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  • jenne@fiedlerfamily.net
    ... Subject: TMR 09.09.15 Wolverton, The Chronicle (repost without accents) From: The Medieval Review Date: Thu, September 17, 2009
    Message 1 of 3 , Sep 17, 2009
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      ---------------------------- Original Message ----------------------------
      Subject: TMR 09.09.15 Wolverton, The Chronicle (repost without accents)
      From: "The Medieval Review" <tmrl@...>
      Date: Thu, September 17, 2009 1:09 am
      To: tmr-l@...
      --------------------------------------------------------------------------

      Wolverton, Lisa, trans. Cosmas of Prague. <i>The Chronicle of the
      Czechs</i>. Translated with an introduction and notes by Lisa
      Wolverton. Medieval Texts in Translation Series. Washington, D.C.:
      Catholic University of America Press, 2009. Pp. xvii, 274. $34.95.
      ISBN: 0813215706.

      Reviewed by David C. Mengel
      Xavier University
      mengel@...


      Like Bede for the English, Cosmas of Prague (c. 1045-1125) offered
      Czechs the story of their own origins. He tells of Bohemus (or ?ech,
      in the vernacular), who first brought the Czechs into their own land,
      called Bohemia (Cechy) after him. Later came the legendary prophetess
      Libu?e, foundress of Prague, whose misogynist subjects convinced her
      to select a husband as duke. Her choice fell on the peasant Premysl,
      founder of the Premyslid dynasty that ruled the duchy (later kingdom)
      of Bohemia into the fourteenth century. Yet Cosmas, an elderly cleric
      by the time he began to write (c. 1120), offered these ancient tales
      along with a measure of skepticism: "since these things are said to
      have occurred in ancient times, we leave it to the reader to judge
      whether they are fact or fiction" (63). Cosmas preferred to rely on
      his own experience and on the testimony of eyewitnesses, so he devoted
      two of his chronicle's three books to the time in which he lived. He
      recognized the personal risk--"it seems to us much safer to narrate a
      dream, to which no one bears witness, than to write the deeds of
      present-day men"--and yet did not shy away from offering judgments on
      the personalities and political leaders of his own day (183). As the
      dean of Prague cathedral and an octogenarian widower, Cosmas enjoyed
      the free-speaking boldness that old age and high rank could provide.
      The result is a rich and important twelfth-century text that deserves
      to be known better by students of medieval Europe.

      Outside today's Central Europe, historians of medieval Bohemia are not
      so numerous. Partly for that reason, I (who also study medieval
      Bohemia) have agreed to write this review for TMR in spite of my long
      friendship with its translator, Lisa Wolverton. This review's readers
      should know that I was not involved in any stage of the translation's
      preparation but that I did offer the publisher a brief evaluation of
      the text once it was in press; a quotation from that evaluation
      appears on the book's back cover. With full knowledge of this, TMR's
      editors still asked for my review. My agreement reflects my high
      opinion of the precise and accessible translation of a very important
      text, a translation accompanied by an impressive scholarly apparatus
      that includes an introduction, bibliography, index, maps, genealogical
      charts and extensive notes. I hope and expect that many scholars and
      other students of the Middle Ages will read it.

      As Wolverton explains in her introduction, the <i>Chronicle of the
      Czechs</i> is what historians have called a "national history." It
      tells, and by telling creates, the story of a medieval people. Whereas
      the contemporary Normans, for example, benefited from several
      chroniclers, Cosmas stands alone for the Czechs. His chronicle
      provides the only narrative source, and often the only extant source
      of any kind, for most of the events and people he describes. Cosmas
      thus remains the fountainhead of the history of early and high
      medieval Bohemia.

      The locations and characters that populate Cosmas's chronicle--in
      distinction to those described by his contemporaries Eadmer and
      Orderic Vitalis--will be unfamiliar to most readers of this
      translation, the first one into English. Instead of Canterbury,
      Hereford and London, here we encounter Stara Boleslav, M?lník and
      especially Prague. Instead of a succession of Williams and Roberts,
      here we meet multiple B?etislavs and Borivojs. Some of their names
      will test the Anglophone tongue--try Detrisek, for example (219). Even
      good old saintly Wenceslas (a tenth-century duke, not a king) appears
      here not in his Latinate guise, but as the Czech Václav (as Wolverton
      explains in a footnote).

