue" CALBs (SE40AHA) already have fantastic C ratings and the "grey" cells have better cold weather performance. The max current of the force at around 240A dc should be no problem for the 40Ahr cells, they should be able to handle C6. There is some interesting test data on the cells: http://blog.evtv.me/2012/06/battery-jump-shift/
                          >
                          > I know the general consensus is that 60 Ahr or 100 Ahr is preferable, but I've been logging all my driving for the past 7 years, most days I use between 16Ahrs and 20Ahrs and only a few times did I even come close to 35Ahrs.
                          >
                          >
                          >
                          >
                          >
                          >
                          >
                          >
                          > ________________________________
                          > From: d. Bouton Baldridge <cfrkeepr@...>
                          > To: "solectria_ev@yahoogroups.com" <solectria_ev@yahoogroups.com>
                          > Sent: Sunday, December 2, 2012 7:26 AM
                          > Subject: Re: [solectria_ev] Thermal Management System
                          >
                          >
                          >  
                          > Hi Wade,
                          >  In my opinion, the balance thing has been greatly over blown and your readings are perefectly acceptable especially after using so much capacity having only +/-.1 v or so from the mean is fantastic. The big thing is avoiding going beyond the knees and your system seems to be working just fine doing that. As for the Ahmeter issue, It has been my experience that voltage is not a reliable means for determining capacity. In my case I have found the reaching the limiting voltage was caused by the pack warming up; for me it was the sun. Now that the ambient temperature is lower in the winter season my charge resets closer to zero, but in summer it stops on the plus side by .1 ah each cycle when the outside temp is above 80 degrees. My guess for you is that when you charge for a few hours, the pack temp increases higher than when you were driving and the voltage is slightly higher as a result this stops the charger earlier than
                          > the previous Ahour
                          > reading. I am not sure if this is happening as a function of breaking in or aging. But it was not an issue with lead since it woul be overcharged routinely and had the automatic reset.  I am a few months shy of 4 years and this slight precession is only an annoyance it has not seemed to impact the utility of my pack. Since I have a pretty long warm season I would just occasionaly reset the Ah meter to zero just so I wouldn't have to remember every time. Now that my cells are getting twice as old as any Pb pack would last, I am getting into new territory for longevity and at some point I might find some of these answers, but for now I am saying congratulation on your project FWIW,
                          > Bouty
                          >
                          > ________________________________
                          > From: Wade Perry <perrypeas@...>
                          > To: solectria_ev@yahoogroups.com
                          > Sent: Sunday, December 2, 2012 1:47 AM
                          > Subject: [solectria_ev] Thermal Management System
                          >
                          >  
                          > Greetings all- I've driven over 1,000 miles on lithium now.
                          >
                          > I drove a fair bit today, it was mostly empty when I was coming back home
                          > from the last errand so I thought I'd take the long way home and discharge
                          > a bit more than I usually do. Until today the maximum I'd taken out is
                          > probably around 45 Ahr. I had set my limit around 50 to be safe.
                          > So after I got home I drove the block a few times with the heater on. Went
                          > well past 50. I measured pack voltage and some individual cells while I
                          > did this and felt fairly safe as I was getting down towards the bottom.
                          > Finally drove it around one last time in econ with no heater and it was
                          > around 57.5 when I was done. Then I ran the heater by itself to get it to
                          > 59. Took the voltage on each cell.
                          > Made a new column to my battery balancing spreadsheet, it's here-
                          > https://docs.google.com/spreadsheet/pub?key=0An5nm8itUMMcdHhQV3RsSUdfbzRTQkFlNmtaSy05MHc&output=html
                          >
                          > The cells were springing back as I was measuring them. When I was done I
                          > went back and measured CK, where I'd started measuring the pack. it was
                          > .04 volts higher than I'd written down the first time. By the time I was
                          > finishing measuring, all the cells were coming in around 3.04 or 3.05. So
                          > they're reasonably well balanced.
                          >
                          > One cell stands out. JA. It measured 2.93 when its adjacent cells were
                          > measuring an entire ~0.10 volt higher. I haven't figured it out yet.
                          > Other than it happens to be the one that I noticed arrived from the
                          > factory at 4.23% below 50% SOC. You can see that on the sheet. It stood
                          > out at the time because all the other cells came in at 1 or 2% over 50.
                          > This was the only one that was below, and by a fair amount.
                          >
                          > Anyway then I ran the heater some more, watching JA in particular. It
                          > would have been cool to have a graph of all the cells at once. But they
                          > were falling off quite quickly. Some dipped down to 2.75 or so. JA dipped
                          > all the way down to 2.50. But I discharged down to a full 60.00 Ahr on my
                          > counter! Finished with a pack voltage of around 160. (which was
                          > undoubtedly springing up also. I didn't wait around to check but plugged
                          > in the charger so I can drive again tomorrow)
                          >
                          > This is great, because I had feared I was losing capacity permanently by
                          > charging below freezing. I'd hoped this wasn't the case, but was concerned
                          > because on especially cold days there'd be +1.00 or +2.00 Ahr still left on
                          > the counter when the charger shut off. Warmer days I'd be back to -0.14 or
                          > something like that. I'd been worried that I was gradually damaging the
                          > cells.
                          >
                          > Apparently I'm not. Or at least not to the extent I'd feared. This is
                          > with a battery box that's not even put together yet- the 60 Ahr cells are
                          > taller than the gels I took out, so when I finally do get things put
                          > together properly, I'll need to shim the cover over the battery box. Right
                          > now it rests on top of the cells, so there's probably a 1" space all
                          > around, letting cold air in. I did put in a 60watt incandescent light bulb
                          > back there to keep things warmer (and bright and cheery) in the battery
                          > box, whenever the car's plugged in.
                          >
                          > So. What I'd really like to do is hook up the Solectria heating mats to AC
                          > power, so I can be more setup for winter. I myself took it apart back in
                          > August, but obviously didn't pay much attention to what I was doing. I've
                          > searched this list repeatedly but can't find anything that talks about
                          > where the AC power hooks up to the heaters / sensors... Can anyone point
                          > me to a resource about this?
                          >
                          > Thanks for the help!
                          >
                          > Wade Perry
                          > 1998 Force
                          > 56 CALB CA 60 Ahr
                          >
                          > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                          >
                          > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                          >
                          >
                          >
                          >
                          > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                          >
                        • Rex Allison
                          Numbers would be great. Thanks, Rex ________________________________ From: geo_homsy2 To: solectria_ev@yahoogroups.com Sent: Monday,
                          Message 12 of 29 , Dec 3, 2012
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                            Numbers would be great.
                            Thanks,
                            Rex




                            ________________________________
                            From: geo_homsy2 <geo.homsy@...>
                            To: solectria_ev@yahoogroups.com
                            Sent: Monday, December 3, 2012 10:56 AM
                            Subject: [solectria_ev] Front battery box dimensions WAS Re: Thermal Management System


                             
                            Rex-

                            I have CAD models of both battery boxes. Would you like CAD models, or just numbers?

                            //Geo

                            --- In solectria_ev@yahoogroups.com, Rex Allison <ev64bug@...> wrote:
                            >
                            > I have one question for Bouty:
                            > How many miles do you have on your pack?
                            >
                            > One question for the group:
                            > Does anyone have the dimension for the inside of the front battery box?
                            >
                            >
                            >
                            > I'm really interesting in Bouty's configuration. After 7 years and 22,000 miles my poor old Pb pack is on it's last legs. I'm able to get 22 to 24Ahrs out of the pack which is enough for a round trip to work and a very short side trip. Since the pack is fairly weak it takes 1.5 to 1.6Ahr per mile.  I'm trying to hold out until summer for my switch to lithium when the weather is a little better and I have my battery monitor tested out. I'm interested in putting 49 40Ahr CALB "grey" cells (CA40BFI) for a couple of reasons:
                            >
                            > 1.  If my measurements are correct the complete pack should fit in the front battery box in a 7x7 array. By moving the charger up front all the 156V wiring will be under the hood with a very short run between the pack and the controller.
                            >
                            > 2. The pack cost
                            > is comparable to if not cheaper than the Deka equivalent. 40Ahr CALBs are around $55 each. 49 x $55 = $2,695 before tax and shipping.  13 Deka batteries would have to be $207 just to be comparable ($2,695 / 13 = $207 approx.)
                            >
                            > 3. My car will be shedding 661lb. The CALB cells at 3.3lb each x 49 = 161 lb vs the 822lb (63.2lb x 13) of the current pack. I'm probably going to have to find the original springs for the Geo, otherwise the car will feel like it is permanently going down a hill.
                            >
                            > 4. The "blue" CALBs (SE40AHA) already have fantastic C ratings and the "grey" cells have better cold weather performance. The max current of the force at around 240A dc should be no problem for the 40Ahr cells, they should be able to handle C6. There is some interesting test data on the cells: http://blog.evtv.me/2012/06/battery-jump-shift/
                            >
                            > I know the general consensus is that 60 Ahr or 100 Ahr is preferable, but I've been logging all my driving for the past 7 years, most days I use between 16Ahrs and 20Ahrs and only a few times did I even come close to 35Ahrs.
                            >
                            >
                            >
                            >
                            >
                            >
                            >
                            >
                            > ________________________________
                            > From: d. Bouton Baldridge <cfrkeepr@...>
                            > To: "solectria_ev@yahoogroups.com" <solectria_ev@yahoogroups.com>
                            > Sent: Sunday, December 2, 2012 7:26 AM
                            > Subject: Re: [solectria_ev] Thermal Management System
                            >
                            >
                            >  
                            > Hi Wade,
                            >  In my opinion, the balance thing has been greatly over blown and your readings are perefectly acceptable especially after using so much capacity having only +/-.1 v or so from the mean is fantastic. The big thing is avoiding going beyond the knees and your system seems to be working just fine doing that. As for the Ahmeter issue, It has been my experience that voltage is not a reliable means for determining capacity. In my case I have found the reaching the limiting voltage was caused by the pack warming up; for me it was the sun. Now that the ambient temperature is lower in the winter season my charge resets closer to zero, but in summer it stops on the plus side by .1 ah each cycle when the outside temp is above 80 degrees. My guess for you is that when you charge for a few hours, the pack temp increases higher than when you were driving and the voltage is slightly higher as a result this stops the charger earlier than
                            > the previous Ahour
                            > reading. I am not sure if this is happening as a function of breaking in or aging. But it was not an issue with lead since it woul be overcharged routinely and had the automatic reset.  I am a few months shy of 4 years and this slight precession is only an annoyance it has not seemed to impact the utility of my pack. Since I have a pretty long warm season I would just occasionaly reset the Ah meter to zero just so I wouldn't have to remember every time. Now that my cells are getting twice as old as any Pb pack would last, I am getting into new territory for longevity and at some point I might find some of these answers, but for now I am saying congratulation on your project FWIW,
                            > Bouty
                            >
                            > ________________________________
                            > From: Wade Perry <perrypeas@...>
                            > To: solectria_ev@yahoogroups.com
                            > Sent: Sunday, December 2, 2012 1:47 AM
                            > Subject: [solectria_ev] Thermal Management System
                            >
                            >  
                            > Greetings all- I've driven over 1,000 miles on lithium now.
                            >
                            > I drove a fair bit today, it was mostly empty when I was coming back home
                            > from the last errand so I thought I'd take the long way home and discharge
                            > a bit more than I usually do. Until today the maximum I'd taken out is
                            > probably around 45 Ahr. I had set my limit around 50 to be safe.
                            > So after I got home I drove the block a few times with the heater on. Went
                            > well past 50. I measured pack voltage and some individual cells while I
                            > did this and felt fairly safe as I was getting down towards the bottom.
                            > Finally drove it around one last time in econ with no heater and it was
                            > around 57.5 when I was done. Then I ran the heater by itself to get it to
                            > 59. Took the voltage on each cell.
                            > Made a new column to my battery balancing spreadsheet, it's here-
                            > https://docs.google.com/spreadsheet/pub?key=0An5nm8itUMMcdHhQV3RsSUdfbzRTQkFlNmtaSy05MHc&output=html
                            >
                            > The cells were springing back as I was measuring them. When I was done I
                            > went back and measured CK, where I'd started measuring the pack. it was
                            > .04 volts higher than I'd written down the first time. By the time I was
                            > finishing measuring, all the cells were coming in around 3.04 or 3.05. So
                            > they're reasonably well balanced.
                            >
                            > One cell stands out. JA. It measured 2.93 when its adjacent cells were
                            > measuring an entire ~0.10 volt higher. I haven't figured it out yet.
                            > Other than it happens to be the one that I noticed arrived from the
                            > factory at 4.23% below 50% SOC. You can see that on the sheet. It stood
                            > out at the time because all the other cells came in at 1 or 2% over 50.
                            > This was the only one that was below, and by a fair amount.
                            >
                            > Anyway then I ran the heater some more, watching JA in particular. It
                            > would have been cool to have a graph of all the cells at once. But they
                            > were falling off quite quickly. Some dipped down to 2.75 or so. JA dipped
                            > all the way down to 2.50. But I discharged down to a full 60.00 Ahr on my
                            > counter! Finished with a pack voltage of around 160. (which was
                            > undoubtedly springing up also. I didn't wait around to check but plugged
                            > in the charger so I can drive again tomorrow)
                            >
                            > This is great, because I had feared I was losing capacity permanently by
                            > charging below freezing. I'd hoped this wasn't the case, but was concerned
                            > because on especially cold days there'd be +1.00 or +2.00 Ahr still left on
                            > the counter when the charger shut off. Warmer days I'd be back to -0.14 or
                            > something like that. I'd been worried that I was gradually damaging the
                            > cells.
                            >
                            > Apparently I'm not. Or at least not to the extent I'd feared. This is
                            > with a battery box that's not even put together yet- the 60 Ahr cells are
                            > taller than the gels I took out, so when I finally do get things put
                            > together properly, I'll need to shim the cover over the battery box. Right
                            > now it rests on top of the cells, so there's probably a 1" space all
                            > around, letting cold air in. I did put in a 60watt incandescent light bulb
                            > back there to keep things warmer (and bright and cheery) in the battery
                            > box, whenever the car's plugged in.
                            >
                            > So. What I'd really like to do is hook up the Solectria heating mats to AC
                            > power, so I can be more setup for winter. I myself took it apart back in
                            > August, but obviously didn't pay much attention to what I was doing. I've
                            > searched this list repeatedly but can't find anything that talks about
                            > where the AC power hooks up to the heaters / sensors... Can anyone point
                            > me to a resource about this?
                            >
                            > Thanks for the help!
                            >
                            > Wade Perry
                            > 1998 Force
                            > 56 CALB CA 60 Ahr
                            >
                            > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                            >
                            > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                            >
                            >
                            >
                            >
                            > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                            >




                            [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                          • Wade Perry
                            Thanks for the help Chip. I see those two pages, that s helpful. I kept the heating pads (with the hard plastic over top). I still have the temp sensor boxes,
                            Message 13 of 29 , Dec 3, 2012
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                              Thanks for the help Chip.
                              I see those two pages, that's helpful.
                              I kept the heating pads (with the hard plastic over top).
                              I still have the temp sensor boxes, I haven't changed any of that (I did
                              unplug and remove the ones in the front box).
                              The temp sensor box in the rear battery box was indeed on top of the gel
                              cels when I started. It's still plugged in, I just left it off to the side
                              when I took the gels out.
                              However I don't think I have the actual AC junction box anymore. Someone
                              had changed the charger to a Zivan NG5 before I bought the car, maybe the
                              junction box was lost then. I do know the AC power came straight into the
                              NG5.
                              Insulation I hadn't thought about too much- the gels came with a bunch of
                              pink- type insulation material which I used around the lithiums too. I was
                              just going to close up the box and see how well it did.
                              Wade Perry


                              On Sun, Dec 2, 2012 at 6:59 AM, Chandler Chip <cchandler66@...>wrote:

                              > On the file listing for this website, check out the 1998 Force Service
                              > manual (Silverman), pages 49 and 53 in the appendix. They show the wiring
                              > for the Thermal Management System starting from the AC junction box near
                              > the charger and leading to the temp sensor boxes, one in each battery box,
                              > if you still have the components for them. Those sensor boxes should be
                              > installed on top of the batteries. Are your heating mats still in the
                              > battery boxes under your new batteries? What insulation do you plan on
                              > installing under and around your cells?
                              >
                              >
                              > Chip Chandler
                              > cchandler66@...
                              >
                              > On Dec 2, 2012, at 1:47 AM, Wade Perry <perrypeas@...> wrote:
                              >
                              > > Greetings all- I've driven over 1,000 miles on lithium now.
                              > >
                              > > I drove a fair bit today, it was mostly empty when I was coming back home
                              > > from the last errand so I thought I'd take the long way home and
                              > discharge
                              > > a bit more than I usually do. Until today the maximum I'd taken out is
                              > > probably around 45 Ahr. I had set my limit around 50 to be safe.
                              > > So after I got home I drove the block a few times with the heater on.
                              > Went
                              > > well past 50. I measured pack voltage and some individual cells while I
                              > > did this and felt fairly safe as I was getting down towards the bottom.
                              > > Finally drove it around one last time in econ with no heater and it was
                              > > around 57.5 when I was done. Then I ran the heater by itself to get it to
                              > > 59. Took the voltage on each cell.
                              > > Made a new column to my battery balancing spreadsheet, it's here-
                              > >
                              > https://docs.google.com/spreadsheet/pub?key=0An5nm8itUMMcdHhQV3RsSUdfbzRTQkFlNmtaSy05MHc&output=html
                              > >
                              > > The cells were springing back as I was measuring them. When I was done I
                              > > went back and measured CK, where I'd started measuring the pack. it was
                              > > .04 volts higher than I'd written down the first time. By the time I was
                              > > finishing measuring, all the cells were coming in around 3.04 or 3.05. So
                              > > they're reasonably well balanced.
                              > >
                              > > One cell stands out. JA. It measured 2.93 when its adjacent cells were
                              > > measuring an entire ~0.10 volt higher. I haven't figured it out yet.
                              > > Other than it happens to be the one that I noticed arrived from the
                              > > factory at 4.23% below 50% SOC. You can see that on the sheet. It stood
                              > > out at the time because all the other cells came in at 1 or 2% over 50.
                              > > This was the only one that was below, and by a fair amount.
                              > >
                              > > Anyway then I ran the heater some more, watching JA in particular. It
                              > > would have been cool to have a graph of all the cells at once. But they
                              > > were falling off quite quickly. Some dipped down to 2.75 or so. JA dipped
                              > > all the way down to 2.50. But I discharged down to a full 60.00 Ahr on my
                              > > counter! Finished with a pack voltage of around 160. (which was
                              > > undoubtedly springing up also. I didn't wait around to check but plugged
                              > > in the charger so I can drive again tomorrow)
                              > >
                              > > This is great, because I had feared I was losing capacity permanently by
                              > > charging below freezing. I'd hoped this wasn't the case, but was
                              > concerned
                              > > because on especially cold days there'd be +1.00 or +2.00 Ahr still left
                              > on
                              > > the counter when the charger shut off. Warmer days I'd be back to -0.14
                              > or
                              > > something like that. I'd been worried that I was gradually damaging the
                              > > cells.
                              > >
                              > > Apparently I'm not. Or at least not to the extent I'd feared. This is
                              > > with a battery box that's not even put together yet- the 60 Ahr cells are
                              > > taller than the gels I took out, so when I finally do get things put
                              > > together properly, I'll need to shim the cover over the battery box.
                              > Right
                              > > now it rests on top of the cells, so there's probably a 1" space all
                              > > around, letting cold air in. I did put in a 60watt incandescent light
                              > bulb
                              > > back there to keep things warmer (and bright and cheery) in the battery
                              > > box, whenever the car's plugged in.
                              > >
                              > > So. What I'd really like to do is hook up the Solectria heating mats to
                              > AC
                              > > power, so I can be more setup for winter. I myself took it apart back in
                              > > August, but obviously didn't pay much attention to what I was doing. I've
                              > > searched this list repeatedly but can't find anything that talks about
                              > > where the AC power hooks up to the heaters / sensors... Can anyone point
                              > > me to a resource about this?
                              > >
                              > > Thanks for the help!
                              > >
                              > > Wade Perry
                              > > 1998 Force
                              > > 56 CALB CA 60 Ahr
                              > >
                              > > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                              > >
                              > >
                              >
                              >
                              >
                              > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                              >
                              >
                              >
                              > ------------------------------------
                              >
                              > Yahoo! Groups Links
                              >
                              >
                              >
                              >


                              [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                            • Wade Perry
                              Hi Tom. The cells cannot be undercharged , in any sense that would cause them damage anyway. Totally different from Lead. In fact it s better to undercharge
                              Message 14 of 29 , Dec 3, 2012
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                                Hi Tom.
                                The cells cannot be "undercharged", in any sense that would cause them
                                damage anyway. Totally different from Lead. In fact it's better to
                                undercharge them a bit, or as Bouty says "stay away from the knees".
                                Charging to 3.4v is good. Very conservative, you'd probably be fine
                                charging to 3.5v, and get a little extra capacity on the top end.
                                (although there's risk of exceeding the operating voltage of the
                                controller, which is theoretically 190v, if you interrupt the end of a
                                charge and try to drive without letting the cells settle down to resting
                                voltage)
                                I'm charging up to ~192v right now when the charger enters the Constant
                                Voltage phase of the charge. I'd thought that was a little low but based
                                on my "pack emptying" experiment and getting a full 60 Ahr out, why change
                                anything? (Of course that last Ah wasn't really usable for much, but I did
                                make it to 60!) I do plan on setting my new charger to go to 196v though.
                                Congratulations by the way on your own transplant. Very impressive and
                                very neatly done! (I'm envious actually- looking at the snarl of wires
                                beside my own pack)
                                Wade



