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Plants found in Poland 13th & 14th c.

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  • Jadwiga Zajaczkowa / Jenne Heise
    Archeobotanical samples from 13th & 14th c. Poland A list of plants whose archaeobotanical remains have been found in 13th & 14th c. strata of Elblag or
    Message 1 of 1 , Jan 12, 2005
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      Archeobotanical samples from 13th & 14th c. Poland
      A list of plants whose archaeobotanical remains have been found in 13th
      & 14th c. strata of Elblag or Kolobrzeg in Poland):


      Of course this doesn't mean they used them, but it does mean the plants
      were accessible to them.

      Cultivated:
      Linum usitatissimum (Fiber/oil flax) ; Panicum milaceum (Wild-Proso
      Millet / Broomcorn Millet)

      Weeds of cereals and flax:
      Agrostemma githago (Corncockle), Anthemis arvensis (Corn Chamomile),
      Bromus secalinus (Rye Brome), Camelina alyssum (Mill.)
      (Gold-of-pleasure) , Camelina microcarpa (littlepod false flax) ,
      Centaurea cynanus (Batchelor Button), Fallopia convolvulus (black
      bindweed), Galeopsis ladanum (Red hempnettle), Galium spurium (Cleavers?
      False Cleavers? Marin County Bedstraw?), Lithospermum arvense (corn
      gromwell), Lolium temulentum (Darnel ryegrass), Matricaria maritima
      subsp. inodora (scentless chamomile/scentless mayweed), Neslia
      paniculata (ballmustard), Papaver argemone (Long pricklyhead poppy),
      Raphanus raphanistrum (wild radish), Rhinanthus serotinus(Oborny var.
      apterus) (late-flowering yellowrattle), Scleranthus annuus (German
      knotgrass) , Silene gallica (common catchfly), Sinapis arvensis
      (charlock mustard), Spergula arvensis subsp. maxima (corn spurry),
      Valerianella dentata (narrowfruit cornsalad), Viola arvensis (field
      pansy)/Viola tricolor (johnny-jump-up/heartsease)

      Weeds of millet, root crops, gardens and ruderal habitats.
      Agropyron repens (quackgrass), Anthemis cotula (stinking chamomile),
      Atriplex nitens (hoary orache), Aptriplex patula (orache?), Ballota
      nigra (black horehound), Berteroa incana (hoary false madwort), Capsella
      bursa-pastoris (Shepherd's purse), Chenopodium album (lambsquarters),
      Chenopodium glaucum (oakleaf goosefoot), Chenopodium hybridum (
      mapleleaf goosefoot), Chenopodium murale (nettleleaf goosefoot),
      Chenopodium polyspermum (manyseed goosefoot), Cichorium intybus
      (chicory), Cirsium arvense (Canada thistle), Cirsium vulgare (bull
      thistle), Conium maculatum (poison hemlock), Echinochloa crus-galli
      (barnyardgrass), Euphorbia helioscopia (madwoman's milk), Fallopia
      dumetorum (copse bindweed), Galium aparine (stickywilly), Hyoscyamus
      niger (black henbane), Lamium album (white deadnettle), Lapsana communis
      (common nipplewort), Linaria vulgaris (butter and eggs), Melandrium
      album (bladder campion), Mentha arvensis (wild mint), Myosotis arvensis
      (field forget-me-not), Plantago major (common plantain), Poa annua
      (annual bluegrass), Polygonum persicaria (spotted ladysthumb),
      Potentilla anserina (silverweed cinquefoil), Ranunculus repens (creeping
      buttercup), Rumex acetosella (common sheep sorrel), Rumex crispus (curly
      dock), Setaria italica (foxtail bristlegrass), Setaria pumila (yellow
      bristlegrass), Setaria viridis (green bristlegrass)/ verticillata
      (hooked bristlegrass), Solanum nigrum (black nightshade), Sonchus
      arvensis (field sowthistle), Sonchus asper (spiny sowthistle), Sonchus
      oleraceus (common sowthistle), Spergula arvensis (corn spurry), Stachys
      arvensis (staggerweed), Stellaria media (common chickweed), Thlaspi
      arvense (field pennycress), Urtica dioica (stinging nettle), Urtica
      urens (dwarf nettle), Veronica arvensis (corn speedwell), Xanthium
      strumarium (rough cockleburr).

      Meadows in wet and fresh habitats
      Achillea millefolium (common yarrow), Angelica sylvestris (woodland
      angelica), Anthriscus sylvestris (wild chervil), Barbarea vulgaris
      (garden yellowrocket), Caltha palustris (yellow marsh marigold),
      Campanula patula (spreading bellflower), Carex cfr dioica (bog sedge?),
      Carex panicea (grasslike sedge), Centaurea jacea (brownray knapweed),
      Cerastium holosteoides (big chickweed), Cirsium oleraceum (cabbage
      thistle), Danthonia decumbens (common heathgrass), Festuca rubra
      (fescue), Filipendula ulmaria (queen of the meadow), Galium cfr mollugo
      (false baby's breath), Galium uliginosum (fen bedstraw), Heracleum
      maculatum (cowparsnip?), Iris cfr sibirica (Siberian Iris?), Juncus
      conglomeratus (Compact Rush)/effusus (common rush), Juncus cfr. effusus,
      Leontodon autumnalis (Autumn Hawkbit), Leucanthemum vulgare (oxeye
      daisy), Linum catharticum (Fairy Flax), Lychnis flos-cuculi (ragged
      robin), Lythrum salicaria (purple loosestrife), Melandrium rubrum (red
      catchfly), Molinia caerulea (moor grass), Myosotis palustris
      (forget-me-not), Plantago lanceolata (narrowleaf plantain), Poa
      pratensis (Kentucky bluegrass)/Poa trivialis (rough bluegrass),
      Polygonum bistorta (meadow bistort), Potentilla erecta (erect
      cinquefoil), Prunella vulgaris (common selfheal), Ranunculus acris (tall
      buttercup), Ranunculus sardous (hairy buttercup), Rhinanthus serotinus
      (late-flowering yellowrattle), Rumex acetosa (garden sorrel), Rumex
      thyrsiflorus (garden sorrel), Scirpus sylvaticus (woodland bulrush),
      Stachys palustris (marsh hedgenettle), Stellaria graminea (grasslike
      starwort), Symphytum officinale (comfrey), Taraxacum officinale
      (dandelion), Thalictrum flavum (common meadow-rue), Valeriana
      officinalis (garden valerian), Viola cfr canina (Heath dog-violet)

      Dry grasslands and pasture
      Anthemis tinctoria (golden chamomile), Arenaria serpyllifolia (thymeleaf
      sandwort), Bromus hordeaceus (soft brome), Campanula glomerata (Dane's
      blood), Centaurea scabiosa (greater knapweed), Cerastium arvense (field
      chickweed), Dianthus armeria (Deptford pink), Hypericum perforatum
      (common St. Johnswort), Knautia arvensis (field scabiosa), Luzula
      campestris (field woodrush), Luzula multiflora (field woodrush),
      Origanum vulgare (oregano), Picris hieracioides (hawkweed oxtongue),
      Potentilla argentea (silver cinquefoil), Potentilla neumanniana (spring
      cinquefoil), Potentilla recta (sulphur cinquefoil), Ranunculus bulbosus
      (St. Anthony's turnip), Silene vulgaris (maidenstears), Thalictrum
      simplex (Small Meadow-rue), Thymus serpyllum (creeping thyme).

      Source:
      Malgorzata Latalowa, Monika Badura1 and Joanna Jarosinacuteska.
      "Archaeobotanical samples from non-specific urban contexts as a tool for
      reconstructing environmental conditions (examples from Elblaogong and
      Kolstrokobrzeg, northern Poland)," Vegetation History and Archaeobotany,
      12:2 (September 2003), pp 93 - 104.

      Note: images of many of these can be found in the USDA plant database:
      http://plants.usda.gov/

      --
      -- Jadwiga Zajaczkowa, Knowledge Pika jenne@...
      "The tumult and the shouting dies/ The captains and the kings depart
      And we are left with large supplies / Of cold blancmange and
      rhubarb tart." -- Ronald Knox
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