      Great profit awaits those willing to overcome this unfamiliarity,
      however, and Wolverton has provided all the necessary tools.
      Genealogies, lists of dukes and bishops, and well-drawn maps will
      allow even undergraduate readers to follow along without getting
      hopelessly lost. Even better, rich footnotes--yes, footnotes instead
      of endnotes--identify countless allusions and explain many things that
      Cosmas assumed his (mostly) clerical readers would know. What is a
      mitre? A suffragan? Prime and the other liturgical hours? Wolverton's
      notes offer succinct, clear answers that make this text particularly
      accessible to undergraduates.

      Once readers get past the unfamiliar names, they will find much that
      is less exceptional than characteristic of twelfth-century Europe,
      especially Central Europe. For example, Cosmas tells of Crusaders on
      their way to Jerusalem who passed through Bohemia in 1096, attacking
      and forcibly baptizing Jews, and of the Prague bishop who both failed
      to prevent these violent christenings and later quietly overlooked the
      same Jews' return to the practice of Judaism. (Cosmas clearly
      disapproved of both the forced conversions and the bishops' later
      "negligence" in allowing Bohemian Jews to relapse.) Students of the
      Gregorian reform movement will note that the twelfth-century prelate
      Cosmas makes no secret of his wife or his son, but that he also
      praises the virginity of bishops such as St. Adalbert (d. 997). Those
      familiar with the events at Canossa in 1077 will be struck by the
      several accounts here of the election of bishops of Prague--in short,
      Bohemia's dukes nearly always managed to appoint their own choices, so
      long as the other Bohemian nobles didn't object. Rich gifts then
      invariably secured the approval of the Mainz archbishop and especially
      the emperor, who personally invested each new bishop with ring and
      staff, all with hardly a nod towards Rome. Those interested in
      questions of ethnic identity or even the development of medieval
      "nationalism" should consider Cosmas's warm approval of a newly
      elected duke's 1055 expulsion of all Germans from Bohemia--an
      expulsion that included the duke's own mother!

      Cosmas's chronicle also tells tales of saints, of miracles, and even
      of thefts of relics. It takes a keen interest in Bohemia's
      ecclesiastical politics, and especially of the periodic division of
      the realm into two bishoprics. But fundamentally, as Wolverton notes,
      Cosmas offers a political tale. The majority of the text relates
      rollicking stories of war and political intrigue, of brotherly strife
      and ruthless rivalries between noble families. Readers will find
      sufficient orientation in this translation's introduction, which
      provides a clear, brief guide to Cosmas and his world. For the larger
      picture and its detailed analysis, Wolverton's own monograph is
      essential: <i>Hastening Toward Prague: Power and Society in the
      Medieval Czech Lands</i> (Philadelphia, 2001).

      Even on their own, Cosmas's many evocative anecdotes provide the
      reader an excellent sense of the exercise of political power in high
      medieval Bohemia. Brothers and other rivals are tonsured by force,
      blinded and castrated, or simply assassinated. Cosmas himself seems to
      have witnessed the aftermath of one failed plot, by which the nobleman
      Mutina evidently sought to overthrow Duke Svatopluk (r. 1107-9) in
      favor of Borivoj II (r. 1100-7; 1117-20)--the latter both preceded and
      eventually succeeded his cousin Svatopluk. Raging mad, Duke Svatopluk
      ordered the death of Mutina and all his kin. Here and elsewhere,
      Cosmas does not shrink from offering his own opinion.

      What should I say about the death of Mutina's sons, whose
      death seemed crueler than any death? They were little
      boys of good disposition, with faces worth looking at,
      lovable in appearance, of the like that no skilled
      craftsman would be able to express in white ivory, nor a
      painter on a wall. We saw them pitifully dragged into the
      market, frequently crying out: "Mother! Mother!" when the
      bloody butcher killed them both under his arm with a
      small knife, like piglets. Everyone scattered, striking
      their breasts, in order not to see the butcher performing
      such a cruel misdeed" (212).

      A Prague official, suspected by a subsequent duke of favoring a rival,
      was later subjected to a more creative punishment. Before being sent
      away to exile in Poland, he was dragged around the market square by
      his beard with "a huge, mangy dog, drunk on yesterday's broth...tied
      to his shoulders,...barking and shitting on [him]." Public
      humiliation, indeed.

