Re: Queries on Bohemian Adamites
- Wow lots of interesting stuff in this discussion for us bohemiaphiles ;)
I haven't really come across much in my research about the Adamites - what =
I've read notes that they were pretty much exterminated by Zizka's army. W=
I know you probably already know - the Picardists/Adamites were part of the=
stream of Waldensian thought and came to Bohemia with high hopes for
religious tolerance only to be swept up in a religious war and all but
obliterated. Adamites were too radical for the radicals, with all that nudi=
free lovin' heehee. Anyways, I understand that the movement enjoyed a brie=
revival in the 18th century, but once again were just too radical and had t=
So... Don't have much information for you on that. You can check the Lollar=
Society Bibliography for sources both general to lollardy and specific to
Central Europe - there may be the odd unindexed reference in one of those
books to your interest area ;) http://lollard.home.att.net/bibhome.html
As for Women in Medieval Bohemia. John Klassen argues that women
enjoyed a degree of freedom both financially and romantically which was
unusual for medieval Europe. I wish there was someone else who had done
this sort of research as I would like to see a different perspective on it.=
.. but I
take what I can get! See especially 'Development of the Conjugal bond' and=
'Marriage and Family' . See also Alfred Thomas' _Anne_of_Bohemia_ for a
decent picture of pre-Hussite Society as reflected by contemporary literatu=
OK... here are the references for the Klassen articles. They don't always h=
page numbers - due to my getting lazy a few months ago!
Klassen, John. `The disadvantaged and the Hussite revolution', Internationa=
Review of Social History, 35 (1990), 249-272
Klassen, John. "The development of the conjugal bond in late medieval
Bohemia", in: Journal of Medieval History 13, 1987, p. 161
Klassen, John. "Gifts for the Soul and Social Charity in Late Medieval
Bohemia," Materielle Kultur und religiöse Stiftung im Spätmittelalter
(Osterreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften philosophisch-historische
klasse sitzungsberichte, 554; Vienna, 1990), pp. 61-81
Klassen, John. "Household Composition" Journal of Medieval History. Vol. 16=
1990. pp 55-75.
Klassen, John. "Marriage and Family in Medieval Bohemia" East European
Quarterly, Fall 1985.
John M. Klassen, Women and Religious Reform in late Medieval Bohemia
(Renaissance and Reformation 5, 1981)
-Eliska (yes I finally decided on a persona name)
The Bohemian women, especially townswomen, did, to use modern
terminology 'own' their sexuality and their right to seuxal satisfaction. C=heck
'Marriage and Family in Medieval Bohemia' by John Klassen (referenced in
my other post two seconds ago). He uses divorce/annullment records to
explore the nature of sexual relationships in the 14th and 15th century- LO=TS
of case studies.
To summarize, dating and mating occurred rather similarly to the way it doe=s
now. People came together at markets, fairs and festivals, exchanged gifts=,
and fooled around, sometimes even had sex. Women who claimed damages
- for false proposal of marriage and subsequent loss of virginity- could ex=pect
to receive about three months' wages for the plucking of their flower. Unwe=d
mothers did exist, and non-virginhood did not appear to be an impediment to=
marriage. People in Bohemia also travelled farther than other Europeans to=
find mates. Frequently people from significant distances would marry and
relocate. Women chose their sexual partners - in one case a woman asked for=
divorce because her husband could not give her children, and she wanted to =
bear progeny. Often their signals would get crossed - one young man thought=
that because a girl held hands with him, they were married (the girl was
asking for the annullment!). Women's pleasure and involvement in mating
rituals is obvious and the Church made no noises of disapproval about thei=r
premarital sex etc etc like we would think they would. Women fought for =
what few rights they had, and, according to the surviving records Prof.
Klassen uses, were active participants in all aspects of sexual relationshi=ps.
Of course all was not peachy for ladies, spousal abuse was rampant and, as =
in current times, they could really only hope for a gentle husband. Wealthy=
townswomen or women of noble status could reasonably expect to have an
arranged marriage. John Klassen makes much of the Bohemian style of
dowry which ensured a woman a modicum of financial independence and
allowed her to be an equal in an arranged marriage. Laws were in place to
prevent husbands from access to this money, protecting the bride's financia=l
John Klassen's work is based on a small number of surviving records and
cannot possibly be representative of the whole of bohemian society. What I =
get from his research is that our notion of the 'extraordinary' medieval wo=man,
who was closer to the modern woman in her expectation and achievement of
certain rights and freedoms, is not so extra-ordinary after all. In medieva=l
Bohemia, it appears, women who used the channels available to them to
improve their lot in life were in slightly higher numbers than we expect. I=n
other words, an ordinary woman - not touched by God or a highly poetic nun =
or a finessing noblewoman or any of the legendary medieval women- could
be personally successful in life, survival, and happiness.
[snipped by moderator. Do not include entire posts in your replies.]
- Yes, that was a major factor I should have mentioned when I talked about the need to extrapolate.
I've read a number of things by John Klassen, including a book Warring Maidens, Captive Wives and Hussite Queens, which contains the info you mention. In this book, he also analyses about the central myth of Libusa, Vlasta and the War of the Maidens and how that could have influenced Bohemian women's perceptions of themselves.
And while you point out that the women Klassen talks about may not be 'typical', they do indicate such expectations were not unknown. And women active in certain heretical sects would be very likely to hold them!
--------- Original Message ---------
DATE: Wed, 09 Jul 2003 16:09:17
From: "Annah Almaziful"
>The Bohemian women, especially townswomen, did, to use modern
>terminology 'own' their sexuality and their right to seuxal satisfaction. C^@
>'Marriage and Family in Medieval Bohemia' by John Klassen (referenced in
>my other post two seconds ago). He uses divorce/annullment records to
>explore the nature of sexual relationships in the 14th and 15th century- LO^@
>of case studies.
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