                                On Sun, Dec 2, 2012 at 9:58 AM, Tom Hudson <tdhudson@...> wrote:

                                > **
                                >
                                >
                                > The Ah "precession" is something I have been very curious about. Our car
                                > is up to 2Ah now
                                > after charging, and it's pretty cool out in the garage (in the 50s). So
                                > it's not real
                                > warm, which seems to be what you're indicating causes the charge to
                                > terminate before the
                                > Ah counter reaches zero.
                                >
                                > What is your charge profile setup? Mine charges to 3.4V per module
                                > (190.4V) at 20A then
                                > switches to 190.4V until the current drops below 1A, then the charger
                                > turns off. I'm
                                > wondering if this is similar to what you're using to charge your pack, and
                                > want to make
                                > sure I'm not chronically undercharging or something. I was tempted to
                                > change the charge
                                > so that it used a lower termination current, just in case stopping at 1A
                                > was too early and
                                > causing undercharging.
                                >
                                > At least I know that others see a similar precession on charge, so I'm
                                > less concerned than
                                > I might be, but I'd like to know what your charge profile does. You are
                                > doing very well
                                > with your pack and I could do worse than emulate you!
                                >
                                > -Tom
                                >
                                >
                                > On 12/2/2012 9:26 AM, d. Bouton Baldridge wrote:
                                > >
                                > > Hi Wade,
                                > > In my opinion, the balance thing has been greatly over blown and your
                                > readings are
                                > > perefectly acceptable especially after using so much capacity having
                                > only +/-.1 v or so
                                > > from the mean is fantastic. The big thing is avoiding going beyond the
                                > knees and your
                                > > system seems to be working just fine doing that. As for the Ahmeter
                                > issue, It has been
                                > > my experience that voltage is not a reliable means for determining
                                > capacity. In my case
                                > > I have found the reaching the limiting voltage was caused by the pack
                                > warming up; for me
                                > > it was the sun. Now that the ambient temperature is lower in the winter
                                > season my charge
                                > > resets closer to zero, but in summer it stops on the plus side by .1 ah
                                > each cycle when
                                > > the outside temp is above 80 degrees. My guess for you is that when you
                                > charge for a few
                                > > hours, the pack temp increases higher than when you were driving and the
                                > voltage is
                                > > slightly higher as a result this stops the charger earlier than the
                                > previous Ahour
                                > > reading. I am not sure if this is happening as a function of breaking in
                                > or aging. But
                                > > it was not an issue with lead since it woul be overcharged routinely and
                                > had the
                                > > automatic reset. I am a few months shy of 4 years and this slight
                                > precession is only an
                                > > annoyance it has not seemed to impact the utility of my pack. Since I
                                > have a pretty long
                                > > warm season I would just occasionaly reset the Ah meter to zero just so
                                > I wouldn't have
                                > > to remember every time. Now that my cells are getting twice as old as
                                > any Pb pack would
                                > > last, I am getting into new territory for longevity and at some point I
                                > might find some
                                > > of these answers, but for now I am saying congratulation on your project
                                > FWIW,
                                > > Bouty
                                > >
                                > > ________________________________
                                > > From: Wade Perry <perrypeas@... <mailto:perrypeas%40gmail.com>>
                                > > To: solectria_ev@yahoogroups.com <mailto:solectria_ev%40yahoogroups.com>
                                >
                                > > Sent: Sunday, December 2, 2012 1:47 AM
                                > > Subject: [solectria_ev] Thermal Management System
                                > >
                                > >
                                > > Greetings all- I've driven over 1,000 miles on lithium now.
                                > >
                                > > I drove a fair bit today, it was mostly empty when I was coming back home
                                > > from the last errand so I thought I'd take the long way home and
                                > discharge
                                > > a bit more than I usually do. Until today the maximum I'd taken out is
                                > > probably around 45 Ahr. I had set my limit around 50 to be safe.
                                > > So after I got home I drove the block a few times with the heater on.
                                > Went
                                > > well past 50. I measured pack voltage and some individual cells while I
                                > > did this and felt fairly safe as I was getting down towards the bottom.
                                > > Finally drove it around one last time in econ with no heater and it was
                                > > around 57.5 when I was done. Then I ran the heater by itself to get it to
                                > > 59. Took the voltage on each cell.
                                > > Made a new column to my battery balancing spreadsheet, it's here-
                                > >
                                > https://docs.google.com/spreadsheet/pub?key=0An5nm8itUMMcdHhQV3RsSUdfbzRTQkFlNmtaSy05MHc&output=html
                                > >
                                > > The cells were springing back as I was measuring them. When I was done I
                                > > went back and measured CK, where I'd started measuring the pack. it was
                                > > .04 volts higher than I'd written down the first time. By the time I was
                                > > finishing measuring, all the cells were coming in around 3.04 or 3.05. So
                                > > they're reasonably well balanced.
                                > >
                                > > One cell stands out. JA. It measured 2.93 when its adjacent cells were
                                > > measuring an entire ~0.10 volt higher. I haven't figured it out yet.
                                > > Other than it happens to be the one that I noticed arrived from the
                                > > factory at 4.23% below 50% SOC. You can see that on the sheet. It stood
                                > > out at the time because all the other cells came in at 1 or 2% over 50.
                                > > This was the only one that was below, and by a fair amount.
                                > >
                                > > Anyway then I ran the heater some more, watching JA in particular. It
                                > > would have been cool to have a graph of all the cells at once. But they
                                > > were falling off quite quickly. Some dipped down to 2.75 or so. JA dipped
                                > > all the way down to 2.50. But I discharged down to a full 60.00 Ahr on my
                                > > counter! Finished with a pack voltage of around 160. (which was
                                > > undoubtedly springing up also. I didn't wait around to check but plugged
                                > > in the charger so I can drive again tomorrow)
                                > >
                                > > This is great, because I had feared I was losing capacity permanently by
                                > > charging below freezing. I'd hoped this wasn't the case, but was
                                > concerned
                                > > because on especially cold days there'd be +1.00 or +2.00 Ahr still left
                                > on
                                > > the counter when the charger shut off. Warmer days I'd be back to -0.14
                                > or
                                > > something like that. I'd been worried that I was gradually damaging the
                                > > cells.
                                > >
                                > > Apparently I'm not. Or at least not to the extent I'd feared. This is
                                > > with a battery box that's not even put together yet- the 60 Ahr cells are
                                > > taller than the gels I took out, so when I finally do get things put
                                > > together properly, I'll need to shim the cover over the battery box.
                                > Right
                                > > now it rests on top of the cells, so there's probably a 1" space all
                                > > around, letting cold air in. I did put in a 60watt incandescent light
                                > bulb
                                > > back there to keep things warmer (and bright and cheery) in the battery
                                > > box, whenever the car's plugged in.
                                > >
                                > > So. What I'd really like to do is hook up the Solectria heating mats to
                                > AC
                                > > power, so I can be more setup for winter. I myself took it apart back in
                                > > August, but obviously didn't pay much attention to what I was doing. I've
                                > > searched this list repeatedly but can't find anything that talks about
                                > > where the AC power hooks up to the heaters / sensors... Can anyone point
                                > > me to a resource about this?
                                > >
                                > > Thanks for the help!
                                > >
                                > > Wade Perry
                                > > 1998 Force
                                > > 56 CALB CA 60 Ahr
                                > >
                                > > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                                > >
                                > > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                                > >
                                > >
                                >
                                > --
                                > Thomas Hudson
                                > http://portev.org -- Electric Vehicles, Solar Power & More
                                > http://klanky.com -- Animation Projects
                                >
                                >
                                > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                                >
                                >
                                >


                                [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                              • Tom Hudson
                                Thanks for the info, Wade. I m lucky in that my Force was upgraded to NiCD in 2001, so all the components are fine up to 250V. I may try a conservative pack
                                Message 15 of 29 , Dec 3, 2012
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                                  Thanks for the info, Wade. I'm lucky in that my Force was upgraded to NiCD in 2001, so
                                  all the components are fine up to 250V. I may try a conservative "pack emptying" run at
                                  some point soon just so we know what we can expect out of the pack in a pinch, but for the
                                  time being it's good to know it's working as it should. I might put in a simple reset
                                  button somewhere for the Ah meter to deal with the "precession" business.

                                  -Tom

                                  On 12/3/2012 2:56 PM, Wade Perry wrote:
                                  > Hi Tom.
                                  > The cells cannot be "undercharged", in any sense that would cause them
                                  > damage anyway. Totally different from Lead. In fact it's better to
                                  > undercharge them a bit, or as Bouty says "stay away from the knees".
                                  > Charging to 3.4v is good. Very conservative, you'd probably be fine
                                  > charging to 3.5v, and get a little extra capacity on the top end.
                                  > (although there's risk of exceeding the operating voltage of the
                                  > controller, which is theoretically 190v, if you interrupt the end of a
                                  > charge and try to drive without letting the cells settle down to resting
                                  > voltage)
                                  > I'm charging up to ~192v right now when the charger enters the Constant
                                  > Voltage phase of the charge. I'd thought that was a little low but based
                                  > on my "pack emptying" experiment and getting a full 60 Ahr out, why change
                                  > anything? (Of course that last Ah wasn't really usable for much, but I did
                                  > make it to 60!) I do plan on setting my new charger to go to 196v though.
                                  > Congratulations by the way on your own transplant. Very impressive and
                                  > very neatly done! (I'm envious actually- looking at the snarl of wires
                                  > beside my own pack)
                                  > Wade
                                  >
                                  >
                                  >
                                  > On Sun, Dec 2, 2012 at 9:58 AM, Tom Hudson <tdhudson@...> wrote:
                                  >
                                  >> **
                                  >>
                                  >>
                                  >> The Ah "precession" is something I have been very curious about. Our car
                                  >> is up to 2Ah now
                                  >> after charging, and it's pretty cool out in the garage (in the 50s). So
                                  >> it's not real
                                  >> warm, which seems to be what you're indicating causes the charge to
                                  >> terminate before the
                                  >> Ah counter reaches zero.
                                  >>
                                  >> What is your charge profile setup? Mine charges to 3.4V per module
                                  >> (190.4V) at 20A then
                                  >> switches to 190.4V until the current drops below 1A, then the charger
                                  >> turns off. I'm
                                  >> wondering if this is similar to what you're using to charge your pack, and
                                  >> want to make
                                  >> sure I'm not chronically undercharging or something. I was tempted to
                                  >> change the charge
                                  >> so that it used a lower termination current, just in case stopping at 1A
                                  >> was too early and
                                  >> causing undercharging.
                                  >>
                                  >> At least I know that others see a similar precession on charge, so I'm
                                  >> less concerned than
                                  >> I might be, but I'd like to know what your charge profile does. You are
                                  >> doing very well
                                  >> with your pack and I could do worse than emulate you!
                                  >>
                                  >> -Tom
                                  >>
                                  >>
                                  >> On 12/2/2012 9:26 AM, d. Bouton Baldridge wrote:
                                  >>> Hi Wade,
                                  >>> In my opinion, the balance thing has been greatly over blown and your
                                  >> readings are
                                  >>> perefectly acceptable especially after using so much capacity having
                                  >> only +/-.1 v or so
                                  >>> from the mean is fantastic. The big thing is avoiding going beyond the
                                  >> knees and your
                                  >>> system seems to be working just fine doing that. As for the Ahmeter
                                  >> issue, It has been
                                  >>> my experience that voltage is not a reliable means for determining
                                  >> capacity. In my case
                                  >>> I have found the reaching the limiting voltage was caused by the pack
                                  >> warming up; for me
                                  >>> it was the sun. Now that the ambient temperature is lower in the winter
                                  >> season my charge
                                  >>> resets closer to zero, but in summer it stops on the plus side by .1 ah
                                  >> each cycle when
                                  >>> the outside temp is above 80 degrees. My guess for you is that when you
                                  >> charge for a few
                                  >>> hours, the pack temp increases higher than when you were driving and the
                                  >> voltage is
                                  >>> slightly higher as a result this stops the charger earlier than the
                                  >> previous Ahour
                                  >>> reading. I am not sure if this is happening as a function of breaking in
                                  >> or aging. But
                                  >>> it was not an issue with lead since it woul be overcharged routinely and
                                  >> had the
                                  >>> automatic reset. I am a few months shy of 4 years and this slight
                                  >> precession is only an
                                  >>> annoyance it has not seemed to impact the utility of my pack. Since I
                                  >> have a pretty long
                                  >>> warm season I would just occasionaly reset the Ah meter to zero just so
                                  >> I wouldn't have
                                  >>> to remember every time. Now that my cells are getting twice as old as
                                  >> any Pb pack would
                                  >>> last, I am getting into new territory for longevity and at some point I
                                  >> might find some
                                  >>> of these answers, but for now I am saying congratulation on your project
                                  >> FWIW,
                                  >>> Bouty
                                  >>>
                                  >>> ________________________________
                                  >>> From: Wade Perry <perrypeas@... <mailto:perrypeas%40gmail.com>>
                                  >>> To: solectria_ev@yahoogroups.com <mailto:solectria_ev%40yahoogroups.com>
                                  >>> Sent: Sunday, December 2, 2012 1:47 AM
                                  >>> Subject: [solectria_ev] Thermal Management System
                                  >>>
                                  >>>
                                  >>> Greetings all- I've driven over 1,000 miles on lithium now.
                                  >>>
                                  >>> I drove a fair bit today, it was mostly empty when I was coming back home
                                  >>> from the last errand so I thought I'd take the long way home and
                                  >> discharge
                                  >>> a bit more than I usually do. Until today the maximum I'd taken out is
                                  >>> probably around 45 Ahr. I had set my limit around 50 to be safe.
                                  >>> So after I got home I drove the block a few times with the heater on.
                                  >> Went
                                  >>> well past 50. I measured pack voltage and some individual cells while I
                                  >>> did this and felt fairly safe as I was getting down towards the bottom.
                                  >>> Finally drove it around one last time in econ with no heater and it was
                                  >>> around 57.5 when I was done. Then I ran the heater by itself to get it to
                                  >>> 59. Took the voltage on each cell.
                                  >>> Made a new column to my battery balancing spreadsheet, it's here-
                                  >>>
                                  >> https://docs.google.com/spreadsheet/pub?key=0An5nm8itUMMcdHhQV3RsSUdfbzRTQkFlNmtaSy05MHc&output=html
                                  >>> The cells were springing back as I was measuring them. When I was done I
                                  >>> went back and measured CK, where I'd started measuring the pack. it was
                                  >>> .04 volts higher than I'd written down the first time. By the time I was
                                  >>> finishing measuring, all the cells were coming in around 3.04 or 3.05. So
                                  >>> they're reasonably well balanced.
                                  >>>
                                  >>> One cell stands out. JA. It measured 2.93 when its adjacent cells were
                                  >>> measuring an entire ~0.10 volt higher. I haven't figured it out yet.
                                  >>> Other than it happens to be the one that I noticed arrived from the
                                  >>> factory at 4.23% below 50% SOC. You can see that on the sheet. It stood
                                  >>> out at the time because all the other cells came in at 1 or 2% over 50.
                                  >>> This was the only one that was below, and by a fair amount.
                                  >>>
                                  >>> Anyway then I ran the heater some more, watching JA in particular. It
                                  >>> would have been cool to have a graph of all the cells at once. But they
                                  >>> were falling off quite quickly. Some dipped down to 2.75 or so. JA dipped
                                  >>> all the way down to 2.50. But I discharged down to a full 60.00 Ahr on my
                                  >>> counter! Finished with a pack voltage of around 160. (which was
                                  >>> undoubtedly springing up also. I didn't wait around to check but plugged
                                  >>> in the charger so I can drive again tomorrow)
                                  >>>
                                  >>> This is great, because I had feared I was losing capacity permanently by
                                  >>> charging below freezing. I'd hoped this wasn't the case, but was
                                  >> concerned
                                  >>> because on especially cold days there'd be +1.00 or +2.00 Ahr still left
                                  >> on
                                  >>> the counter when the charger shut off. Warmer days I'd be back to -0.14
                                  >> or
                                  >>> something like that. I'd been worried that I was gradually damaging the
                                  >>> cells.
                                  >>>
                                  >>> Apparently I'm not. Or at least not to the extent I'd feared. This is
                                  >>> with a battery box that's not even put together yet- the 60 Ahr cells are
                                  >>> taller than the gels I took out, so when I finally do get things put
                                  >>> together properly, I'll need to shim the cover over the battery box.
                                  >> Right
                                  >>> now it rests on top of the cells, so there's probably a 1" space all
                                  >>> around, letting cold air in. I did put in a 60watt incandescent light
                                  >> bulb
                                  >>> back there to keep things warmer (and bright and cheery) in the battery
                                  >>> box, whenever the car's plugged in.
                                  >>>
                                  >>> So. What I'd really like to do is hook up the Solectria heating mats to
                                  >> AC
                                  >>> power, so I can be more setup for winter. I myself took it apart back in
                                  >>> August, but obviously didn't pay much attention to what I was doing. I've
                                  >>> searched this list repeatedly but can't find anything that talks about
                                  >>> where the AC power hooks up to the heaters / sensors... Can anyone point
                                  >>> me to a resource about this?
                                  >>>
                                  >>> Thanks for the help!
                                  >>>
                                  >>> Wade Perry
                                  >>> 1998 Force
                                  >>> 56 CALB CA 60 Ahr
                                  >>>
                                  >>> [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                                  >>>
                                  >>> [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                                  >>>
                                  >>>
                                  >> --
                                  >> Thomas Hudson
                                  >> http://portev.org -- Electric Vehicles, Solar Power & More
                                  >> http://klanky.com -- Animation Projects
                                  >>
                                  >>
                                  >> [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                                  >>
                                  >>
                                  >>
                                  >
                                  > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                                  >
                                  >
                                  >
                                  > ------------------------------------
                                  >
                                  > Yahoo! Groups Links
                                  >
                                  >
                                  >
                                  >
                                  >
                                  >

                                  --
                                  Thomas Hudson
                                  http://portev.org -- Electric Vehicles, Solar Power & More
                                  http://klanky.com -- Animation Projects
                                • Wade Perry
                                  Hi Wolf. Yes that was my understanding. It s been below freezing recently, sometimes a fair bit below freezing, like -15C. My kids are enjoying our backyard
                                  Message 16 of 29 , Dec 3, 2012
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                                    Hi Wolf.
                                    Yes that was my understanding.
                                    It's been below freezing recently, sometimes a fair bit below freezing,
                                    like -15C. My kids are enjoying our backyard skating rink.
                                    But I knew the cells wouldn't be as cold as the outside air because I've
                                    been driving them, and recharging, both of which should generate some heat
                                    within the cell itself. However they don't generate all that much heat
                                    really even when you're pushing them, which a Force isn't really capable of
                                    doing anyway, so I was nervous. The phenomenon that Bouty and Tom are
                                    calling "precession" was getting me concerned. Especially because it
                                    happened when it was COLDER. That's why I was so happy to get the full
                                    60Ahr out... But the full capacity might be partly because I'm breaking
                                    the cells in too.

                                    Wolf a question for you- What do you think is the maximum voltage the
                                    AC325 controller can handle? I have 56 cells in the car now, could I add
                                    any more??? :)

                                    Bouty- I don't understand why you should see a higher incidence of
                                    precession when it's warmer, while I see a higher incidence when it's
                                    colder.

                                    Wade


                                    On Sun, Dec 2, 2012 at 10:23 AM, Wolf <wolf@...> wrote:

                                    > I would not charge lithium ion batteries that are below freezing, you will
                                    > electroplate metallic lithium and ruin the battery.
                                    >
                                    > Do a quick Google search on electroplating lithium when charging below
                                    > freezing.
                                    > On Dec 2, 2012 12:47 AM, "Wade Perry" <perrypeas@...> wrote:
                                    >
                                    > > **
                                    > >
                                    > >
                                    > > Greetings all- I've driven over 1,000 miles on lithium now.
                                    > >
                                    > > I drove a fair bit today, it was mostly empty when I was coming back home
                                    > > from the last errand so I thought I'd take the long way home and
                                    > discharge
                                    > > a bit more than I usually do. Until today the maximum I'd taken out is
                                    > > probably around 45 Ahr. I had set my limit around 50 to be safe.
                                    > > So after I got home I drove the block a few times with the heater on.
                                    > Went
                                    > > well past 50. I measured pack voltage and some individual cells while I
                                    > > did this and felt fairly safe as I was getting down towards the bottom.
                                    > > Finally drove it around one last time in econ with no heater and it was
                                    > > around 57.5 when I was done. Then I ran the heater by itself to get it to
                                    > > 59. Took the voltage on each cell.
                                    > > Made a new column to my battery balancing spreadsheet, it's here-
                                    > >
                                    > >
                                    > https://docs.google.com/spreadsheet/pub?key=0An5nm8itUMMcdHhQV3RsSUdfbzRTQkFlNmtaSy05MHc&output=html
                                    > >
                                    > > The cells were springing back as I was measuring them. When I was done I
                                    > > went back and measured CK, where I'd started measuring the pack. it was
                                    > > .04 volts higher than I'd written down the first time. By the time I was
                                    > > finishing measuring, all the cells were coming in around 3.04 or 3.05. So
                                    > > they're reasonably well balanced.
                                    > >
                                    > > One cell stands out. JA. It measured 2.93 when its adjacent cells were
                                    > > measuring an entire ~0.10 volt higher. I haven't figured it out yet.
                                    > > Other than it happens to be the one that I noticed arrived from the
                                    > > factory at 4.23% below 50% SOC. You can see that on the sheet. It stood
                                    > > out at the time because all the other cells came in at 1 or 2% over 50.
                                    > > This was the only one that was below, and by a fair amount.
                                    > >
                                    > > Anyway then I ran the heater some more, watching JA in particular. It
                                    > > would have been cool to have a graph of all the cells at once. But they
                                    > > were falling off quite quickly. Some dipped down to 2.75 or so. JA dipped
                                    > > all the way down to 2.50. But I discharged down to a full 60.00 Ahr on my
                                    > > counter! Finished with a pack voltage of around 160. (which was
                                    > > undoubtedly springing up also. I didn't wait around to check but plugged
                                    > > in the charger so I can drive again tomorrow)
                                    > >
                                    > > This is great, because I had feared I was losing capacity permanently by
                                    > > charging below freezing. I'd hoped this wasn't the case, but was
                                    > concerned
                                    > > because on especially cold days there'd be +1.00 or +2.00 Ahr still left
                                    > on
                                    > > the counter when the charger shut off. Warmer days I'd be back to -0.14
                                    > or
                                    > > something like that. I'd been worried that I was gradually damaging the
                                    > > cells.
                                    > >
                                    > > Apparently I'm not. Or at least not to the extent I'd feared. This is
                                    > > with a battery box that's not even put together yet- the 60 Ahr cells are
                                    > > taller than the gels I took out, so when I finally do get things put
                                    > > together properly, I'll need to shim the cover over the battery box.
                                    > Right
                                    > > now it rests on top of the cells, so there's probably a 1" space all
                                    > > around, letting cold air in. I did put in a 60watt incandescent light
                                    > bulb
                                    > > back there to keep things warmer (and bright and cheery) in the battery
                                    > > box, whenever the car's plugged in.
                                    > >
                                    > > So. What I'd really like to do is hook up the Solectria heating mats to
                                    > AC
                                    > > power, so I can be more setup for winter. I myself took it apart back in
                                    > > August, but obviously didn't pay much attention to what I was doing. I've
                                    > > searched this list repeatedly but can't find anything that talks about
                                    > > where the AC power hooks up to the heaters / sensors... Can anyone point
                                    > > me to a resource about this?
                                    > >
                                    > > Thanks for the help!
                                    > >
                                    > > Wade Perry
                                    > > 1998 Force
                                    > > 56 CALB CA 60 Ahr
                                    > >
                                    > > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                                    > >
                                    > >
                                    > >
                                    >
                                    >
                                    > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                                    >
                                    >
                                    >
                                    > ------------------------------------
                                    >
                                    > Yahoo! Groups Links
                                    >
                                    >
                                    >
                                    >


                                    [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                                  • Wade Perry
                                    Thanks Bouty. I would never have considered a smaller pack size had it not been for you. And as it turns out I don t need the extra range. :) One
                                    Message 17 of 29 , Dec 3, 2012
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                                      Thanks Bouty.
                                      I would never have considered a "smaller" pack size had it not been for
                                      you. And as it turns out I don't need the extra range. :)
                                      One difference- these CALB CA cells can handle anything the Force could
                                      ever throw at them, I usually drive quite aggressively in "Normal" and use
                                      the "Power" setting when I need to. Got the little car up to 117km/hr last
                                      night, that's a record! 72.7 mph.
                                      Given the lighter pack size of the 60s, plus the current they're capable of
                                      delivering, I think I might have the fastest stock Solectria Force
                                      transplant to lithium in the WORLD. (that is until someone decides to do
                                      the 40Ah CALB CA version- ahem)
                                      Wade


                                      On Sun, Dec 2, 2012 at 8:26 AM, d. Bouton Baldridge <cfrkeepr@...>wrote:

                                      > **
                                      >
                                      >
                                      > Hi Wade,
                                      > In my opinion, the balance thing has been greatly over blown and your
                                      > readings are perefectly acceptable especially after using so much capacity
                                      > having only +/-.1 v or so from the mean is fantastic. The big thing is
                                      > avoiding going beyond the knees and your system seems to be working just
                                      > fine doing that. As for the Ahmeter issue, It has been my experience that
                                      > voltage is not a reliable means for determining capacity. In my case I have
                                      > found the reaching the limiting voltage was caused by the pack warming up;
                                      > for me it was the sun. Now that the ambient temperature is lower in the
                                      > winter season my charge resets closer to zero, but in summer it stops on
                                      > the plus side by .1 ah each cycle when the outside temp is above 80
                                      > degrees. My guess for you is that when you charge for a few hours, the pack
                                      > temp increases higher than when you were driving and the voltage is
                                      > slightly higher as a result this stops the charger earlier than the
                                      > previous Ahour
                                      > reading. I am not sure if this is happening as a function of breaking in
                                      > or aging. But it was not an issue with lead since it woul be overcharged
                                      > routinely and had the automatic reset. I am a few months shy of 4 years
                                      > and this slight precession is only an annoyance it has not seemed to impact
                                      > the utility of my pack. Since I have a pretty long warm season I would just
                                      > occasionaly reset the Ah meter to zero just so I wouldn't have to remember
                                      > every time. Now that my cells are getting twice as old as any Pb pack would
                                      > last, I am getting into new territory for longevity and at some point I
                                      > might find some of these answers, but for now I am saying congratulation on
                                      > your project FWIW,
                                      > Bouty
                                      >
                                      > ________________________________
                                      > From: Wade Perry <perrypeas@...>
                                      > To: solectria_ev@yahoogroups.com
                                      > Sent: Sunday, December 2, 2012 1:47 AM
                                      > Subject: [solectria_ev] Thermal Management System
                                      >
                                      >
                                      >
                                      > Greetings all- I've driven over 1,000 miles on lithium now.
                                      >
                                      > I drove a fair bit today, it was mostly empty when I was coming back home
                                      > from the last errand so I thought I'd take the long way home and discharge
                                      > a bit more than I usually do. Until today the maximum I'd taken out is
                                      > probably around 45 Ahr. I had set my limit around 50 to be safe.
                                      > So after I got home I drove the block a few times with the heater on. Went
                                      > well past 50. I measured pack voltage and some individual cells while I
                                      > did this and felt fairly safe as I was getting down towards the bottom.
                                      > Finally drove it around one last time in econ with no heater and it was
                                      > around 57.5 when I was done. Then I ran the heater by itself to get it to
                                      > 59. Took the voltage on each cell.
                                      > Made a new column to my battery balancing spreadsheet, it's here-
                                      >
                                      > https://docs.google.com/spreadsheet/pub?key=0An5nm8itUMMcdHhQV3RsSUdfbzRTQkFlNmtaSy05MHc&output=html
                                      >
                                      > The cells were springing back as I was measuring them. When I was done I
                                      > went back and measured CK, where I'd started measuring the pack. it was
                                      > .04 volts higher than I'd written down the first time. By the time I was
                                      > finishing measuring, all the cells were coming in around 3.04 or 3.05. So
                                      > they're reasonably well balanced.
                                      >
                                      > One cell stands out. JA. It measured 2.93 when its adjacent cells were
                                      > measuring an entire ~0.10 volt higher. I haven't figured it out yet.
                                      > Other than it happens to be the one that I noticed arrived from the
                                      > factory at 4.23% below 50% SOC. You can see that on the sheet. It stood
                                      > out at the time because all the other cells came in at 1 or 2% over 50.
                                      > This was the only one that was below, and by a fair amount.
                                      >
                                      > Anyway then I ran the heater some more, watching JA in particular. It
                                      > would have been cool to have a graph of all the cells at once. But they
                                      > were falling off quite quickly. Some dipped down to 2.75 or so. JA dipped
                                      > all the way down to 2.50. But I discharged down to a full 60.00 Ahr on my
                                      > counter! Finished with a pack voltage of around 160. (which was
                                      > undoubtedly springing up also. I didn't wait around to check but plugged
                                      > in the charger so I can drive again tomorrow)
                                      >
                                      > This is great, because I had feared I was losing capacity permanently by
                                      > charging below freezing. I'd hoped this wasn't the case, but was concerned
                                      > because on especially cold days there'd be +1.00 or +2.00 Ahr still left on
                                      > the counter when the charger shut off. Warmer days I'd be back to -0.14 or
                                      > something like that. I'd been worried that I was gradually damaging the
                                      > cells.
                                      >
                                      > Apparently I'm not. Or at least not to the extent I'd feared. This is
                                      > with a battery box that's not even put together yet- the 60 Ahr cells are
                                      > taller than the gels I took out, so when I finally do get things put
                                      > together properly, I'll need to shim the cover over the battery box. Right
                                      > now it rests on top of the cells, so there's probably a 1" space all
                                      > around, letting cold air in. I did put in a 60watt incandescent light bulb
                                      > back there to keep things warmer (and bright and cheery) in the battery
                                      > box, whenever the car's plugged in.
                                      >
                                      > So. What I'd really like to do is hook up the Solectria heating mats to AC
                                      > power, so I can be more setup for winter. I myself took it apart back in
                                      > August, but obviously didn't pay much attention to what I was doing. I've
                                      > searched this list repeatedly but can't find anything that talks about
                                      > where the AC power hooks up to the heaters / sensors... Can anyone point
                                      > me to a resource about this?
                                      >
                                      > Thanks for the help!
                                      >
                                      > Wade Perry
                                      > 1998 Force
                                      > 56 CALB CA 60 Ahr
                                      >
                                      > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                                      >
                                      > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                                      >
                                      >
                                      >


                                      [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                                    • Chandler Chip
                                      Wade: The junction box on my 1997 Force leads out of the BC3300 charger and I ll assume it was originally similar for your 1998. Inside this box is a complex
                                      Message 18 of 29 , Dec 3, 2012
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                                        Wade:
                                        The junction box on my 1997 Force leads out of the BC3300 charger and I'll assume it was originally similar for your 1998. Inside this box is a complex circuit board with some of the leads going out to the thermal management system. Matching that circuitry with your Zivan charger might be difficult, but you might go a simpler route as Solectria did in the 1996 Force, just fused leads off the power input before the power leads go to the charger. My 1996 has dual BC1000 chargers, taking only 110 volts, and in the junction box two 12amp 250 volt fuses on the two leads to the temp sensor boxes. Your Zivan and heater pads probably take 240 volts.

                                        My temp readings are showing quite a difference, as it gets colder here, between the center of the pack and outside edge, both after running and charging. I don't know what long term effects this might have on cell conditions and longevity, that is, having the center cells working at a higher temperature than the cells at the edges (also this would make a complex scenario for precession). I have no insulation (and no room for it), but would recommend as much insulation as you can install, under and around. I found when I tried originally heating lead acid, the electric bill was significant even with insulation. I believe the temp sensors are set for 70F degrees, and it would be wonderful if they could be adjusted to say 40F or replaced for 40F. I am still getting reasonable performance with the center pack starting temp at 25F with 1.5Ah/mile (TS 160Ah cells).

                                        Chip Chandler
                                        cchandler66@...

                                        On Dec 3, 2012, at 3:34 PM, Wade Perry <perrypeas@...> wrote:

                                        > Thanks for the help Chip.
                                        > I see those two pages, that's helpful.
                                        > I kept the heating pads (with the hard plastic over top).
                                        > I still have the temp sensor boxes, I haven't changed any of that (I did
                                        > unplug and remove the ones in the front box).
                                        > The temp sensor box in the rear battery box was indeed on top of the gel
                                        > cels when I started. It's still plugged in, I just left it off to the side
                                        > when I took the gels out.
                                        > However I don't think I have the actual AC junction box anymore. Someone
                                        > had changed the charger to a Zivan NG5 before I bought the car, maybe the
                                        > junction box was lost then. I do know the AC power came straight into the
                                        > NG5.
                                        > Insulation I hadn't thought about too much- the gels came with a bunch of
                                        > pink- type insulation material which I used around the lithiums too. I was
                                        > just going to close up the box and see how well it did.
                                        > Wade Perry
                                        >
                                        > On Sun, Dec 2, 2012 at 6:59 AM, Chandler Chip <cchandler66@...>wrote:
                                        >
                                        > > On the file listing for this website, check out the 1998 Force Service
                                        > > manual (Silverman), pages 49 and 53 in the appendix. They show the wiring
                                        > > for the Thermal Management System starting from the AC junction box near
                                        > > the charger and leading to the temp sensor boxes, one in each battery box,
                                        > > if you still have the components for them. Those sensor boxes should be
                                        > > installed on top of the batteries. Are your heating mats still in the
                                        > > battery boxes under your new batteries? What insulation do you plan on
                                        > > installing under and around your cells?
                                        > >
                                        > >
                                        > > Chip Chandler
                                        > > cchandler66@...
                                        > >
                                        > > On Dec 2, 2012, at 1:47 AM, Wade Perry <perrypeas@...> wrote:
                                        > >
                                        > > > Greetings all- I've driven over 1,000 miles on lithium now.
                                        > > >
                                        > > > I drove a fair bit today, it was mostly empty when I was coming back home
                                        > > > from the last errand so I thought I'd take the long way home and
                                        > > discharge
                                        > > > a bit more than I usually do. Until today the maximum I'd taken out is
                                        > > > probably around 45 Ahr. I had set my limit around 50 to be safe.
                                        > > > So after I got home I drove the block a few times with the heater on.
                                        > > Went
                                        > > > well past 50. I measured pack voltage and some individual cells while I
                                        > > > did this and felt fairly safe as I was getting down towards the bottom.
                                        > > > Finally drove it around one last time in econ with no heater and it was
                                        > > > around 57.5 when I was done. Then I ran the heater by itself to get it to
                                        > > > 59. Took the voltage on each cell.
                                        > > > Made a new column to my battery balancing spreadsheet, it's here-
                                        > > >
                                        > > https://docs.google.com/spreadsheet/pub?key=0An5nm8itUMMcdHhQV3RsSUdfbzRTQkFlNmtaSy05MHc&output=html
                                        > > >
                                        > > > The cells were springing back as I was measuring them. When I was done I
                                        > > > went back and measured CK, where I'd started measuring the pack. it was
                                        > > > .04 volts higher than I'd written down the first time. By the time I was
                                        > > > finishing measuring, all the cells were coming in around 3.04 or 3.05. So
                                        > > > they're reasonably well balanced.
                                        > > >
                                        > > > One cell stands out. JA. It measured 2.93 when its adjacent cells were
                                        > > > measuring an entire ~0.10 volt higher. I haven't figured it out yet.
                                        > > > Other than it happens to be the one that I noticed arrived from the
                                        > > > factory at 4.23% below 50% SOC. You can see that on the sheet. It stood
                                        > > > out at the time because all the other cells came in at 1 or 2% over 50.
                                        > > > This was the only one that was below, and by a fair amount.
                                        > > >
                                        > > > Anyway then I ran the heater some more, watching JA in particular. It
                                        > > > would have been cool to have a graph of all the cells at once. But they
                                        > > > were falling off quite quickly. Some dipped down to 2.75 or so. JA dipped
                                        > > > all the way down to 2.50. But I discharged down to a full 60.00 Ahr on my
                                        > > > counter! Finished with a pack voltage of around 160. (which was
                                        > > > undoubtedly springing up also. I didn't wait around to check but plugged
                                        > > > in the charger so I can drive again tomorrow)
                                        > > >
                                        > > > This is great, because I had feared I was losing capacity permanently by
                                        > > > charging below freezing. I'd hoped this wasn't the case, but was
                                        > > concerned
                                        > > > because on especially cold days there'd be +1.00 or +2.00 Ahr still left
                                        > > on
                                        > > > the counter when the charger shut off. Warmer days I'd be back to -0.14
                                        > > or
                                        > > > something like that. I'd been worried that I was gradually damaging the
                                        > > > cells.
                                        > > >
                                        > > > Apparently I'm not. Or at least not to the extent I'd feared. This is
                                        > > > with a battery box that's not even put together yet- the 60 Ahr cells are
                                        > > > taller than the gels I took out, so when I finally do get things put
                                        > > > together properly, I'll need to shim the cover over the battery box.
                                        > > Right
                                        > > > now it rests on top of the cells, so there's probably a 1" space all
                                        > > > around, letting cold air in. I did put in a 60watt incandescent light
                                        > > bulb
                                        > > > back there to keep things warmer (and bright and cheery) in the battery
                                        > > > box, whenever the car's plugged in.
                                        > > >
                                        > > > So. What I'd really like to do is hook up the Solectria heating mats to
                                        > > AC
                                        > > > power, so I can be more setup for winter. I myself took it apart back in
                                        > > > August, but obviously didn't pay much attention to what I was doing. I've
                                        > > > searched this list repeatedly but can't find anything that talks about
                                        > > > where the AC power hooks up to the heaters / sensors... Can anyone point
                                        > > > me to a resource about this?
                                        > > >
                                        > > > Thanks for the help!
                                        > > >
                                        > > > Wade Perry
                                        > > > 1998 Force
                                        > > > 56 CALB CA 60 Ahr
                                        > > >
                                        > > > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                                        > > >
                                        > > >
                                        > >
                                        > >
                                        > >
                                        > > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                                        > >
                                        > >
                                        > >
                                        > > ------------------------------------
                                        > >
                                        > > Yahoo! Groups Links
                                        > >
                                        > >
                                        > >
                                        > >
                                        >
                                        > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                                        >
                                        >



                                        [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                                      • Wade Perry
                                        Rex- I don t think the general consensus includes 60Ahr. Yet. I only know of two transplants that are less than 100 Ahr. (Bouty & me) Would like to be
                                        Message 19 of 29 , Dec 3, 2012
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                                          Rex-
                                          I don't think the "general consensus" includes 60Ahr. Yet. I only know of
                                          two transplants that are less than 100 Ahr. (Bouty & me) Would like to be
                                          enlightened about any more out there...
                                          I see you running through the same thought process as I did. 40Ahr is
                                          definitely small. But you of all people should know, having driven
                                          electric for so long in the first place, and even tracked your Ahr usage.
                                          I didn't have that benefit, and I can tell you it wasn't wrong.
                                          The only thing I'd recommend is to consider putting in as high a voltage as
                                          you can. 56 cells is really fun- the "sport" version of the Solectria
                                          Force. Plus it results in greater range too- the higher voltage means the
                                          Ahr counter moves slower.
                                          Also the 60s are a different shape than the 40s. Taller and skinnier. I'm
                                          not sure what the height of the front box is, but with the smaller
                                          footprint you could definitely fit more of them in.
                                          If you do a "high-voltage" transplant using CA 40s, you'd have a very light
                                          and zippy car.

                                          Putting all the cells in the front is also a good idea, and I wish I had
                                          that too. When there's snow on the roads I really notice the lack of
                                          traction. I have a hard time getting going in front of my house. I have
                                          one gel cell in the front still just to give me some weight up there. I'm
                                          thinking that after a year of this, when I have the sense that the cells
                                          really are not going to drift and have some experience with it, I may move
                                          them up to the front where they're very difficult to actually measure (or
                                          as many as I can fit up there).

                                          I remember reading Bouty's email with disbelief that he hadn't even checked
                                          the voltage on the cells for 18 months! How irresponsible! Is he trying
                                          to wreck his batteries?
                                          Now I'm quite a ways down that road myself.

                                          Wade



                                          On Mon, Dec 3, 2012 at 9:33 AM, Rex Allison <ev64bug@...> wrote:

                                          > **
                                          >
                                          >
                                          > I have one question for Bouty:
                                          > How many miles do you have on your pack?
                                          >
                                          > One question for the group:
                                          > Does anyone have the dimension for the inside of the front battery box?
                                          >
                                          > I'm really interesting in Bouty's configuration. After 7 years and 22,000
                                          > miles my poor old Pb pack is on it's last legs. I'm able to get 22 to
                                          > 24Ahrs out of the pack which is enough for a round trip to work and a very
                                          > short side trip. Since the pack is fairly weak it takes 1.5 to 1.6Ahr per
                                          > mile. I'm trying to hold out until summer for my switch to lithium when
                                          > the weather is a little better and I have my battery monitor tested out.
                                          > I'm interested in putting 49 40Ahr CALB "grey" cells (CA40BFI) for a couple
                                          > of reasons:
                                          >
                                          > 1. If my measurements are correct the complete pack should fit in the
                                          > front battery box in a 7x7 array. By moving the charger up front all the
                                          > 156V wiring will be under the hood with a very short run between the pack
                                          > and the controller.
                                          >
                                          > 2. The pack cost
                                          > is comparable to if not cheaper than the Deka equivalent. 40Ahr CALBs are
                                          > around $55 each. 49 x $55 = $2,695 before tax and shipping. 13 Deka
                                          > batteries would have to be $207 just to be comparable ($2,695 / 13 = $207
                                          > approx.)
                                          >
                                          > 3. My car will be shedding 661lb. The CALB cells at 3.3lb each x 49 = 161
                                          > lb vs the 822lb (63.2lb x 13) of the current pack. I'm probably going to
                                          > have to find the original springs for the Geo, otherwise the car will feel
                                          > like it is permanently going down a hill.
                                          >
                                          > 4. The "blue" CALBs (SE40AHA) already have fantastic C ratings and the
                                          > "grey" cells have better cold weather performance. The max current of the
                                          > force at around 240A dc should be no problem for the 40Ahr cells, they
                                          > should be able to handle C6. There is some interesting test data on the
                                          > cells: http://blog.evtv.me/2012/06/battery-jump-shift/
                                          >
                                          > I know the general consensus is that 60 Ahr or 100 Ahr is preferable, but
                                          > I've been logging all my driving for the past 7 years, most days I use
                                          > between 16Ahrs and 20Ahrs and only a few times did I even come close to
                                          > 35Ahrs.
                                          >
                                          > ________________________________
                                          > From: d. Bouton Baldridge <cfrkeepr@...>
                                          > To: "solectria_ev@yahoogroups.com" <solectria_ev@yahoogroups.com>
                                          > Sent: Sunday, December 2, 2012 7:26 AM
                                          >
                                          > Subject: Re: [solectria_ev] Thermal Management System
                                          >
                                          >
                                          >
                                          > Hi Wade,
                                          > In my opinion, the balance thing has been greatly over blown and your
                                          > readings are perefectly acceptable especially after using so much capacity
                                          > having only +/-.1 v or so from the mean is fantastic. The big thing is
                                          > avoiding going beyond the knees and your system seems to be working just
                                          > fine doing that. As for the Ahmeter issue, It has been my experience that
                                          > voltage is not a reliable means for determining capacity. In my case I have
                                          > found the reaching the limiting voltage was caused by the pack warming up;
                                          > for me it was the sun. Now that the ambient temperature is lower in the
                                          > winter season my charge resets closer to zero, but in summer it stops on
                                          > the plus side by .1 ah each cycle when the outside temp is above 80
                                          > degrees. My guess for you is that when you charge for a few hours, the pack
                                          > temp increases higher than when you were driving and the voltage is
                                          > slightly higher as a result this stops the charger earlier than
                                          > the previous Ahour
                                          > reading. I am not sure if this is happening as a function of breaking in
                                          > or aging. But it was not an issue with lead since it woul be overcharged
                                          > routinely and had the automatic reset. I am a few months shy of 4 years
                                          > and this slight precession is only an annoyance it has not seemed to impact
                                          > the utility of my pack. Since I have a pretty long warm season I would just
                                          > occasionaly reset the Ah meter to zero just so I wouldn't have to remember
                                          > every time. Now that my cells are getting twice as old as any Pb pack would
                                          > last, I am getting into new territory for longevity and at some point I
                                          > might find some of these answers, but for now I am saying congratulation on
                                          > your project FWIW,
                                          > Bouty
                                          >
                                          > ________________________________
                                          > From: Wade Perry <perrypeas@...>
                                          > To: solectria_ev@yahoogroups.com
                                          > Sent: Sunday, December 2, 2012 1:47 AM
                                          > Subject: [solectria_ev] Thermal Management System
                                          >
                                          >
                                          > Greetings all- I've driven over 1,000 miles on lithium now.
                                          >
                                          > I drove a fair bit today, it was mostly empty when I was coming back home
                                          > from the last errand so I thought I'd take the long way home and discharge
                                          > a bit more than I usually do. Until today the maximum I'd taken out is
                                          > probably around 45 Ahr. I had set my limit around 50 to be safe.
                                          > So after I got home I drove the block a few times with the heater on. Went
                                          > well past 50. I measured pack voltage and some individual cells while I
                                          > did this and felt fairly safe as I was getting down towards the bottom.
                                          > Finally drove it around one last time in econ with no heater and it was
                                          > around 57.5 when I was done. Then I ran the heater by itself to get it to
                                          > 59. Took the voltage on each cell.
                                          > Made a new column to my battery balancing spreadsheet, it's here-
                                          >
                                          > https://docs.google.com/spreadsheet/pub?key=0An5nm8itUMMcdHhQV3RsSUdfbzRTQkFlNmtaSy05MHc&output=html
                                          >
                                          > The cells were springing back as I was measuring them. When I was done I
                                          > went back and measured CK, where I'd started measuring the pack. it was
                                          > .04 volts higher than I'd written down the first time. By the time I was
                                          > finishing measuring, all the cells were coming in around 3.04 or 3.05. So
                                          > they're reasonably well balanced.
                                          >
                                          > One cell stands out. JA. It measured 2.93 when its adjacent cells were
                                          > measuring an entire ~0.10 volt higher. I haven't figured it out yet.
                                          > Other than it happens to be the one that I noticed arrived from the
                                          > factory at 4.23% below 50% SOC. You can see that on the sheet. It stood
                                          > out at the time because all the other cells came in at 1 or 2% over 50.
                                          > This was the only one that was below, and by a fair amount.
                                          >
                                          > Anyway then I ran the heater some more, watching JA in particular. It
                                          > would have been cool to have a graph of all the cells at once. But they
                                          > were falling off quite quickly. Some dipped down to 2.75 or so. JA dipped
                                          > all the way down to 2.50. But I discharged down to a full 60.00 Ahr on my
                                          > counter! Finished with a pack voltage of around 160. (which was
                                          > undoubtedly springing up also. I didn't wait around to check but plugged
                                          > in the charger so I can drive again tomorrow)
                                          >
                                          > This is great, because I had feared I was losing capacity permanently by
                                          > charging below freezing. I'd hoped this wasn't the case, but was concerned
                                          > because on especially cold days there'd be +1.00 or +2.00 Ahr still left on
                                          > the counter when the charger shut off. Warmer days I'd be back to -0.14 or
                                          > something like that. I'd been worried that I was gradually damaging the
                                          > cells.
                                          >
                                          > Apparently I'm not. Or at least not to the extent I'd feared. This is
                                          > with a battery box that's not even put together yet- the 60 Ahr cells are
                                          > taller than the gels I took out, so when I finally do get things put
                                          > together properly, I'll need to shim the cover over the battery box. Right
                                          > now it rests on top of the cells, so there's probably a 1" space all
                                          > around, letting cold air in. I did put in a 60watt incandescent light bulb
                                          > back there to keep things warmer (and bright and cheery) in the battery
                                          > box, whenever the car's plugged in.
                                          >
                                          > So. What I'd really like to do is hook up the Solectria heating mats to AC
                                          > power, so I can be more setup for winter. I myself took it apart back in
                                          > August, but obviously didn't pay much attention to what I was doing. I've
                                          > searched this list repeatedly but can't find anything that talks about
                                          > where the AC power hooks up to the heaters / sensors... Can anyone point
                                          > me to a resource about this?
                                          >
                                          > Thanks for the help!
                                          >
                                          > Wade Perry
                                          > 1998 Force
                                          > 56 CALB CA 60 Ahr
                                          >
                                          > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                                          >
                                          > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                                          >
                                          > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                                          >
                                          >
                                          >


                                          [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                                        • Rex Allison
                                          Wade, I think the issue of cell balancing, monitoring, or driving blind so to speak is still forming as users gain more experience. I m not as daring as Bouty,
                                          Message 20 of 29 , Dec 3, 2012
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                                            Wade,

                                            I think the issue of cell balancing, monitoring, or driving blind so to speak is still forming as users gain more experience. I'm not as daring as Bouty, so I'm still in favor of monitoring, but I read somewhere (this is not my original idea) that monitoring in groups of 4 is another way to simplify your setup, especially if you are not pushing your pack to it's limit. The advantage of groups of 4 cells, basically battery monitoring vs cell monitoring, is that a weak cell will still show up and you can use one of the existing Pb monitoring systems such as the Paktrakr. This is just another system tradeoff with pros and cons.

                                            As far as accessing the front battery box. I gave up my AC unit years ago to a fellow Force owner (60lb less to lug around), so I just have the controller in the way. Another item on my todo list is to come up with a hinged mount for the controller so that the battery box can be easily accessed. I haven't come up with any solid solution yet...

                                            Rex




                                            ________________________________
                                            From: Wade Perry <perrypeas@...>
                                            To: solectria_ev@yahoogroups.com
                                            Sent: Monday, December 3, 2012 3:38 PM
                                            Subject: Re: [solectria_ev] Thermal Management System

                                            Rex-
                                            I don't think the "general consensus" includes 60Ahr.  Yet.  I only know of
                                            two transplants that are less than 100 Ahr.  (Bouty & me)  Would like to be
                                            enlightened about any more out there...
                                            I see you running through the same thought process as I did.  40Ahr is
                                            definitely small.  But you of all people should know, having driven
                                            electric for so long in the first place, and even tracked your Ahr usage.
                                            I didn't have that benefit, and I can tell you it wasn't wrong.
                                            The only thing I'd recommend is to consider putting in as high a voltage as
                                            you can.  56 cells is really fun- the "sport" version of the Solectria
                                            Force.  Plus it results in greater range too- the higher voltage means the
                                            Ahr counter moves slower.
                                            Also the 60s are a different shape than the 40s.  Taller and skinnier.  I'm
                                            not sure what the height of the front box is, but with the smaller
                                            footprint you could definitely fit more of them in.
                                            If you do a "high-voltage" transplant using CA 40s, you'd have a very light
                                            and zippy car.

                                            Putting all the cells in the front is also a good idea, and I wish I had
                                            that too.  When there's snow on the roads I really notice the lack of
                                            traction.  I have a hard time getting going in front of my house.  I have
                                            one gel cell in the front still just to give me some weight up there.  I'm
                                            thinking that after a year of this, when I have the sense that the cells
                                            really are not going to drift and have some experience with it, I may move
                                            them up to the front where they're very difficult to actually measure (or
                                            as many as I can fit up there).

                                            I remember reading Bouty's email with disbelief that he hadn't even checked
                                            the voltage on the cells for 18 months!  How irresponsible!  Is he trying
                                            to wreck his batteries?
                                            Now I'm quite a ways down that road myself.

                                            Wade



                                            On Mon, Dec 3, 2012 at 9:33 AM, Rex Allison <ev64bug@...> wrote:

                                            > **
                                            >
                                            >
                                            > I have one question for Bouty:
                                            > How many miles do you have on your pack?
                                            >
                                            > One question for the group:
                                            > Does anyone have the dimension for the inside of the front battery box?
                                            >
                                            > I'm really interesting in Bouty's configuration. After 7 years and 22,000
                                            > miles my poor old Pb pack is on it's last legs. I'm able to get 22 to
                                            > 24Ahrs out of the pack which is enough for a round trip to work and a very
                                            > short side trip. Since the pack is fairly weak it takes 1.5 to 1.6Ahr per
                                            > mile.  I'm trying to hold out until summer for my switch to lithium when
                                            > the weather is a little better and I have my battery monitor tested out.
                                            > I'm interested in putting 49 40Ahr CALB "grey" cells (CA40BFI) for a couple
                                            > of reasons:
                                            >
                                            > 1.  If my measurements are correct the complete pack should fit in the
                                            > front battery box in a 7x7 array. By moving the charger up front all the
                                            > 156V wiring will be under the hood with a very short run between the pack
                                            > and the controller.
                                            >
                                            > 2. The pack cost
                                            > is comparable to if not cheaper than the Deka equivalent. 40Ahr CALBs are
                                            > around $55 each. 49 x $55 = $2,695 before tax and shipping.  13 Deka
                                            > batteries would have to be $207 just to be comparable ($2,695 / 13 = $207
                                            > approx.)
                                            >
                                            > 3. My car will be shedding 661lb. The CALB cells at 3.3lb each x 49 = 161
                                            > lb vs the 822lb (63.2lb x 13) of the current pack. I'm probably going to
                                            > have to find the original springs for the Geo, otherwise the car will feel
                                            > like it is permanently going down a hill.
                                            >
                                            > 4. The "blue" CALBs (SE40AHA) already have fantastic C ratings and the
                                            > "grey" cells have better cold weather performance. The max current of the
                                            > force at around 240A dc should be no problem for the 40Ahr cells, they
                                            > should be able to handle C6. There is some interesting test data on the
                                            > cells: http://blog.evtv.me/2012/06/battery-jump-shift/
                                            >
                                            > I know the general consensus is that 60 Ahr or 100 Ahr is preferable, but
                                            > I've been logging all my driving for the past 7 years, most days I use
                                            > between 16Ahrs and 20Ahrs and only a few times did I even come close to
                                            > 35Ahrs.
                                            >
                                            > ________________________________
                                            > From: d. Bouton Baldridge <cfrkeepr@...>
                                            > To: "solectria_ev@yahoogroups.com" <solectria_ev@yahoogroups.com>
                                            > Sent: Sunday, December 2, 2012 7:26 AM
                                            >
                                            > Subject: Re: [solectria_ev] Thermal Management System
                                            >
                                            >
                                            >
                                            > Hi Wade,
                                            >  In my opinion, the balance thing has been greatly over blown and your
                                            > readings are perefectly acceptable especially after using so much capacity
                                            > having only +/-.1 v or so from the mean is fantastic. The big thing is
                                            > avoiding going beyond the knees and your system seems to be working just
                                            > fine doing that. As for the Ahmeter issue, It has been my experience that
                                            > voltage is not a reliable means for determining capacity. In my case I have
                                            > found the reaching the limiting voltage was caused by the pack warming up;
                                            > for me it was the sun. Now that the ambient temperature is lower in the
                                            > winter season my charge resets closer to zero, but in summer it stops on
                                            > the plus side by .1 ah each cycle when the outside temp is above 80
                                            > degrees. My guess for you is that when you charge for a few hours, the pack
                                            > temp increases higher than when you were driving and the voltage is
                                            > slightly higher as a result this stops the charger earlier than
                                            > the previous Ahour
                                            > reading. I am not sure if this is happening as a function of breaking in
                                            > or aging. But it was not an issue with lead since it woul be overcharged
                                            > routinely and had the automatic reset.  I am a few months shy of 4 years
                                            > and this slight precession is only an annoyance it has not seemed to impact
                                            > the utility of my pack. Since I have a pretty long warm season I would just
                                            > occasionaly reset the Ah meter to zero just so I wouldn't have to remember
                                            > every time. Now that my cells are getting twice as old as any Pb pack would
                                            > last, I am getting into new territory for longevity and at some point I
                                            > might find some of these answers, but for now I am saying congratulation on
                                            > your project FWIW,
                                            > Bouty
                                            >
                                            > ________________________________
                                            > From: Wade Perry <perrypeas@...>
                                            > To: solectria_ev@yahoogroups.com
                                            > Sent: Sunday, December 2, 2012 1:47 AM
                                            > Subject: [solectria_ev] Thermal Management System
                                            >
                                            >
                                            > Greetings all- I've driven over 1,000 miles on lithium now.
                                            >
                                            > I drove a fair bit today, it was mostly empty when I was coming back home
                                            > from the last errand so I thought I'd take the long way home and discharge
                                            > a bit more than I usually do. Until today the maximum I'd taken out is
                                            > probably around 45 Ahr. I had set my limit around 50 to be safe.
                                            > So after I got home I drove the block a few times with the heater on. Went
                                            > well past 50. I measured pack voltage and some individual cells while I
                                            > did this and felt fairly safe as I was getting down towards the bottom.
                                            > Finally drove it around one last time in econ with no heater and it was
                                            > around 57.5 when I was done. Then I ran the heater by itself to get it to
                                            > 59. Took the voltage on each cell.
                                            > Made a new column to my battery balancing spreadsheet, it's here-
                                            >
                                            > https://docs.google.com/spreadsheet/pub?key=0An5nm8itUMMcdHhQV3RsSUdfbzRTQkFlNmtaSy05MHc&output=html
                                            >
                                            > The cells were springing back as I was measuring them. When I was done I
                                            > went back and measured CK, where I'd started measuring the pack. it was
                                            > .04 volts higher than I'd written down the first time. By the time I was
                                            > finishing measuring, all the cells were coming in around 3.04 or 3.05. So
                                            > they're reasonably well balanced.
                                            >
                                            > One cell stands out. JA. It measured 2.93 when its adjacent cells were
                                            > measuring an entire ~0.10 volt higher. I haven't figured it out yet.
                                            > Other than it happens to be the one that I noticed arrived from the
                                            > factory at 4.23% below 50% SOC. You can see that on the sheet. It stood
                                            > out at the time because all the other cells came in at 1 or 2% over 50.
                                            > This was the only one that was below, and by a fair amount.
                                            >
                                            > Anyway then I ran the heater some more, watching JA in particular. It
                                            > would have been cool to have a graph of all the cells at once. But they
                                            > were falling off quite quickly. Some dipped down to 2.75 or so. JA dipped
                                            > all the way down to 2.50. But I discharged down to a full 60.00 Ahr on my
                                            > counter! Finished with a pack voltage of around 160. (which was
                                            > undoubtedly springing up also. I didn't wait around to check but plugged
                                            > in the charger so I can drive again tomorrow)
                                            >
                                            > This is great, because I had feared I was losing capacity permanently by
                                            > charging below freezing. I'd hoped this wasn't the case, but was concerned
                                            > because on especially cold days there'd be +1.00 or +2.00 Ahr still left on
                                            > the counter when the charger shut off. Warmer days I'd be back to -0.14 or
                                            > something like that. I'd been worried that I was gradually damaging the
                                            > cells.
                                            >
                                            > Apparently I'm not. Or at least not to the extent I'd feared. This is
                                            > with a battery box that's not even put together yet- the 60 Ahr cells are
                                            > taller than the gels I took out, so when I finally do get things put
                                            > together properly, I'll need to shim the cover over the battery box. Right
                                            > now it rests on top of the cells, so there's probably a 1" space all
                                            > around, letting cold air in. I did put in a 60watt incandescent light bulb
                                            > back there to keep things warmer (and bright and cheery) in the battery
                                            > box, whenever the car's plugged in.
                                            >
                                            > So. What I'd really like to do is hook up the Solectria heating mats to AC
                                            > power, so I can be more setup for winter. I myself took it apart back in
                                            > August, but obviously didn't pay much attention to what I was doing. I've
                                            > searched this list repeatedly but can't find anything that talks about
                                            > where the AC power hooks up to the heaters / sensors... Can anyone point
                                            > me to a resource about this?
                                            >
                                            > Thanks for the help!
                                            >
                                            > Wade Perry
                                            > 1998 Force
                                            > 56 CALB CA 60 Ahr
                                            >
                                            > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                                            >
                                            > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                                            >
                                            > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                                            >

                                            >


                                            [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]



                                            ------------------------------------

                                            Yahoo! Groups Links



                                            [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                                          • Gerry Gaydos
                                            Hey, you don t need to monitor all the modules in your EVs battery pack,... only the ones you want to keep.There has yet to be made a battery of any type that
                                            Message 21 of 29 , Dec 3, 2012
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                                              Hey, you don't need to monitor all the modules in your EVs battery pack,... only the ones you want to keep.There has yet to be made a battery of any type that has any loyalty to it's owner, just because he/she spent some hard earned money. They will tend to do what ever the hell they want, unless you keep an eye on the little buggers and help them play well with others.

                                              Gerry
                                              "Internal combustion is so last century"... Funkymoto�, Electrifying Cars! 250 598 3100

                                              To: solectria_ev@yahoogroups.com
                                              From: ev64bug@...
                                              Date: Mon, 3 Dec 2012 16:04:18 -0800
                                              Subject: Re: [solectria_ev] Thermal Management System


























                                              Wade,



                                              I think the issue of cell balancing, monitoring, or driving blind so to speak is still forming as users gain more experience. I'm not as daring as Bouty, so I'm still in favor of monitoring, but I read somewhere (this is not my original idea) that monitoring in groups of 4 is another way to simplify your setup, especially if you are not pushing your pack to it's limit. The advantage of groups of 4 cells, basically battery monitoring vs cell monitoring, is that a weak cell will still show up and you can use one of the existing Pb monitoring systems such as the Paktrakr. This is just another system tradeoff with pros and cons.



                                              As far as accessing the front battery box. I gave up my AC unit years ago to a fellow Force owner (60lb less to lug around), so I just have the controller in the way. Another item on my todo list is to come up with a hinged mount for the controller so that the battery box can be easily accessed. I haven't come up with any solid solution yet...



                                              Rex



                                              ________________________________

                                              From: Wade Perry <perrypeas@...>

                                              To: solectria_ev@yahoogroups.com

                                              Sent: Monday, December 3, 2012 3:38 PM

                                              Subject: Re: [solectria_ev] Thermal Management System



                                              Rex-

                                              I don't think the "general consensus" includes 60Ahr. Yet. I only know of

                                              two transplants that are less than 100 Ahr. (Bouty & me) Would like to be

                                              enlightened about any more out there...

                                              I see you running through the same thought process as I did. 40Ahr is

                                              definitely small. But you of all people should know, having driven

                                              electric for so long in the first place, and even tracked your Ahr usage.

                                              I didn't have that benefit, and I can tell you it wasn't wrong.

                                              The only thing I'd recommend is to consider putting in as high a voltage as

                                              you can. 56 cells is really fun- the "sport" version of the Solectria

                                              Force. Plus it results in greater range too- the higher voltage means the

                                              Ahr counter moves slower.

                                              Also the 60s are a different shape than the 40s. Taller and skinnier. I'm

                                              not sure what the height of the front box is, but with the smaller

                                              footprint you could definitely fit more of them in.

                                              If you do a "high-voltage" transplant using CA 40s, you'd have a very light

                                              and zippy car.



                                              Putting all the cells in the front is also a good idea, and I wish I had

                                              that too. When there's snow on the roads I really notice the lack of

                                              traction. I have a hard time getting going in front of my house. I have

                                              one gel cell in the front still just to give me some weight up there. I'm

                                              thinking that after a year of this, when I have the sense that the cells

                                              really are not going to drift and have some experience with it, I may move

                                              them up to the front where they're very difficult to actually measure (or

                                              as many as I can fit up there).



                                              I remember reading Bouty's email with disbelief that he hadn't even checked

                                              the voltage on the cells for 18 months! How irresponsible! Is he trying

                                              to wreck his batteries?

                                              Now I'm quite a ways down that road myself.



                                              Wade



                                              On Mon, Dec 3, 2012 at 9:33 AM, Rex Allison <ev64bug@...> wrote:



                                              > **

                                              >

                                              >

                                              > I have one question for Bouty:

                                              > How many miles do you have on your pack?

                                              >

                                              > One question for the group:

                                              > Does anyone have the dimension for the inside of the front battery box?

                                              >

                                              > I'm really interesting in Bouty's configuration. After 7 years and 22,000

                                              > miles my poor old Pb pack is on it's last legs. I'm able to get 22 to

                                              > 24Ahrs out of the pack which is enough for a round trip to work and a very

                                              > short side trip. Since the pack is fairly weak it takes 1.5 to 1.6Ahr per

                                              > mile. I'm trying to hold out until summer for my switch to lithium when

                                              > the weather is a little better and I have my battery monitor tested out.

                                              > I'm interested in putting 49 40Ahr CALB "grey" cells (CA40BFI) for a couple

                                              > of reasons:

                                              >

                                              > 1. If my measurements are correct the complete pack should fit in the

                                              > front battery box in a 7x7 array. By moving the charger up front all the

                                              > 156V wiring will be under the hood with a very short run between the pack

                                              > and the controller.

                                              >

                                              > 2. The pack cost

                                              > is comparable to if not cheaper than the Deka equivalent. 40Ahr CALBs are

                                              > around $55 each. 49 x $55 = $2,695 before tax and shipping. 13 Deka

                                              > batteries would have to be $207 just to be comparable ($2,695 / 13 = $207

                                              > approx.)

                                              >

                                              > 3. My car will be shedding 661lb. The CALB cells at 3.3lb each x 49 = 161

                                              > lb vs the 822lb (63.2lb x 13) of the current pack. I'm probably going to

                                              > have to find the original springs for the Geo, otherwise the car will feel

                                              > like it is permanently going down a hill.

                                              >

                                              > 4. The "blue" CALBs (SE40AHA) already have fantastic C ratings and the

                                              > "grey" cells have better cold weather performance. The max current of the

                                              > force at around 240A dc should be no problem for the 40Ahr cells, they

                                              > should be able to handle C6. There is some interesting test data on the

                                              > cells: http://blog.evtv.me/2012/06/battery-jump-shift/

                                              >

                                              > I know the general consensus is that 60 Ahr or 100 Ahr is preferable, but

                                              > I've been logging all my driving for the past 7 years, most days I use

                                              > between 16Ahrs and 20Ahrs and only a few times did I even come close to

                                              > 35Ahrs.

                                              >

                                              > ________________________________

                                              > From: d. Bouton Baldridge <cfrkeepr@...>

                                              > To: "solectria_ev@yahoogroups.com" <solectria_ev@yahoogroups.com>

                                              > Sent: Sunday, December 2, 2012 7:26 AM

                                              >

                                              > Subject: Re: [solectria_ev] Thermal Management System

                                              >

                                              >

                                              >

                                              > Hi Wade,

                                              > In my opinion, the balance thing has been greatly over blown and your

                                              > readings are perefectly acceptable especially after using so much capacity

                                              > having only +/-.1 v or so from the mean is fantastic. The big thing is

                                              > avoiding going beyond the knees and your system seems to be working just

                                              > fine doing that. As for the Ahmeter issue, It has been my experience that

                                              > voltage is not a reliable means for determining capacity. In my case I have

                                              > found the reaching the limiting voltage was caused by the pack warming up;

                                              > for me it was the sun. Now that the ambient temperature is lower in the

                                              > winter season my charge resets closer to zero, but in summer it stops on

                                              > the plus side by .1 ah each cycle when the outside temp is above 80

                                              > degrees. My guess for you is that when you charge for a few hours, the pack

                                              > temp increases higher than when you were driving and the voltage is

                                              > slightly higher as a result this stops the charger earlier than

                                              > the previous Ahour

                                              > reading. I am not sure if this is happening as a function of breaking in

                                              > or aging. But it was not an issue with lead since it woul be overcharged

                                              > routinely and had the automatic reset. I am a few months shy of 4 years

                                              > and this slight precession is only an annoyance it has not seemed to impact

                                              > the utility of my pack. Since I have a pretty long warm season I would just

                                              > occasionaly reset the Ah meter to zero just so I wouldn't have to remember

                                              > every time. Now that my cells are getting twice as old as any Pb pack would

                                              > last, I am getting into new territory for longevity and at some point I

                                              > might find some of these answers, but for now I am saying congratulation on

                                              > your project FWIW,

                                              > Bouty

                                              >

                                              > ________________________________

                                              > From: Wade Perry <perrypeas@...>

                                              > To: solectria_ev@yahoogroups.com

                                              > Sent: Sunday, December 2, 2012 1:47 AM

                                              > Subject: [solectria_ev] Thermal Management System

                                              >

                                              >

                                              > Greetings all- I've driven over 1,000 miles on lithium now.

                                              >

                                              > I drove a fair bit today, it was mostly empty when I was coming back home

                                              > from the last errand so I thought I'd take the long way home and discharge

                                              > a bit more than I usually do. Until today the maximum I'd taken out is

                                              > probably around 45 Ahr. I had set my limit around 50 to be safe.

                                              > So after I got home I drove the block a few times with the heater on. Went

                                              > well past 50. I measured pack voltage and some individual cells while I

                                              > did this and felt fairly safe as I was getting down towards the bottom.

                                              > Finally drove it around one last time in econ with no heater and it was

                                              > around 57.5 when I was done. Then I ran the heater by itself to get it to

                                              > 59. Took the voltage on each cell.

                                              > Made a new column to my battery balancing spreadsheet, it's here-

                                              >

                                              > https://docs.google.com/spreadsheet/pub?key=0An5nm8itUMMcdHhQV3RsSUdfbzRTQkFlNmtaSy05MHc&output=html

                                              >

                                              > The cells were springing back as I was measuring them. When I was done I

                                              > went back and measured CK, where I'd started measuring the pack. it was

                                              > .04 volts higher than I'd written down the first time. By the time I was

                                              > finishing measuring, all the cells were coming in around 3.04 or 3.05. So

                                              > they're reasonably well balanced.

                                              >

                                              > One cell stands out. JA. It measured 2.93 when its adjacent cells were

                                              > measuring an entire ~0.10 volt higher. I haven't figured it out yet.

                                              > Other than it happens to be the one that I noticed arrived from the

                                              > factory at 4.23% below 50% SOC. You can see that on the sheet. It stood

                                              > out at the time because all the other cells came in at 1 or 2% over 50.

                                              > This was the only one that was below, and by a fair amount.

                                              >

                                              > Anyway then I ran the heater some more, watching JA in particular. It

                                              > would have been cool to have a graph of all the cells at once. But they

                                              > were falling off quite quickly. Some dipped down to 2.75 or so. JA dipped

                                              > all the way down to 2.50. But I discharged down to a full 60.00 Ahr on my

                                              > counter! Finished with a pack voltage of around 160. (which was

                                              > undoubtedly springing up also. I didn't wait around to check but plugged

                                              > in the charger so I can drive again tomorrow)

                                              >

                                              > This is great, because I had feared I was losing capacity permanently by

                                              > charging below freezing. I'd hoped this wasn't the case, but was concerned

                                              > because on especially cold days there'd be +1.00 or +2.00 Ahr still left on

                                              > the counter when the charger shut off. Warmer days I'd be back to -0.14 or

                                              > something like that. I'd been worried that I was gradually damaging the

                                              > cells.

                                              >

                                              > Apparently I'm not. Or at least not to the extent I'd feared. This is

                                              > with a battery box that's not even put together yet- the 60 Ahr cells are

                                              > taller than the gels I took out, so when I finally do get things put

                                              > together properly, I'll need to shim the cover over the battery box. Right

                                              > now it rests on top of the cells, so there's probably a 1" space all

                                              > around, letting cold air in. I did put in a 60watt incandescent light bulb

                                              > back there to keep things warmer (and bright and cheery) in the battery

                                              > box, whenever the car's plugged in.

                                              >

                                              > So. What I'd really like to do is hook up the Solectria heating mats to AC

                                              > power, so I can be more setup for winter. I myself took it apart back in

                                              > August, but obviously didn't pay much attention to what I was doing. I've

                                              > searched this list repeatedly but can't find anything that talks about

                                              > where the AC power hooks up to the heaters / sensors... Can anyone point

                                              > me to a resource about this?

                                              >

                                              > Thanks for the help!

                                              >

                                              > Wade Perry

                                              > 1998 Force

                                              > 56 CALB CA 60 Ahr

                                              >

                                              > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]

                                              >

                                              > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]

                                              >

                                              > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]

                                              >

                                              >

                                              >



                                              [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]



                                              ------------------------------------



                                              Yahoo! Groups Links



                                              [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]


















                                              [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                                            • geo_homsy2
                                              Chip- are you confusing the charger s thermal monitoring system with the thermal management system? In my 1999 force, the factory stock condition was: * two
                                              Message 22 of 29 , Dec 3, 2012
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                                                Chip-

                                                are you confusing the charger's thermal monitoring system with the thermal management system?

                                                In my 1999 force, the factory stock condition was:

                                                * two NTC thermistors mounted inside ring lugs, one screwed onto a battery post in each box, plugged into the charger interface box you describe.

                                                * two thermal management boxes, small black plastic, 1x2x4", velcro'd to the top of the batteries, again one in front, one in the rear. These boxes each have a bi-metallic type thermal snap-switch, to turn on the heating pads. They are powered from the AC junction box on the rear-left fender well.

                                                It is the latter system I believe Wade is referring to. It is completely independent of the charger.

                                                //Geo

                                                --- In solectria_ev@yahoogroups.com, Chandler Chip <cchandler66@...> wrote:
                                                >
                                                > Wade:
                                                > The junction box on my 1997 Force leads out of the BC3300 charger and I'll assume it was originally similar for your 1998. Inside this box is a complex circuit board with some of the leads going out to the thermal management system. Matching that circuitry with your Zivan charger might be difficult, but you might go a simpler route as Solectria did in the 1996 Force, just fused leads off the power input before the power leads go to the charger. My 1996 has dual BC1000 chargers, taking only 110 volts, and in the junction box two 12amp 250 volt fuses on the two leads to the temp sensor boxes. Your Zivan and heater pads probably take 240 volts.
                                                >
                                                > My temp readings are showing quite a difference, as it gets colder here, between the center of the pack and outside edge, both after running and charging. I don't know what long term effects this might have on cell conditions and longevity, that is, having the center cells working at a higher temperature than the cells at the edges (also this would make a complex scenario for precession). I have no insulation (and no room for it), but would recommend as much insulation as you can install, under and around. I found when I tried originally heating lead acid, the electric bill was significant even with insulation. I believe the temp sensors are set for 70F degrees, and it would be wonderful if they could be adjusted to say 40F or replaced for 40F. I am still getting reasonable performance with the center pack starting temp at 25F with 1.5Ah/mile (TS 160Ah cells).
                                                >
                                                > Chip Chandler
                                                > cchandler66@...
                                                >
                                                > On Dec 3, 2012, at 3:34 PM, Wade Perry <perrypeas@...> wrote:
                                                >
                                                > > Thanks for the help Chip.
                                                > > I see those two pages, that's helpful.
                                                > > I kept the heating pads (with the hard plastic over top).
                                                > > I still have the temp sensor boxes, I haven't changed any of that (I did
                                                > > unplug and remove the ones in the front box).
                                                > > The temp sensor box in the rear battery box was indeed on top of the gel
                                                > > cels when I started. It's still plugged in, I just left it off to the side
                                                > > when I took the gels out.
                                                > > However I don't think I have the actual AC junction box anymore. Someone
                                                > > had changed the charger to a Zivan NG5 before I bought the car, maybe the
                                                > > junction box was lost then. I do know the AC power came straight into the
                                                > > NG5.
                                                > > Insulation I hadn't thought about too much- the gels came with a bunch of
                                                > > pink- type insulation material which I used around the lithiums too. I was
                                                > > just going to close up the box and see how well it did.
                                                > > Wade Perry
                                                > >
                                                > > On Sun, Dec 2, 2012 at 6:59 AM, Chandler Chip <cchandler66@...>wrote:
                                                > >
                                                > > > On the file listing for this website, check out the 1998 Force Service
                                                > > > manual (Silverman), pages 49 and 53 in the appendix. They show the wiring
                                                > > > for the Thermal Management System starting from the AC junction box near
                                                > > > the charger and leading to the temp sensor boxes, one in each battery box,
                                                > > > if you still have the components for them. Those sensor boxes should be
                                                > > > installed on top of the batteries. Are your heating mats still in the
                                                > > > battery boxes under your new batteries? What insulation do you plan on
                                                > > > installing under and around your cells?
                                                > > >
                                                > > >
                                                > > > Chip Chandler
                                                > > > cchandler66@...
                                                > > >
                                                > > > On Dec 2, 2012, at 1:47 AM, Wade Perry <perrypeas@...> wrote:
                                                > > >
                                                > > > > Greetings all- I've driven over 1,000 miles on lithium now.
                                                > > > >
                                                > > > > I drove a fair bit today, it was mostly empty when I was coming back home
                                                > > > > from the last errand so I thought I'd take the long way home and
                                                > > > discharge
                                                > > > > a bit more than I usually do. Until today the maximum I'd taken out is
                                                > > > > probably around 45 Ahr. I had set my limit around 50 to be safe.
                                                > > > > So after I got home I drove the block a few times with the heater on.
                                                > > > Went
                                                > > > > well past 50. I measured pack voltage and some individual cells while I
                                                > > > > did this and felt fairly safe as I was getting down towards the bottom.
                                                > > > > Finally drove it around one last time in econ with no heater and it was
                                                > > > > around 57.5 when I was done. Then I ran the heater by itself to get it to
                                                > > > > 59. Took the voltage on each cell.
                                                > > > > Made a new column to my battery balancing spreadsheet, it's here-
                                                > > > >
                                                > > > https://docs.google.com/spreadsheet/pub?key=0An5nm8itUMMcdHhQV3RsSUdfbzRTQkFlNmtaSy05MHc&output=html
                                                > > > >
                                                > > > > The cells were springing back as I was measuring them. When I was done I
                                                > > > > went back and measured CK, where I'd started measuring the pack. it was
                                                > > > > .04 volts higher than I'd written down the first time. By the time I was
                                                > > > > finishing measuring, all the cells were coming in around 3.04 or 3.05. So
                                                > > > > they're reasonably well balanced.
                                                > > > >
                                                > > > > One cell stands out. JA. It measured 2.93 when its adjacent cells were
                                                > > > > measuring an entire ~0.10 volt higher. I haven't figured it out yet.
                                                > > > > Other than it happens to be the one that I noticed arrived from the
                                                > > > > factory at 4.23% below 50% SOC. You can see that on the sheet. It stood
                                                > > > > out at the time because all the other cells came in at 1 or 2% over 50.
                                                > > > > This was the only one that was below, and by a fair amount.
                                                > > > >
                                                > > > > Anyway then I ran the heater some more, watching JA in particular. It
                                                > > > > would have been cool to have a graph of all the cells at once. But they
                                                > > > > were falling off quite quickly. Some dipped down to 2.75 or so. JA dipped
                                                > > > > all the way down to 2.50. But I discharged down to a full 60.00 Ahr on my
                                                > > > > counter! Finished with a pack voltage of around 160. (which was
                                                > > > > undoubtedly springing up also. I didn't wait around to check but plugged
                                                > > > > in the charger so I can drive again tomorrow)
                                                > > > >
                                                > > > > This is great, because I had feared I was losing capacity permanently by
                                                > > > > charging below freezing. I'd hoped this wasn't the case, but was
                                                > > > concerned
                                                > > > > because on especially cold days there'd be +1.00 or +2.00 Ahr still left
                                                > > > on
                                                > > > > the counter when the charger shut off. Warmer days I'd be back to -0.14
                                                > > > or
                                                > > > > something like that. I'd been worried that I was gradually damaging the
                                                > > > > cells.
                                                > > > >
                                                > > > > Apparently I'm not. Or at least not to the extent I'd feared. This is
                                                > > > > with a battery box that's not even put together yet- the 60 Ahr cells are
                                                > > > > taller than the gels I took out, so when I finally do get things put
                                                > > > > together properly, I'll need to shim the cover over the battery box.
                                                > > > Right
                                                > > > > now it rests on top of the cells, so there's probably a 1" space all
                                                > > > > around, letting cold air in. I did put in a 60watt incandescent light
                                                > > > bulb
                                                > > > > back there to keep things warmer (and bright and cheery) in the battery
                                                > > > > box, whenever the car's plugged in.
                                                > > > >
                                                > > > > So. What I'd really like to do is hook up the Solectria heating mats to
                                                > > > AC
                                                > > > > power, so I can be more setup for winter. I myself took it apart back in
                                                > > > > August, but obviously didn't pay much attention to what I was doing. I've
                                                > > > > searched this list repeatedly but can't find anything that talks about
                                                > > > > where the AC power hooks up to the heaters / sensors... Can anyone point
                                                > > > > me to a resource about this?
                                                > > > >
                                                > > > > Thanks for the help!
                                                > > > >
                                                > > > > Wade Perry
                                                > > > > 1998 Force
                                                > > > > 56 CALB CA 60 Ahr
                                                > > > >
                                                > > > > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                                                > > > >
                                                > > > >
                                                > > >
                                                > > >
                                                > > >
                                                > > > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                                                > > >
                                                > > >
                                                > > >
                                                > > > ------------------------------------
                                                > > >
                                                > > > Yahoo! Groups Links
                                                > > >
                                                > > >
                                                > > >
                                                > > >
                                                > >
                                                > > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                                                > >
                                                > >
                                                >
                                                >
                                                >
                                                > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                                                >
                                              • Wolf
                                                The internals, (caps, MOSFETs) are rated at 250 Volts, but I would not recommend running that close to the limit... I don t have a working AMC325 at the
                                                Message 23 of 29 , Dec 3, 2012
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                                                  The internals, (caps, MOSFETs) are rated at 250 Volts, but I would not
                                                  recommend running that close to the limit...

                                                  I don't have a working AMC325 at the moment, but of you connect to one with
                                                  the AMC program, and then download the config file.

                                                  Change the high voltage limit to 999 and then the program will change it to
                                                  the max allowed voltage.

                                                  On the AMC320 it is 180 volts.

                                                  Using the ratio 180V/12 = 15V
                                                  Then the AMC325 should be 15*15 = 225 Volts max.

                                                  Due so at your own risk. ;)
                                                  On Dec 3, 2012 3:30 PM, "Wade Perry" <perrypeas@...> wrote:

                                                  > **
                                                  >
                                                  >
                                                  > Hi Wolf.
                                                  > Yes that was my understanding.
                                                  > It's been below freezing recently, sometimes a fair bit below freezing,
                                                  > like -15C. My kids are enjoying our backyard skating rink.
                                                  > But I knew the cells wouldn't be as cold as the outside air because I've
                                                  > been driving them, and recharging, both of which should generate some heat
                                                  > within the cell itself. However they don't generate all that much heat
                                                  > really even when you're pushing them, which a Force isn't really capable of
                                                  > doing anyway, so I was nervous. The phenomenon that Bouty and Tom are
                                                  > calling "precession" was getting me concerned. Especially because it
                                                  > happened when it was COLDER. That's why I was so happy to get the full
                                                  > 60Ahr out... But the full capacity might be partly because I'm breaking
                                                  > the cells in too.
                                                  >
                                                  > Wolf a question for you- What do you think is the maximum voltage the
                                                  > AC325 controller can handle? I have 56 cells in the car now, could I add
                                                  > any more??? :)
                                                  >
                                                  > Bouty- I don't understand why you should see a higher incidence of
                                                  > precession when it's warmer, while I see a higher incidence when it's
                                                  > colder.
                                                  >
                                                  > Wade
                                                  >
                                                  > On Sun, Dec 2, 2012 at 10:23 AM, Wolf <wolf@...> wrote:
                                                  >
                                                  > > I would not charge lithium ion batteries that are below freezing, you
                                                  > will
                                                  > > electroplate metallic lithium and ruin the battery.
                                                  > >
                                                  > > Do a quick Google search on electroplating lithium when charging below
                                                  > > freezing.
                                                  > > On Dec 2, 2012 12:47 AM, "Wade Perry" <perrypeas@...> wrote:
                                                  > >
                                                  > > > **
                                                  > > >
                                                  > > >
                                                  > > > Greetings all- I've driven over 1,000 miles on lithium now.
                                                  > > >
                                                  > > > I drove a fair bit today, it was mostly empty when I was coming back
                                                  > home
                                                  > > > from the last errand so I thought I'd take the long way home and
                                                  > > discharge
                                                  > > > a bit more than I usually do. Until today the maximum I'd taken out is
                                                  > > > probably around 45 Ahr. I had set my limit around 50 to be safe.
                                                  > > > So after I got home I drove the block a few times with the heater on.
                                                  > > Went
                                                  > > > well past 50. I measured pack voltage and some individual cells while I
                                                  > > > did this and felt fairly safe as I was getting down towards the bottom.
                                                  > > > Finally drove it around one last time in econ with no heater and it was
                                                  > > > around 57.5 when I was done. Then I ran the heater by itself to get it
                                                  > to
                                                  > > > 59. Took the voltage on each cell.
                                                  > > > Made a new column to my battery balancing spreadsheet, it's here-
                                                  > > >
                                                  > > >
                                                  > >
                                                  > https://docs.google.com/spreadsheet/pub?key=0An5nm8itUMMcdHhQV3RsSUdfbzRTQkFlNmtaSy05MHc&output=html
                                                  > > >
                                                  > > > The cells were springing back as I was measuring them. When I was done
                                                  > I
                                                  > > > went back and measured CK, where I'd started measuring the pack. it was
                                                  > > > .04 volts higher than I'd written down the first time. By the time I
                                                  > was
                                                  > > > finishing measuring, all the cells were coming in around 3.04 or 3.05.
                                                  > So
                                                  > > > they're reasonably well balanced.
                                                  > > >
                                                  > > > One cell stands out. JA. It measured 2.93 when its adjacent cells were
                                                  > > > measuring an entire ~0.10 volt higher. I haven't figured it out yet.
                                                  > > > Other than it happens to be the one that I noticed arrived from the
                                                  > > > factory at 4.23% below 50% SOC. You can see that on the sheet. It stood
                                                  > > > out at the time because all the other cells came in at 1 or 2% over 50.
                                                  > > > This was the only one that was below, and by a fair amount.
                                                  > > >
                                                  > > > Anyway then I ran the heater some more, watching JA in particular. It
                                                  > > > would have been cool to have a graph of all the cells at once. But they
                                                  > > > were falling off quite quickly. Some dipped down to 2.75 or so. JA
                                                  > dipped
                                                  > > > all the way down to 2.50. But I discharged down to a full 60.00 Ahr on
                                                  > my
                                                  > > > counter! Finished with a pack voltage of around 160. (which was
                                                  > > > undoubtedly springing up also. I didn't wait around to check but
                                                  > plugged
                                                  > > > in the charger so I can drive again tomorrow)
                                                  > > >
                                                  > > > This is great, because I had feared I was losing capacity permanently
                                                  > by
                                                  > > > charging below freezing. I'd hoped this wasn't the case, but was
                                                  > > concerned
                                                  > > > because on especially cold days there'd be +1.00 or +2.00 Ahr still
                                                  > left
                                                  > > on
                                                  > > > the counter when the charger shut off. Warmer days I'd be back to -0.14
                                                  > > or
                                                  > > > something like that. I'd been worried that I was gradually damaging the
                                                  > > > cells.
                                                  > > >
                                                  > > > Apparently I'm not. Or at least not to the extent I'd feared. This is
                                                  > > > with a battery box that's not even put together yet- the 60 Ahr cells
                                                  > are
                                                  > > > taller than the gels I took out, so when I finally do get things put
                                                  > > > together properly, I'll need to shim the cover over the battery box.
                                                  > > Right
                                                  > > > now it rests on top of the cells, so there's probably a 1" space all
                                                  > > > around, letting cold air in. I did put in a 60watt incandescent light
                                                  > > bulb
                                                  > > > back there to keep things warmer (and bright and cheery) in the battery
                                                  > > > box, whenever the car's plugged in.
                                                  > > >
                                                  > > > So. What I'd really like to do is hook up the Solectria heating mats to
                                                  > > AC
                                                  > > > power, so I can be more setup for winter. I myself took it apart back
                                                  > in
                                                  > > > August, but obviously didn't pay much attention to what I was doing.
                                                  > I've
                                                  > > > searched this list repeatedly but can't find anything that talks about
                                                  > > > where the AC power hooks up to the heaters / sensors... Can anyone
                                                  > point
                                                  > > > me to a resource about this?
                                                  > > >
                                                  > > > Thanks for the help!
                                                  > > >
                                                  > > > Wade Perry
                                                  > > > 1998 Force
                                                  > > > 56 CALB CA 60 Ahr
                                                  > > >
                                                  > > > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                                                  > > >
                                                  > > >
                                                  > > >
                                                  > >
                                                  > >
                                                  > > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                                                  > >
                                                  > >
                                                  > >
                                                  > > ------------------------------------
                                                  > >
                                                  > > Yahoo! Groups Links
                                                  > >
                                                  > >
                                                  > >
                                                  > >
                                                  >
                                                  > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                                                  >
                                                  >
                                                  >


                                                  [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                                                • d. Bouton Baldridge
                                                  Hi Rex, you have done well getting 7 years and 22,000 miles. I have not been so fortunate with Pb. Ok not too sure of the miles maybe 3000. Since the main
                                                  Message 24 of 29 , Dec 3, 2012
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                                                    Hi Rex, you have done well getting 7 years and 22,000 miles. I have not been so fortunate with Pb.
                                                    Ok not too sure of the miles maybe 3000. Since the main reason for a small pack was cost I also adopted a different attitude for the car. Being an early model the 30 -40 mile range on 90 ah  l/a is still pretty much possible with the 40 Ah lithium. Not needing to drive that much every a day any longer (retired) I wanted to find a solution to the problem of replacing packs every 18 months or 2 years. My goal was to get the overall cost of driving electric down, and replacing packs so frequently was the number one culprit. Since my lithium pack cost just a bit more than the Pb four years ago, I feel that my goal is proving to be successful. I have added the solar feature to not only reduce the cost more, but I wanted to prove to myself that it could be done without using supplemental power which now influences my driving as well. I will have driven 2.5 years without even plugging in. I drive only the distance that will allow me to recharge from the sun
                                                    the next day, which is qute a challenge during the winter. So distance driving is for somebody else. Range anxiety is an issue all of us EVers  have to deal with in our public image. If you want to go long distances in an EV it can be done but at a steep price for a large pack, but how much do you really need? Those 3000 miles were hundreds of short trips like the average driver does every day; if an ICE were used they would be the least efficient and most polluting miles, not so with an EV. Hope this helps.
                                                    Bouty



                                                    ________________________________
                                                    From: Rex Allison <ev64bug@...>
                                                    To: "solectria_ev@yahoogroups.com" <solectria_ev@yahoogroups.com>
                                                    Sent: Monday, December 3, 2012 11:33 AM
                                                    Subject: Re: [solectria_ev] Thermal Management System

                                                     
                                                    I have one question for Bouty:
                                                    How many miles do you have on your pack?

                                                    One question for the group:
                                                    Does anyone have the dimension for the inside of the front battery box?

                                                    I'm really interesting in Bouty's configuration. After 7 years and 22,000 miles my poor old Pb pack is on it's last legs. I'm able to get 22 to 24Ahrs out of the pack which is enough for a round trip to work and a very short side trip. Since the pack is fairly weak it takes 1.5 to 1.6Ahr per mile.  I'm trying to hold out until summer for my switch to lithium when the weather is a little better and I have my battery monitor tested out. I'm interested in putting 49 40Ahr CALB "grey" cells (CA40BFI) for a couple of reasons:

                                                    1.  If my measurements are correct the complete pack should fit in the front battery box in a 7x7 array. By moving the charger up front all the 156V wiring will be under the hood with a very short run between the pack and the controller.

                                                    2. The pack cost
                                                    is comparable to if not cheaper than the Deka equivalent. 40Ahr CALBs are around $55 each. 49 x $55 = $2,695 before tax and shipping.  13 Deka batteries would have to be $207 just to be comparable ($2,695 / 13 = $207 approx.)

                                                    3. My car will be shedding 661lb. The CALB cells at 3.3lb each x 49 = 161 lb vs the 822lb (63.2lb x 13) of the current pack. I'm probably going to have to find the original springs for the Geo, otherwise the car will feel like it is permanently going down a hill.

                                                    4. The "blue" CALBs (SE40AHA) already have fantastic C ratings and the "grey" cells have better cold weather performance. The max current of the force at around 240A dc should be no problem for the 40Ahr cells, they should be able to handle C6. There is some interesting test data on the cells: http://blog.evtv.me/2012/06/battery-jump-shift/

                                                    I know the general consensus is that 60 Ahr or 100 Ahr is preferable, but I've been logging all my driving for the past 7 years, most days I use between 16Ahrs and 20Ahrs and only a few times did I even come close to 35Ahrs.

                                                    ________________________________
                                                    From: d. Bouton Baldridge <mailto:cfrkeepr%40yahoo.com>
                                                    To: "mailto:solectria_ev%40yahoogroups.com" <mailto:solectria_ev%40yahoogroups.com>
                                                    Sent: Sunday, December 2, 2012 7:26 AM
                                                    Subject: Re: [solectria_ev] Thermal Management System


                                                     
                                                    Hi Wade,
                                                     In my opinion, the balance thing has been greatly over blown and your readings are perefectly acceptable especially after using so much capacity having only +/-.1 v or so from the mean is fantastic. The big thing is avoiding going beyond the knees and your system seems to be working just fine doing that. As for the Ahmeter issue, It has been my experience that voltage is not a reliable means for determining capacity. In my case I have found the reaching the limiting voltage was caused by the pack warming up; for me it was the sun. Now that the ambient temperature is lower in the winter season my charge resets closer to zero, but in summer it stops on the plus side by .1 ah each cycle when the outside temp is above 80 degrees. My guess for you is that when you charge for a few hours, the pack temp increases higher than when you were driving and the voltage is slightly higher as a result this stops the charger earlier than
                                                    the previous Ahour
                                                    reading. I am not sure if this is happening as a function of breaking in or aging. But it was not an issue with lead since it woul be overcharged routinely and had the automatic reset.  I am a few months shy of 4 years and this slight precession is only an annoyance it has not seemed to impact the utility of my pack. Since I have a pretty long warm season I would just occasionaly reset the Ah meter to zero just so I wouldn't have to remember every time. Now that my cells are getting twice as old as any Pb pack would last, I am getting into new territory for longevity and at some point I might find some of these answers, but for now I am saying congratulation on your project FWIW,
                                                    Bouty

                                                    ________________________________
                                                    From: Wade Perry <mailto:perrypeas%40gmail.com>
                                                    To: mailto:solectria_ev%40yahoogroups.com
                                                    Sent: Sunday, December 2, 2012 1:47 AM
                                                    Subject: [solectria_ev] Thermal Management System

                                                     
                                                    Greetings all- I've driven over 1,000 miles on lithium now.

                                                    I drove a fair bit today, it was mostly empty when I was coming back home
                                                    from the last errand so I thought I'd take the long way home and discharge
                                                    a bit more than I usually do. Until today the maximum I'd taken out is
                                                    probably around 45 Ahr. I had set my limit around 50 to be safe.
                                                    So after I got home I drove the block a few times with the heater on. Went
                                                    well past 50. I measured pack voltage and some individual cells while I
                                                    did this and felt fairly safe as I was getting down towards the bottom.
                                                    Finally drove it around one last time in econ with no heater and it was
                                                    around 57.5 when I was done. Then I ran the heater by itself to get it to
                                                    59. Took the voltage on each cell.
                                                    Made a new column to my battery balancing spreadsheet, it's here-
                                                    https://docs.google.com/spreadsheet/pub?key=0An5nm8itUMMcdHhQV3RsSUdfbzRTQkFlNmtaSy05MHc&output=html

                                                    The cells were springing back as I was measuring them. When I was done I
                                                    went back and measured CK, where I'd started measuring the pack. it was
                                                    .04 volts higher than I'd written down the first time. By the time I was
                                                    finishing measuring, all the cells were coming in around 3.04 or 3.05. So
                                                    they're reasonably well balanced.

                                                    One cell stands out. JA. It measured 2.93 when its adjacent cells were
                                                    measuring an entire ~0.10 volt higher. I haven't figured it out yet.
                                                    Other than it happens to be the one that I noticed arrived from the
                                                    factory at 4.23% below 50% SOC. You can see that on the sheet. It stood
                                                    out at the time because all the other cells came in at 1 or 2% over 50.
                                                    This was the only one that was below, and by a fair amount.

                                                    Anyway then I ran the heater some more, watching JA in particular. It
                                                    would have been cool to have a graph of all the cells at once. But they
                                                    were falling off quite quickly. Some dipped down to 2.75 or so. JA dipped
                                                    all the way down to 2.50. But I discharged down to a full 60.00 Ahr on my
                                                    counter! Finished with a pack voltage of around 160. (which was
                                                    undoubtedly springing up also. I didn't wait around to check but plugged
                                                    in the charger so I can drive again tomorrow)

                                                    This is great, because I had feared I was losing capacity permanently by
                                                    charging below freezing. I'd hoped this wasn't the case, but was concerned
                                                    because on especially cold days there'd be +1.00 or +2.00 Ahr still left on
                                                    the counter when the charger shut off. Warmer days I'd be back to -0.14 or
                                                    something like that. I'd been worried that I was gradually damaging the
                                                    cells.

                                                    Apparently I'm not. Or at least not to the extent I'd feared. This is
                                                    with a battery box that's not even put together yet- the 60 Ahr cells are
                                                    taller than the gels I took out, so when I finally do get things put
                                                    together properly, I'll need to shim the cover over the battery box. Right
                                                    now it rests on top of the cells, so there's probably a 1" space all
                                                    around, letting cold air in. I did put in a 60watt incandescent light bulb
                                                    back there to keep things warmer (and bright and cheery) in the battery
                                                    box, whenever the car's plugged in.

                                                    So. What I'd really like to do is hook up the Solectria heating mats to AC
                                                    power, so I can be more setup for winter. I myself took it apart back in
                                                    August, but obviously didn't pay much attention to what I was doing. I've
                                                    searched this list repeatedly but can't find anything that talks about
                                                    where the AC power hooks up to the heaters / sensors... Can anyone point
                                                    me to a resource about this?

                                                    Thanks for the help!

                                                    Wade Perry
                                                    1998 Force
                                                    56 CALB CA 60 Ahr

                                                    [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]

                                                    [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]

                                                    [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]




                                                    [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                                                  • d. Bouton Baldridge
                                                    Hi Wade,  It is only a theory but I think that while you are charging at the higher rate steady state it tends to heat the cell electrolite higher than when
                                                    Message 25 of 29 , Dec 3, 2012
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                                                      Hi Wade,
                                                       It is only a theory but I think that while you are charging at the higher rate steady state it tends to heat the cell electrolite higher than when you were driving; in my case the cells are heated by the high outside temps and cabin. A warmer cell increases the voltage and thus the charger reaches voltage limit before the entire Ah capacity is reached just slightly less. I have withnesses my cell arround 90 degrees F and the car acts like it is in power mode good acceleration and the converse is true when they are below 50 F, so I know that these cells behave this way. So your cells are colder before charging, I think.
                                                      Bouty 


                                                      ________________________________
                                                      From: Wade Perry <perrypeas@...>
                                                      To: solectria_ev@yahoogroups.com
                                                      Sent: Monday, December 3, 2012 4:30 PM
                                                      Subject: Re: [solectria_ev] Thermal Management System

                                                       
                                                      Hi Wolf.
                                                      Yes that was my understanding.
                                                      It's been below freezing recently, sometimes a fair bit below freezing,
                                                      like -15C. My kids are enjoying our backyard skating rink.
                                                      But I knew the cells wouldn't be as cold as the outside air because I've
                                                      been driving them, and recharging, both of which should generate some heat
                                                      within the cell itself. However they don't generate all that much heat
                                                      really even when you're pushing them, which a Force isn't really capable of
                                                      doing anyway, so I was nervous. The phenomenon that Bouty and Tom are
                                                      calling "precession" was getting me concerned. Especially because it
                                                      happened when it was COLDER. That's why I was so happy to get the full
                                                      60Ahr out... But the full capacity might be partly because I'm breaking
                                                      the cells in too.

                                                      Wolf a question for you- What do you think is the maximum voltage the
                                                      AC325 controller can handle? I have 56 cells in the car now, could I add
                                                      any more??? :)

                                                      Bouty- I don't understand why you should see a higher incidence of
                                                      precession when it's warmer, while I see a higher incidence when it's
                                                      colder.

                                                      Wade

                                                      On Sun, Dec 2, 2012 at 10:23 AM, Wolf <mailto:wolf%40wolftronix.com> wrote:

                                                      > I would not charge lithium ion batteries that are below freezing, you will
                                                      > electroplate metallic lithium and ruin the battery.
                                                      >
                                                      > Do a quick Google search on electroplating lithium when charging below
                                                      > freezing.
                                                      > On Dec 2, 2012 12:47 AM, "Wade Perry" <mailto:perrypeas%40gmail.com> wrote:
                                                      >
                                                      > > **
                                                      > >
                                                      > >
                                                      > > Greetings all- I've driven over 1,000 miles on lithium now.
                                                      > >
                                                      > > I drove a fair bit today, it was mostly empty when I was coming back home
                                                      > > from the last errand so I thought I'd take the long way home and
                                                      > discharge
                                                      > > a bit more than I usually do. Until today the maximum I'd taken out is
                                                      > > probably around 45 Ahr. I had set my limit around 50 to be safe.
                                                      > > So after I got home I drove the block a few times with the heater on.
                                                      > Went
                                                      > > well past 50. I measured pack voltage and some individual cells while I
                                                      > > did this and felt fairly safe as I was getting down towards the bottom.
                                                      > > Finally drove it around one last time in econ with no heater and it was
                                                      > > around 57.5 when I was done. Then I ran the heater by itself to get it to
                                                      > > 59. Took the voltage on each cell.
                                                      > > Made a new column to my battery balancing spreadsheet, it's here-
                                                      > >
                                                      > >
                                                      > https://docs.google.com/spreadsheet/pub?key=0An5nm8itUMMcdHhQV3RsSUdfbzRTQkFlNmtaSy05MHc&output=html
                                                      > >
                                                      > > The cells were springing back as I was measuring them. When I was done I
                                                      > > went back and measured CK, where I'd started measuring the pack. it was
                                                      > > .04 volts higher than I'd written down the first time. By the time I was
                                                      > > finishing measuring, all the cells were coming in around 3.04 or 3.05. So
                                                      > > they're reasonably well balanced.
                                                      > >
                                                      > > One cell stands out. JA. It measured 2.93 when its adjacent cells were
                                                      > > measuring an entire ~0.10 volt higher. I haven't figured it out yet.
                                                      > > Other than it happens to be the one that I noticed arrived from the
                                                      > > factory at 4.23% below 50% SOC. You can see that on the sheet. It stood
                                                      > > out at the time because all the other cells came in at 1 or 2% over 50.
                                                      > > This was the only one that was below, and by a fair amount.
                                                      > >
                                                      > > Anyway then I ran the heater some more, watching JA in particular. It
                                                      > > would have been cool to have a graph of all the cells at once. But they
                                                      > > were falling off quite quickly. Some dipped down to 2.75 or so. JA dipped
                                                      > > all the way down to 2.50. But I discharged down to a full 60.00 Ahr on my
                                                      > > counter! Finished with a pack voltage of around 160. (which was
                                                      > > undoubtedly springing up also. I didn't wait around to check but plugged
                                                      > > in the charger so I can drive again tomorrow)
                                                      > >
                                                      > > This is great, because I had feared I was losing capacity permanently by
                                                      > > charging below freezing. I'd hoped this wasn't the case, but was
                                                      > concerned
                                                      > > because on especially cold days there'd be +1.00 or +2.00 Ahr still left
                                                      > on
                                                      > > the counter when the charger shut off. Warmer days I'd be back to -0.14
                                                      > or
                                                      > > something like that. I'd been worried that I was gradually damaging the
                                                      > > cells.
                                                      > >
                                                      > > Apparently I'm not. Or at least not to the extent I'd feared. This is
                                                      > > with a battery box that's not even put together yet- the 60 Ahr cells are
                                                      > > taller than the gels I took out, so when I finally do get things put
                                                      > > together properly, I'll need to shim the cover over the battery box.
                                                      > Right
                                                      > > now it rests on top of the cells, so there's probably a 1" space all
                                                      > > around, letting cold air in. I did put in a 60watt incandescent light
                                                      > bulb
                                                      > > back there to keep things warmer (and bright and cheery) in the battery
                                                      > > box, whenever the car's plugged in.
                                                      > >
                                                      > > So. What I'd really like to do is hook up the Solectria heating mats to
                                                      > AC
                                                      > > power, so I can be more setup for winter. I myself took it apart back in
                                                      > > August, but obviously didn't pay much attention to what I was doing. I've
                                                      > > searched this list repeatedly but can't find anything that talks about
                                                      > > where the AC power hooks up to the heaters / sensors... Can anyone point
                                                      > > me to a resource about this?
                                                      > >
                                                      > > Thanks for the help!
                                                      > >
                                                      > > Wade Perry
                                                      > > 1998 Force
                                                      > > 56 CALB CA 60 Ahr
                                                      > >
                                                      > > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                                                      > >
                                                      > >
                                                      > >
                                                      >
                                                      >
                                                      > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                                                      >
                                                      >
                                                      >
                                                      > ------------------------------------
                                                      >
                                                      > Yahoo! Groups Links
                                                      >
                                                      >
                                                      >
                                                      >

                                                      [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]




                                                      [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                                                    • theoldcars@aol.com
                                                      Just a word of warning The CALB cells are not rated as many sellers on the Internet are showing 3C and 4C on their web sites. The SE series was rated by CALB
                                                      Message 26 of 29 , Dec 3, 2012
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                                                        Just a word of warning

                                                        The CALB cells are not rated as many sellers on the Internet are showing 3C
                                                        and 4C on their web sites. The SE series was rated by CALB at 1C and many
                                                        have put them under loads of 3C or 4C. There is no data that I am aware of
                                                        that shows cycle life under these higher C rates but it will be less.