      Cosmas's important chronicle survives in more than a dozen
      manuscripts, and Bertold Bretholz long ago published an excellent
      critical edition: <i>Die Chronik der Böhmen des Cosmas von Prag</i>,
      Monumenta Germaniae Historica, Scriptores, n.s. II (Berlin, 1923). Yet
      the quality and precision of Wolverton's translation--and especially
      the inclusion of its extensive footnotes--will now make her text the
      best starting point even for most Anglophone scholars. Cosmas,
      educated at Liège, infuses his text with biblical, Christian and
      classical quotations and allusions. Bretholz's edition painstakingly
      identified many of these, and Wolverton (and the series editors)
      wisely included them in the translation's footnotes. When Cosmas is
      echoing the Psalms or the <i>Aeneid</i>, Lucan's <i>Civil War</i> or
      Regino of Prüm's <i>Chronicle</i>, the notes keep the reader informed
      without breaking the flow of the text itself.

      Heavily laden with authoritative citations and self-conscious in its
      rhetoric, at times even slipping into rhymed prose or verse, the Latin
      of Cosmas's chronicle offer a challenge to any translator. Here again
      both the scholar and the student are well served. Wolverton's
      translation is meticulous and consistent. The introduction dedicates
      several pages to her carefully considered translation of particular
      words, such as <i>regnum</i>, <i>urbs</i>, <i>civitas</i>,
      <i>metropolis</i>, and <i>miles</i>--and of her decision not to
      translate other words, such as <i>comes</i>, "as the term does not
      carry the same hierarchical or vassalic connotations in the Czech
      Lands that it does elsewhere in Europe" (23). The result is precise
      and reliable, even (occasionally) at the partial expense of fluidity.
      The Latin original retains its primacy. The reader not only grasps the
      meaning, but also quite often becomes acquainted with the idiomatic
      expression. Swords are not just worn, they "hang on the thigh," for
      example (e.g., 116, 127). When the translation simply cannot convey
      the Latin wordplay of the original, Wolverton indicates this in a
      footnote (e.g., the "hostile lances" in the phrase, "Non nos
      <i>hostilia</i> portamus <i>hastilia</i>, p. 224).

      Wolverton's careful and precise method of translation keeps her text
      remarkably close to the meaning and even the syntax of the Latin,
      word-for-word and phrase-for-phrase. This tendency towards a literal
      rather than a more flowing but less accurate translation will benefit
      the same readers who will appreciate the liberal notes: scholars and
      advanced undergraduates working, perhaps, on research essays. Every
      translator must make her own decisions, and of course there are places
      where I might have chosen a different word or phrase than Wolverton
      has. Only very rarely does her translation risk misunderstanding. Some
      North American readers, for example, might be tempted to think of
      yellow maize instead of wheat or barley grain when they read "ears of
      tender corn" (<i>spicas tenere segetis</i>), though British readers
      will have no such trouble (226, cf. 188). One particularly difficult
      passage involving the study of logic in France leads Wolverton to
      suggest that Cosmas may be alluding specifically to Abelard, who was
      active in Paris around that time (250 n. 293). I read the Latin
      passage a bit differently and find unconvincing the (admittedly
      tantalizing) suggestion that Cosmas had Abelard in particular in mind.

      But this is, quite literally, to quibble with one speculative footnote
      of the translation's nearly one thousand notes. Wolverton has indeed
      produced a remarkable piece of scholarship, and not just a handy
      translation of an important high-medieval chronicle. The introduction,
      footnotes and other elements of the scholarly apparatus greatly
      enhance the book's value for historians and other scholars of the
      Middle Ages, readers who might not otherwise take the time to read the
      Latin edition. To them I highly recommend it. Nor will I hesitate to
      recommend or assign it to my own students, for whom it offers
      unprecedented access to the world of central Europe in the twelfth
      century.


      --
      -- Jenne Heise / Jadwiga Zajaczkowa
      jenne@...
    • jenne@fiedlerfamily.net
      ... Subject: TMR 09.09.15 Wolverton, The Chronicle (repost without accents) From: The Medieval Review Date: Thu, September 17, 2009
      Message 2 of 3 , Sep 17, 2009
      • 0 Attachment
        ---------------------------- Original Message ----------------------------
        Subject: TMR 09.09.15 Wolverton, The Chronicle (repost without accents)
        From: "The Medieval Review" <tmrl@...>
        Date: Thu, September 17, 2009 1:09 am
        To: tmr-l@...
        --------------------------------------------------------------------------

        Wolverton, Lisa, trans. Cosmas of Prague. <i>The Chronicle of the
        Czechs</i>. Translated with an introduction and notes by Lisa
        Wolverton. Medieval Texts in Translation Series. Washington, D.C.:
        Catholic University of America Press, 2009. Pp. xvii, 274. $34.95.
        ISBN: 0813215706.

        Reviewed by David C. Mengel
        Xavier University
        mengel@...


        Like Bede for the English, