> Funnily enough, what with Ivan being quarter Greek,The problem with all skull reconstructions is that they work on the
> I have seen bronze casts of his bust made by the
> anthropologist Gerasimov from his disinterred skull,
> and he looks remarkably like the [extremely
> attractive] Russified Greek TV presenter here in
> Russia, Tina Kandalakis...
basis of averages for muscle sizes, skin thicknesses and so on.
Moreover, different averages have been established for different
"ethnic" groups, and the reconstructing anthropologist must select the
set(s) that are to be used. In the case of a historical figure, this
choice will be influenced by what is known of their genetic background -
so he may look Greek because Gerasimov decided to use (or be influenced
by) the Greek values rather than (just) the Russian ones. Of course, if
there are known images or iconography of the individual, these too will
- subconsciously or consciously - affect the reconstruction process.
Lastly, the problem with averages is that they are just that, so all
reconstructed faces have a tendency to be bland, and to be more similar
to each other than to actual persons!
Alastair Millar BSc(Hons) - http://www.skriptorium.info
= Translation & consultancy for the heritage industry =
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- Even more difficult about any kind of metrics on the
skull is that not only ethnic but also diet,
nutrition, enviroment, stresses, genetic drift, and
cultural modifications make this kind of
reconstruction a guess at best. Some of them are very
remarkable with recently deceased populations but we
are unsure of any from the past.