                                                        The new CA series which are also called the gray cells are rated at 2C by
                                                        CALB.

                                                        If your going to put a higher C rate on a CALB cell I would recommend it be
                                                        the CA series.

                                                        CALB for the most part has stopped selling the SE series except for a few
                                                        sizes. The demand for the SE series has almost totally gone away with the
                                                        release of the CA series.

                                                        Jack from EVTV gives out some off some really off the wall advise and
                                                        information. While some of what he does is good he also chimes in with baseless
                                                        comments or beliefs that have no merit.

                                                        On the 40Ah cells your going to see far more voltage sag under load. Cycle
                                                        life would be less but as you point out its going to be a savings
                                                        regardless over lead. I would highly recommend the CA 60Ah cells. The 60Ah cells
                                                        hold their voltage very well. I know of one person who parallel two 40Ah of
                                                        SE40 and their voltage sags more then a pack of 60Ah CA cells in series.

                                                        Don Blazer


                                                        In a message dated 12/3/2012 8:34:09 A.M. Pacific Standard Time,
                                                        ev64bug@... writes:




                                                        I have one question for Bouty:
                                                        How many miles do you have on your pack?

                                                        One question for the group:
                                                        Does anyone have the dimension for the inside of the front battery box?

                                                        I'm really interesting in Bouty's configuration. After 7 years and 22,000
                                                        miles my poor old Pb pack is on it's last legs. I'm able to get 22 to
                                                        24Ahrs out of the pack which is enough for a round trip to work and a very short
                                                        side trip. Since the pack is fairly weak it takes 1.5 to 1.6Ahr per mile.
                                                        I'm trying to hold out until summer for my switch to lithium when the
                                                        weather is a little better and I have my battery monitor tested out. I'm
                                                        interested in putting 49 40Ahr CALB "grey" cells (CA40BFI) for a couple of
                                                        reasons:

                                                        1. If my measurements are correct the complete pack should fit in the
                                                        front battery box in a 7x7 array. By moving the charger up front all the 156V
                                                        wiring will be under the hood with a very short run between the pack and
                                                        the controller.

                                                        2. The pack cost
                                                        is comparable to if not cheaper than the Deka equivalent. 40Ahr CALBs are
                                                        around $55 each. 49 x $55 = $2,695 before tax and shipping. 13 Deka
                                                        batteries would have to be $207 just to be comparable ($2,695 / 13 = $207 approx.)

                                                        3. My car will be shedding 661lb. The CALB cells at 3.3lb each x 49 = 161
                                                        lb vs the 822lb (63.2lb x 13) of the current pack. I'm probably going to
                                                        have to find the original springs for the Geo, otherwise the car will feel
                                                        like it is permanently going down a hill.

                                                        4. The "blue" CALBs (SE40AHA) already have fantastic C ratings and the
                                                        "grey" cells have better cold weather performance. The max current of the
                                                        force at around 240A dc should be no problem for the 40Ahr cells, they should
                                                        be able to handle C6. There is some interesting test data on the cells:
                                                        _http://blog.evtv.me/2012/06/battery-jump-shift/_
                                                        (http://blog.evtv.me/2012/06/battery-jump-shift/)

                                                        I know the general consensus is that 60 Ahr or 100 Ahr is preferable, but
                                                        I've been logging all my driving for the past 7 years, most days I use
                                                        between 16Ahrs and 20Ahrs and only a few times did I even come close to 35Ahrs.

                                                        ________________________________
                                                        From: d. Bouton Baldridge <_cfrkeepr@..._
                                                        (mailto:cfrkeepr@...) >
                                                        To: "_solectria_ev@yahoogroups.com_ (mailto:solectria_ev@yahoogroups.com) "
                                                        <_solectria_ev@yahoogroups.com_ (mailto:solectria_ev@yahoogroups.com) >
                                                        Sent: Sunday, December 2, 2012 7:26 AM
                                                        Subject: Re: [solectria_ev] Thermal Management System



                                                        Hi Wade,
                                                        In my opinion, the balance thing has been greatly over blown and your re
                                                        adings are perefectly acceptable especially after using so much capacity
                                                        having only +/-.1 v or so from the mean is fantastic. The big thing is avoiding
                                                        going beyond the knees and your system seems to be working just fine doing
                                                        that. As for the Ahmeter issue, It has been my experience that voltage is
                                                        not a reliable means for determining capacity. In my case I have found the
                                                        reaching the limiting voltage was caused by the pack warming up; for me it
                                                        was the sun. Now that the ambient temperature is lower in the winter season
                                                        my charge resets closer to zero, but in summer it stops on the plus side
                                                        by .1 ah each cycle when the outside temp is above 80 degrees. My guess for
                                                        you is that when you charge for a few hours, the pack temp increases higher
                                                        than when you were driving and the voltage is slightly higher as a result
                                                        this stops the charger earlier than
                                                        the previous Ahour
                                                        reading. I am not sure if this is happening as a function of breaking in
                                                        or aging. But it was not an issue with lead since it woul be overcharged
                                                        routinely and had the automatic reset. I am a few months shy of 4 years and
                                                        this slight precession is only an annoyance it has not seemed to impact the
                                                        utility of my pack. Since I have a pretty long warm season I would just
                                                        occasionaly reset the Ah meter to zero just so I wouldn't have to remember
                                                        every time. Now that my cells are getting twice as old as any Pb pack would
                                                        last, I am getting into new territory for longevity and at some point I might
                                                        find some of these answers, but for now I am saying congratulation on your
                                                        project FWIW,
                                                        Bouty

                                                        ________________________________
                                                        From: Wade Perry <_perrypeas@..._ (mailto:perrypeas@...) >
                                                        To: _solectria_ev@yahoogroups.com_ (mailto:solectria_ev@yahoogroups.com)
                                                        Sent: Sunday, December 2, 2012 1:47 AM
                                                        Subject: [solectria_ev] Thermal Management System


                                                        Greetings all- I've driven over 1,000 miles on lithium now.

                                                        I drove a fair bit today, it was mostly empty when I was coming back home
                                                        from the last errand so I thought I'd take the long way home and discharge
                                                        a bit more than I usually do. Until today the maximum I'd taken out is
                                                        probably around 45 Ahr. I had set my limit around 50 to be safe.
                                                        So after I got home I drove the block a few times with the heater on. Went
                                                        well past 50. I measured pack voltage and some individual cells while I
                                                        did this and felt fairly safe as I was getting down towards the bottom.
                                                        Finally drove it around one last time in econ with no heater and it was
                                                        around 57.5 when I was done. Then I ran the heater by itself to get it to
                                                        59. Took the voltage on each cell.
                                                        Made a new column to my battery balancing spreadsheet, it's here-
                                                        _https://docs.google.com/spreadsheet/pub?key=0An5nm8itUMMcdHhQV3RsSUdfbzRTQk
                                                        FlNmtaSy05MHc&output=html_
                                                        (https://docs.google.com/spreadsheet/pub?key=0An5nm8itUMMcdHhQV3RsSUdfbzRTQkFlNmtaSy05MHc&output=html)

                                                        The cells were springing back as I was measuring them. When I was done I
                                                        went back and measured CK, where I'd started measuring the pack. it was
                                                        .04 volts higher than I'd written down the first time. By the time I was
                                                        finishing measuring, all the cells were coming in around 3.04 or 3.05. So
                                                        they're reasonably well balanced.

                                                        One cell stands out. JA. It measured 2.93 when its adjacent cells were
                                                        measuring an entire ~0.10 volt higher. I haven't figured it out yet.
                                                        Other than it happens to be the one that I noticed arrived from the
                                                        factory at 4.23% below 50% SOC. You can see that on the sheet. It stood
                                                        out at the time because all the other cells came in at 1 or 2% over 50.
                                                        This was the only one that was below, and by a fair amount.

                                                        Anyway then I ran the heater some more, watching JA in particular. It
                                                        would have been cool to have a graph of all the cells at once. But they
                                                        were falling off quite quickly. Some dipped down to 2.75 or so. JA dipped
                                                        all the way down to 2.50. But I discharged down to a full 60.00 Ahr on my
                                                        counter! Finished with a pack voltage of around 160. (which was
                                                        undoubtedly springing up also. I didn't wait around to check but plugged
                                                        in the charger so I can drive again tomorrow)

                                                        This is great, because I had feared I was losing capacity permanently by
                                                        charging below freezing. I'd hoped this wasn't the case, but was concerned
                                                        because on especially cold days there'd be +1.00 or +2.00 Ahr still left on
                                                        the counter when the charger shut off. Warmer days I'd be back to -0.14 or
                                                        something like that. I'd been worried that I was gradually damaging the
                                                        cells.

                                                        Apparently I'm not. Or at least not to the extent I'd feared. This is
                                                        with a battery box that's not even put together yet- the 60 Ahr cells are
                                                        taller than the gels I took out, so when I finally do get things put
                                                        together properly, I'll need to shim the cover over the battery box. Right
                                                        now it rests on top of the cells, so there's probably a 1" space all
                                                        around, letting cold air in. I did put in a 60watt incandescent light bulb
                                                        back there to keep things warmer (and bright and cheery) in the battery
                                                        box, whenever the car's plugged in.

                                                        So. What I'd really like to do is hook up the Solectria heating mats to AC
                                                        power, so I can be more setup for winter. I myself took it apart back in
                                                        August, but obviously didn't pay much attention to what I was doing. I've
                                                        searched this list repeatedly but can't find anything that talks about
                                                        where the AC power hooks up to the heaters / sensors... Can anyone point
                                                        me to a resource about this?

                                                        Thanks for the help!

                                                        Wade Perry
                                                        1998 Force
                                                        56 CALB CA 60 Ahr

                                                        [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]

                                                        [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]

                                                        [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]






                                                        [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                                                      • Chandler Chip
                                                        Geo: Ooops! My brain cramp. Thanks for the correction. Chip Chandler cchandler66@roadrunner.com ... [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                                                        Message 27 of 29 , Dec 4, 2012
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                                                          Geo: Ooops! My brain cramp. Thanks for the correction.

                                                          Chip Chandler
                                                          cchandler66@...

                                                          On Dec 3, 2012, at 7:25 PM, geo_homsy2 <geo.homsy@...> wrote:

                                                          > Chip-
                                                          >
                                                          > are you confusing the charger's thermal monitoring system with the thermal management system?
                                                          >
                                                          > In my 1999 force, the factory stock condition was:
                                                          >
                                                          > * two NTC thermistors mounted inside ring lugs, one screwed onto a battery post in each box, plugged into the charger interface box you describe.
                                                          >
                                                          > * two thermal management boxes, small black plastic, 1x2x4", velcro'd to the top of the batteries, again one in front, one in the rear. These boxes each have a bi-metallic type thermal snap-switch, to turn on the heating pads. They are powered from the AC junction box on the rear-left fender well.
                                                          >
                                                          > It is the latter system I believe Wade is referring to. It is completely independent of the charger.
                                                          >
                                                          > //Geo
                                                          >
                                                          > --- In solectria_ev@yahoogroups.com, Chandler Chip <cchandler66@...> wrote:
                                                          > >
                                                          > > Wade:
                                                          > > The junction box on my 1997 Force leads out of the BC3300 charger and I'll assume it was originally similar for your 1998. Inside this box is a complex circuit board with some of the leads going out to the thermal management system. Matching that circuitry with your Zivan charger might be difficult, but you might go a simpler route as Solectria did in the 1996 Force, just fused leads off the power input before the power leads go to the charger. My 1996 has dual BC1000 chargers, taking only 110 volts, and in the junction box two 12amp 250 volt fuses on the two leads to the temp sensor boxes. Your Zivan and heater pads probably take 240 volts.
                                                          > >
                                                          > > My temp readings are showing quite a difference, as it gets colder here, between the center of the pack and outside edge, both after running and charging. I don't know what long term effects this might have on cell conditions and longevity, that is, having the center cells working at a higher temperature than the cells at the edges (also this would make a complex scenario for precession). I have no insulation (and no room for it), but would recommend as much insulation as you can install, under and around. I found when I tried originally heating lead acid, the electric bill was significant even with insulation. I believe the temp sensors are set for 70F degrees, and it would be wonderful if they could be adjusted to say 40F or replaced for 40F. I am still getting reasonable performance with the center pack starting temp at 25F with 1.5Ah/mile (TS 160Ah cells).
                                                          > >
                                                          > > Chip Chandler
                                                          > > cchandler66@...
                                                          > >
                                                          > > On Dec 3, 2012, at 3:34 PM, Wade Perry <perrypeas@...> wrote:
                                                          > >
                                                          > > > Thanks for the help Chip.
                                                          > > > I see those two pages, that's helpful.
                                                          > > > I kept the heating pads (with the hard plastic over top).
                                                          > > > I still have the temp sensor boxes, I haven't changed any of that (I did
                                                          > > > unplug and remove the ones in the front box).
                                                          > > > The temp sensor box in the rear battery box was indeed on top of the gel
                                                          > > > cels when I started. It's still plugged in, I just left it off to the side
                                                          > > > when I took the gels out.
                                                          > > > However I don't think I have the actual AC junction box anymore. Someone
                                                          > > > had changed the charger to a Zivan NG5 before I bought the car, maybe the
                                                          > > > junction box was lost then. I do know the AC power came straight into the
                                                          > > > NG5.
                                                          > > > Insulation I hadn't thought about too much- the gels came with a bunch of
                                                          > > > pink- type insulation material which I used around the lithiums too. I was
                                                          > > > just going to close up the box and see how well it did.
                                                          > > > Wade Perry
                                                          > > >
                                                          > > > On Sun, Dec 2, 2012 at 6:59 AM, Chandler Chip <cchandler66@...>wrote:
                                                          > > >
                                                          > > > > On the file listing for this website, check out the 1998 Force Service
                                                          > > > > manual (Silverman), pages 49 and 53 in the appendix. They show the wiring
                                                          > > > > for the Thermal Management System starting from the AC junction box near
                                                          > > > > the charger and leading to the temp sensor boxes, one in each battery box,
                                                          > > > > if you still have the components for them. Those sensor boxes should be
                                                          > > > > installed on top of the batteries. Are your heating mats still in the
                                                          > > > > battery boxes under your new batteries? What insulation do you plan on
                                                          > > > > installing under and around your cells?
                                                          > > > >
                                                          > > > >
                                                          > > > > Chip Chandler
                                                          > > > > cchandler66@...
                                                          > > > >
                                                          > > > > On Dec 2, 2012, at 1:47 AM, Wade Perry <perrypeas@...> wrote:
                                                          > > > >
                                                          > > > > > Greetings all- I've driven over 1,000 miles on lithium now.
                                                          > > > > >
                                                          > > > > > I drove a fair bit today, it was mostly empty when I was coming back home
                                                          > > > > > from the last errand so I thought I'd take the long way home and
                                                          > > > > discharge
                                                          > > > > > a bit more than I usually do. Until today the maximum I'd taken out is
                                                          > > > > > probably around 45 Ahr. I had set my limit around 50 to be safe.
                                                          > > > > > So after I got home I drove the block a few times with the heater on.
                                                          > > > > Went
                                                          > > > > > well past 50. I measured pack voltage and some individual cells while I
                                                          > > > > > did this and felt fairly safe as I was getting down towards the bottom.
                                                          > > > > > Finally drove it around one last time in econ with no heater and it was
                                                          > > > > > around 57.5 when I was done. Then I ran the heater by itself to get it to
                                                          > > > > > 59. Took the voltage on each cell.
                                                          > > > > > Made a new column to my battery balancing spreadsheet, it's here-
                                                          > > > > >
                                                          > > > > https://docs.google.com/spreadsheet/pub?key=0An5nm8itUMMcdHhQV3RsSUdfbzRTQkFlNmtaSy05MHc&output=html
                                                          > > > > >
                                                          > > > > > The cells were springing back as I was measuring them. When I was done I
                                                          > > > > > went back and measured CK, where I'd started measuring the pack. it was
                                                          > > > > > .04 volts higher than I'd written down the first time. By the time I was
                                                          > > > > > finishing measuring, all the cells were coming in around 3.04 or 3.05. So
                                                          > > > > > they're reasonably well balanced.
                                                          > > > > >
                                                          > > > > > One cell stands out. JA. It measured 2.93 when its adjacent cells were
                                                          > > > > > measuring an entire ~0.10 volt higher. I haven't figured it out yet.
                                                          > > > > > Other than it happens to be the one that I noticed arrived from the
                                                          > > > > > factory at 4.23% below 50% SOC. You can see that on the sheet. It stood
                                                          > > > > > out at the time because all the other cells came in at 1 or 2% over 50.
                                                          > > > > > This was the only one that was below, and by a fair amount.
                                                          > > > > >
                                                          > > > > > Anyway then I ran the heater some more, watching JA in particular. It
                                                          > > > > > would have been cool to have a graph of all the cells at once. But they
                                                          > > > > > were falling off quite quickly. Some dipped down to 2.75 or so. JA dipped
                                                          > > > > > all the way down to 2.50. But I discharged down to a full 60.00 Ahr on my
                                                          > > > > > counter! Finished with a pack voltage of around 160. (which was
                                                          > > > > > undoubtedly springing up also. I didn't wait around to check but plugged
                                                          > > > > > in the charger so I can drive again tomorrow)
                                                          > > > > >
                                                          > > > > > This is great, because I had feared I was losing capacity permanently by
                                                          > > > > > charging below freezing. I'd hoped this wasn't the case, but was
                                                          > > > > concerned
                                                          > > > > > because on especially cold days there'd be +1.00 or +2.00 Ahr still left
                                                          > > > > on
                                                          > > > > > the counter when the charger shut off. Warmer days I'd be back to -0.14
                                                          > > > > or
                                                          > > > > > something like that. I'd been worried that I was gradually damaging the
                                                          > > > > > cells.
                                                          > > > > >
                                                          > > > > > Apparently I'm not. Or at least not to the extent I'd feared. This is
                                                          > > > > > with a battery box that's not even put together yet- the 60 Ahr cells are
                                                          > > > > > taller than the gels I took out, so when I finally do get things put
                                                          > > > > > together properly, I'll need to shim the cover over the battery box.
                                                          > > > > Right
                                                          > > > > > now it rests on top of the cells, so there's probably a 1" space all
                                                          > > > > > around, letting cold air in. I did put in a 60watt incandescent light
                                                          > > > > bulb
                                                          > > > > > back there to keep things warmer (and bright and cheery) in the battery
                                                          > > > > > box, whenever the car's plugged in.
                                                          > > > > >
                                                          > > > > > So. What I'd really like to do is hook up the Solectria heating mats to
                                                          > > > > AC
                                                          > > > > > power, so I can be more setup for winter. I myself took it apart back in
                                                          > > > > > August, but obviously didn't pay much attention to what I was doing. I've
                                                          > > > > > searched this list repeatedly but can't find anything that talks about
                                                          > > > > > where the AC power hooks up to the heaters / sensors... Can anyone point
                                                          > > > > > me to a resource about this?
                                                          > > > > >
                                                          > > > > > Thanks for the help!
                                                          > > > > >
                                                          > > > > > Wade Perry
                                                          > > > > > 1998 Force
                                                          > > > > > 56 CALB CA 60 Ahr
                                                          > > > > >
                                                          > > > > > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                                                          > > > > >
                                                          > > > > >
                                                          > > > >
                                                          > > > >
                                                          > > > >
                                                          > > > > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                                                          > > > >
                                                          > > > >
                                                          > > > >
                                                          > > > > ------------------------------------
                                                          > > > >
                                                          > > > > Yahoo! Groups Links
                                                          > > > >
                                                          > > > >
                                                          > > > >
                                                          > > > >
                                                          > > >
                                                          > > > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                                                          > > >
                                                          > > >
                                                          > >
                                                          > >
                                                          > >
                                                          > > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                                                          > >
                                                          >
                                                          >



                                                          [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                                                        • d. Bouton Baldridge
                                                          I ll chime in here too. Tom has good advice. When I bought my 40 Ah TS cells the price was $63.00 per cell. Since the 60 Ah cells are now about the same
                                                          Message 28 of 29 , Dec 4, 2012
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                                                            I'll chime in here too. Tom has good advice. When I bought my 40 Ah TS cells the price was $63.00 per cell. Since the 60 Ah cells are now about the same price  as what I paid 4 years ago it makes no sense to use a 40 Ah cell today unless you live in a hot climate and on an island,  the sag is bad with the 40 Ah in cold weather. The only reason I have not upgraded is because they are still performing and as I mentioned before as a solar powered vehicle the smaller pack works well, also I want to see how long they will last. Right now it appears the car may fail before the batteries, got some switching issues going on. So my advice is go with the 60Ah unless you must drive longer distances then go with what ever you can afford.
                                                            Bouty  


                                                            ________________________________
                                                            From: "theoldcars@..." <theoldcars@...>
                                                            To: solectria_ev@yahoogroups.com
                                                            Sent: Monday, December 3, 2012 9:47 PM
                                                            Subject: Re: [solectria_ev] Thermal Management System

                                                             
                                                            Just a word of warning

                                                            The CALB cells are not rated as many sellers on the Internet are showing 3C
                                                            and 4C on their web sites. The SE series was rated by CALB at 1C and many
                                                            have put them under loads of 3C or 4C. There is no data that I am aware of
                                                            that shows cycle life under these higher C rates but it will be less.

                                                            The new CA series which are also called the gray cells are rated at 2C by
                                                            CALB.

                                                            If your going to put a higher C rate on a CALB cell I would recommend it be
                                                            the CA series.

                                                            CALB for the most part has stopped selling the SE series except for a few
                                                            sizes. The demand for the SE series has almost totally gone away with the
                                                            release of the CA series.

                                                            Jack from EVTV gives out some off some really off the wall advise and
                                                            information. While some of what he does is good he also chimes in with baseless
                                                            comments or beliefs that have no merit.

                                                            On the 40Ah cells your going to see far more voltage sag under load. Cycle
                                                            life would be less but as you point out its going to be a savings
                                                            regardless over lead. I would highly recommend the CA 60Ah cells. The 60Ah cells
                                                            hold their voltage very well. I know of one person who parallel two 40Ah of
                                                            SE40 and their voltage sags more then a pack of 60Ah CA cells in series.

                                                            Don Blazer


                                                            In a message dated 12/3/2012 8:34:09 A.M. Pacific Standard Time,
                                                            mailto:ev64bug%40yahoo.com writes:

                                                            I have one question for Bouty:
                                                            How many miles do you have on your pack?

                                                            One question for the group:
                                                            Does anyone have the dimension for the inside of the front battery box?

                                                            I'm really interesting in Bouty's configuration. After 7 years and 22,000
                                                            miles my poor old Pb pack is on it's last legs. I'm able to get 22 to
                                                            24Ahrs out of the pack which is enough for a round trip to work and a very short
                                                            side trip. Since the pack is fairly weak it takes 1.5 to 1.6Ahr per mile.
                                                            I'm trying to hold out until summer for my switch to lithium when the
                                                            weather is a little better and I have my battery monitor tested out. I'm
                                                            interested in putting 49 40Ahr CALB "grey" cells (CA40BFI) for a couple of
                                                            reasons:

                                                            1. If my measurements are correct the complete pack should fit in the
                                                            front battery box in a 7x7 array. By moving the charger up front all the 156V
                                                            wiring will be under the hood with a very short run between the pack and
                                                            the controller.

                                                            2. The pack cost
                                                            is comparable to if not cheaper than the Deka equivalent. 40Ahr CALBs are
                                                            around $55 each. 49 x $55 = $2,695 before tax and shipping. 13 Deka
                                                            batteries would have to be $207 just to be comparable ($2,695 / 13 = $207 approx.)

                                                            3. My car will be shedding 661lb. The CALB cells at 3.3lb each x 49 = 161
                                                            lb vs the 822lb (63.2lb x 13) of the current pack. I'm probably going to
                                                            have to find the original springs for the Geo, otherwise the car will feel
                                                            like it is permanently going down a hill.

                                                            4. The "blue" CALBs (SE40AHA) already have fantastic C ratings and the
                                                            "grey" cells have better cold weather performance. The max current of the
                                                            force at around 240A dc should be no problem for the 40Ahr cells, they should
                                                            be able to handle C6. There is some interesting test data on the cells:
                                                            _http://blog.evtv.me/2012/06/battery-jump-shift/_
                                                            (http://blog.evtv.me/2012/06/battery-jump-shift/)

                                                            I know the general consensus is that 60 Ahr or 100 Ahr is preferable, but
                                                            I've been logging all my driving for the past 7 years, most days I use
                                                            between 16Ahrs and 20Ahrs and only a few times did I even come close to 35Ahrs.

                                                            ________________________________
                                                            From: d. Bouton Baldridge <mailto:_cfrkeepr%40yahoo.com_
                                                            (mailto:mailto:cfrkeepr%40yahoo.com) >
                                                            To: "mailto:_solectria_ev%40yahoogroups.com_ (mailto:mailto:solectria_ev%40yahoogroups.com) "
                                                            <mailto:_solectria_ev%40yahoogroups.com_ (mailto:mailto:solectria_ev%40yahoogroups.com) >
                                                            Sent: Sunday, December 2, 2012 7:26 AM
                                                            Subject: Re: [solectria_ev] Thermal Management System

                                                            Hi Wade,
                                                            In my opinion, the balance thing has been greatly over blown and your re
                                                            adings are perefectly acceptable especially after using so much capacity
                                                            having only +/-.1 v or so from the mean is fantastic. The big thing is avoiding
                                                            going beyond the knees and your system seems to be working just fine doing
                                                            that. As for the Ahmeter issue, It has been my experience that voltage is
                                                            not a reliable means for determining capacity. In my case I have found the
                                                            reaching the limiting voltage was caused by the pack warming up; for me it
                                                            was the sun. Now that the ambient temperature is lower in the winter season
                                                            my charge resets closer to zero, but in summer it stops on the plus side
                                                            by .1 ah each cycle when the outside temp is above 80 degrees. My guess for
                                                            you is that when you charge for a few hours, the pack temp increases higher
                                                            than when you were driving and the voltage is slightly higher as a result
                                                            this stops the charger earlier than
                                                            the previous Ahour
                                                            reading. I am not sure if this is happening as a function of breaking in
                                                            or aging. But it was not an issue with lead since it woul be overcharged
                                                            routinely and had the automatic reset. I am a few months shy of 4 years and
                                                            this slight precession is only an annoyance it has not seemed to impact the
                                                            utility of my pack. Since I have a pretty long warm season I would just
                                                            occasionaly reset the Ah meter to zero just so I wouldn't have to remember
                                                            every time. Now that my cells are getting twice as old as any Pb pack would
                                                            last, I am getting into new territory for longevity and at some point I might
                                                            find some of these answers, but for now I am saying congratulation on your
                                                            project FWIW,
                                                            Bouty

                                                            ________________________________
                                                            From: Wade Perry <mailto:_perrypeas%40gmail.com_ (mailto:mailto:perrypeas%40gmail.com) >
                                                            To: mailto:_solectria_ev%40yahoogroups.com_ (mailto:mailto:solectria_ev%40yahoogroups.com)
                                                            Sent: Sunday, December 2, 2012 1:47 AM
                                                            Subject: [solectria_ev] Thermal Management System

                                                            Greetings all- I've driven over 1,000 miles on lithium now.

                                                            I drove a fair bit today, it was mostly empty when I was coming back home
                                                            from the last errand so I thought I'd take the long way home and discharge
                                                            a bit more than I usually do. Until today the maximum I'd taken out is
                                                            probably around 45 Ahr. I had set my limit around 50 to be safe.
                                                            So after I got home I drove the block a few times with the heater on. Went
                                                            well past 50. I measured pack voltage and some individual cells while I
                                                            did this and felt fairly safe as I was getting down towards the bottom.
                                                            Finally drove it around one last time in econ with no heater and it was
                                                            around 57.5 when I was done. Then I ran the heater by itself to get it to
                                                            59. Took the voltage on each cell.
                                                            Made a new column to my battery balancing spreadsheet, it's here-
                                                            _https://docs.google.com/spreadsheet/pub?key=0An5nm8itUMMcdHhQV3RsSUdfbzRTQk
                                                            FlNmtaSy05MHc&output=html_
                                                            (https://docs.google.com/spreadsheet/pub?key=0An5nm8itUMMcdHhQV3RsSUdfbzRTQkFlNmtaSy05MHc&output=html)

                                                            The cells were springing back as I was measuring them. When I was done I
                                                            went back and measured CK, where I'd started measuring the pack. it was
                                                            .04 volts higher than I'd written down the first time. By the time I was
                                                            finishing measuring, all the cells were coming in around 3.04 or 3.05. So
                                                            they're reasonably well balanced.

                                                            One cell stands out. JA. It measured 2.93 when its adjacent cells were
                                                            measuring an entire ~0.10 volt higher. I haven't figured it out yet.
                                                            Other than it happens to be the one that I noticed arrived from the
                                                            factory at 4.23% below 50% SOC. You can see that on the sheet. It stood
                                                            out at the time because all the other cells came in at 1 or 2% over 50.
                                                            This was the only one that was below, and by a fair amount.

                                                            Anyway then I ran the heater some more, watching JA in particular. It
                                                            would have been cool to have a graph of all the cells at once. But they
                                                            were falling off quite quickly. Some dipped down to 2.75 or so. JA dipped
                                                            all the way down to 2.50. But I discharged down to a full 60.00 Ahr on my
                                                            counter! Finished with a pack voltage of around 160. (which was
                                                            undoubtedly springing up also. I didn't wait around to check but plugged
                                                            in the charger so I can drive again tomorrow)

                                                            This is great, because I had feared I was losing capacity permanently by
                                                            charging below freezing. I'd hoped this wasn't the case, but was concerned
                                                            because on especially cold days there'd be +1.00 or +2.00 Ahr still left on
                                                            the counter when the charger shut off. Warmer days I'd be back to -0.14 or
                                                            something like that. I'd been worried that I was gradually damaging the
                                                            cells.

                                                            Apparently I'm not. Or at least not to the extent I'd feared. This is
                                                            with a battery box that's not even put together yet- the 60 Ahr cells are
                                                            taller than the gels I took out, so when I finally do get things put
                                                            together properly, I'll need to shim the cover over the battery box. Right
                                                            now it rests on top of the cells, so there's probably a 1" space all
                                                            around, letting cold air in. I did put in a 60watt incandescent light bulb
                                                            back there to keep things warmer (and bright and cheery) in the battery
                                                            box, whenever the car's plugged in.

                                                            So. What I'd really like to do is hook up the Solectria heating mats to AC
                                                            power, so I can be more setup for winter. I myself took it apart back in
                                                            August, but obviously didn't pay much attention to what I was doing. I've
                                                            searched this list repeatedly but can't find anything that talks about
                                                            where the AC power hooks up to the heaters / sensors... Can anyone point
                                                            me to a resource about this?

                                                            Thanks for the help!

                                                            Wade Perry
                                                            1998 Force
                                                            56 CALB CA 60 Ahr

                                                            [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]

                                                            [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]

                                                            [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]

                                                            [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]




                                                            [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                                                          • d. Bouton Baldridge
                                                            Oh I forgot to mention, I had been told by a Sinopoly (formly TS) dealer that TS and SkyEnergy (Calb) originally were the two primary cell makers, and Sky
                                                            Message 29 of 29 , Dec 4, 2012
                                                            View Source
                                                            • 0 Attachment
                                                              Oh I forgot to mention, I had been told by a Sinopoly (formly TS) dealer that TS and SkyEnergy (Calb) originally were the two primary cell makers, and Sky (Calb) made the cells for their military so they were quite rugged could provide serious current, but that they had a shorter life than the TS. I have not used any Calbs, but I can attest to the TSs since I have at least 5 times brought the same group of cells back to life from 0v. Not on purpose mind you. My guess is that Calb has probably improved their product to give longer life with their new line, it is obvious that they have not been stingy with capacity sometimes 15% higher than rating. which would seem good except if your batch of cells are not matched, just keep it between the knees! good luck.
                                                              Bouty


                                                              ________________________________
                                                              From: "theoldcars@..." <theoldcars@...>
                                                              To: solectria_ev@yahoogroups.com
                                                              Sent: Monday, December 3, 2012 9:47 PM
                                                              Subject: Re: [solectria_ev] Thermal Management System

                                                               
                                                              Just a word of warning

                                                              The CALB cells are not rated as many sellers on the Internet are showing 3C
                                                              and 4C on their web sites. The SE series was rated by CALB at 1C and many
                                                              have put them under loads of 3C or 4C. There is no data that I am aware of
                                                              that shows cycle life under these higher C rates but it will be less.

                                                              The new CA series which are also called the gray cells are rated at 2C by
                                                              CALB.

                                                              If your going to put a higher C rate on a CALB cell I would recommend it be
                                                              the CA series.

                                                              CALB for the most part has stopped selling the SE series except for a few
                                                              sizes. The demand for the SE series has almost totally gone away with the
                                                              release of the CA series.

                                                              Jack from EVTV gives out some off some really off the wall advise and
                                                              information. While some of what he does is good he also chimes in with baseless
                                                              comments or beliefs that have no merit.

                                                              On the 40Ah cells your going to see far more voltage sag under load. Cycle
                                                              life would be less but as you point out its going to be a savings
                                                              regardless over lead. I would highly recommend the CA 60Ah cells. The 60Ah cells
                                                              hold their voltage very well. I know of one person who parallel two 40Ah of
                                                              SE40 and their voltage sags more then a pack of 60Ah CA cells in series.

                                                              Don Blazer


                                                              In a message dated 12/3/2012 8:34:09 A.M. Pacific Standard Time,
                                                              mailto:ev64bug%40yahoo.com writes:

                                                              I have one question for Bouty:
                                                              How many miles do you have on your pack?

                                                              One question for the group:
                                                              Does anyone have the dimension for the inside of the front battery box?

                                                              I'm really interesting in Bouty's configuration. After 7 years and 22,000
                                                              miles my poor old Pb pack is on it's last legs. I'm able to get 22 to
                                                              24Ahrs out of the pack which is enough for a round trip to work and a very short
                                                              side trip. Since the pack is fairly weak it takes 1.5 to 1.6Ahr per mile.
                                                              I'm trying to hold out until summer for my switch to lithium when the
                                                              weather is a little better and I have my battery monitor tested out. I'm
                                                              interested in putting 49 40Ahr CALB "grey" cells (CA40BFI) for a couple of
                                                              reasons:

                                                              1. If my measurements are correct the complete pack should fit in the
                                                              front battery box in a 7x7 array. By moving the charger up front all the 156V
                                                              wiring will be under the hood with a very short run between the pack and
                                                              the controller.

                                                              2. The pack cost
                                                              is comparable to if not cheaper than the Deka equivalent. 40Ahr CALBs are
                                                              around $55 each. 49 x $55 = $2,695 before tax and shipping. 13 Deka
                                                              batteries would have to be $207 just to be comparable ($2,695 / 13 = $207 approx.)

                                                              3. My car will be shedding 661lb. The CALB cells at 3.3lb each x 49 = 161
                                                              lb vs the 822lb (63.2lb x 13) of the current pack. I'm probably going to
                                                              have to find the original springs for the Geo, otherwise the car will feel
                                                              like it is permanently going down a hill.

                                                              4. The "blue" CALBs (SE40AHA) already have fantastic C ratings and the
                                                              "grey" cells have better cold weather performance. The max current of the
                                                              force at around 240A dc should be no problem for the 40Ahr cells, they should
                                                              be able to handle C6. There is some interesting test data on the cells:
                                                              _http://blog.evtv.me/2012/06/battery-jump-shift/_
                                                              (http://blog.evtv.me/2012/06/battery-jump-shift/)

                                                              I know the general consensus is that 60 Ahr or 100 Ahr is preferable, but
                                                              I've been logging all my driving for the past 7 years, most days I use
                                                              between 16Ahrs and 20Ahrs and only a few times did I even come close to 35Ahrs.

                                                              ________________________________
                                                              From: d. Bouton Baldridge <mailto:_cfrkeepr%40yahoo.com_
                                                              (mailto:mailto:cfrkeepr%40yahoo.com) >
                                                              To: "mailto:_solectria_ev%40yahoogroups.com_ (mailto:mailto:solectria_ev%40yahoogroups.com) "
                                                              <mailto:_solectria_ev%40yahoogroups.com_ (mailto:mailto:solectria_ev%40yahoogroups.com) >
                                                              Sent: Sunday, December 2, 2012 7:26 AM
                                                              Subject: Re: [solectria_ev] Thermal Management System

                                                              Hi Wade,
                                                              In my opinion, the balance thing has been greatly over blown and your re
                                                              adings are perefectly acceptable especially after using so much capacity
                                                              having only +/-.1 v or so from the mean is fantastic. The big thing is avoiding
                                                              going beyond the knees and your system seems to be working just fine doing
                                                              that. As for the Ahmeter issue, It has been my experience that voltage is
                                                              not a reliable means for determining capacity. In my case I have found the
                                                              reaching the limiting voltage was caused by the pack warming up; for me it
                                                              was the sun. Now that the ambient temperature is lower in the winter season
                                                              my charge resets closer to zero, but in summer it stops on the plus side
                                                              by .1 ah each cycle when the outside temp is above 80 degrees. My guess for
                                                              you is that when you charge for a few hours, the pack temp increases higher
                                                              than when you were driving and the voltage is slightly higher as a result
                                                              this stops the charger earlier than
                                                              the previous Ahour
                                                              reading. I am not sure if this is happening as a function of breaking in
                                                              or aging. But it was not an issue with lead since it woul be overcharged
                                                              routinely and had the automatic reset. I am a few months shy of 4 years and
                                                              this slight precession is only an annoyance it has not seemed to impact the
                                                              utility of my pack. Since I have a pretty long warm season I would just
                                                              occasionaly reset the Ah meter to zero just so I wouldn't have to remember
                                                              every time. Now that my cells are getting twice as old as any Pb pack would
                                                              last, I am getting into new territory for longevity and at some point I might
                                                              find some of these answers, but for now I am saying congratulation on your
                                                              project FWIW,
                                                              Bouty

                                                              ________________________________
                                                              From: Wade Perry <mailto:_perrypeas%40gmail.com_ (mailto:mailto:perrypeas%40gmail.com) >
                                                              To: mailto:_solectria_ev%40yahoogroups.com_ (mailto:mailto:solectria_ev%40yahoogroups.com)
                                                              Sent: Sunday, December 2, 2012 1:47 AM
                                                              Subject: [solectria_ev] Thermal Management System

                                                              Greetings all- I've driven over 1,000 miles on lithium now.

                                                              I drove a fair bit today, it was mostly empty when I was coming back home
                                                              from the last errand so I thought I'd take the long way home and discharge
                                                              a bit more than I usually do. Until today the maximum I'd taken out is
                                                              probably around 45 Ahr. I had set my limit around 50 to be safe.
                                                              So after I got home I drove the block a few times with the heater on. Went
                                                              well past 50. I measured pack voltage and some individual cells while I
                                                              did this and felt fairly safe as I was getting down towards the bottom.
                                                              Finally drove it around one last time in econ with no heater and it was
                                                              around 57.5 when I was done. Then I ran the heater by itself to get it to
                                                              59. Took the voltage on each cell.
                                                              Made a new column to my battery balancing spreadsheet, it's here-
                                                              _https://docs.google.com/spreadsheet/pub?key=0An5nm8itUMMcdHhQV3RsSUdfbzRTQk
                                                              FlNmtaSy05MHc&output=html_
                                                              (https://docs.google.com/spreadsheet/pub?key=0An5nm8itUMMcdHhQV3RsSUdfbzRTQkFlNmtaSy05MHc&output=html)

                                                              The cells were springing back as I was measuring them. When I was done I
                                                              went back and measured CK, where I'd started measuring the pack. it was
                                                              .04 volts higher than I'd written down the first time. By the time I was
                                                              finishing measuring, all the cells were coming in around 3.04 or 3.05. So
                                                              they're reasonably well balanced.

                                                              One cell stands out. JA. It measured 2.93 when its adjacent cells were
                                                              measuring an entire ~0.10 volt higher. I haven't figured it out yet.
                                                              Other than it happens to be the one that I noticed arrived from the
                                                              factory at 4.23% below 50% SOC. You can see that on the sheet. It stood
                                                              out at the time because all the other cells came in at 1 or 2% over 50.
                                                              This was the only one that was below, and by a fair amount.

                                                              Anyway then I ran the heater some more, watching JA in particular. It
                                                              would have been cool to have a graph of all the cells at once. But they
                                                              were falling off quite quickly. Some dipped down to 2.75 or so. JA dipped
                                                              all the way down to 2.50. But I discharged down to a full 60.00 Ahr on my
                                                              counter! Finished with a pack voltage of around 160. (which was
                                                              undoubtedly springing up also. I didn't wait around to check but plugged
                                                              in the charger so I can drive again tomorrow)

                                                              This is great, because I had feared I was losing capacity permanently by
                                                              charging below freezing. I'd hoped this wasn't the case, but was concerned
                                                              because on especially cold days there'd be +1.00 or +2.00 Ahr still left on
                                                              the counter when the charger shut off. Warmer days I'd be back to -0.14 or
                                                              something like that. I'd been worried that I was gradually damaging the
                                                              cells.

                                                              Apparently I'm not. Or at least not to the extent I'd feared. This is
                                                              with a battery box that's not even put together yet- the 60 Ahr cells are
                                                              taller than the gels I took out, so when I finally do get things put
                                                              together properly, I'll need to shim the cover over the battery box. Right
                                                              now it rests on top of the cells, so there's probably a 1" space all
                                                              around, letting cold air in. I did put in a 60watt incandescent light bulb
                                                              back there to keep things warmer (and bright and cheery) in the battery
                                                              box, whenever the car's plugged in.

                                                              So. What I'd really like to do is hook up the Solectria heating mats to AC
                                                              power, so I can be more setup for winter. I myself took it apart back in
                                                              August, but obviously didn't pay much attention to what I was doing. I've
                                                              searched this list repeatedly but can't find anything that talks about
                                                              where the AC power hooks up to the heaters / sensors... Can anyone point
                                                              me to a resource about this?

                                                              Thanks for the help!

                                                              Wade Perry
                                                              1998 Force
                                                              56 CALB CA 60 Ahr

                                                              [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]

                                                              [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]

                                                              [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]

                                                              [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]




                                                              [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
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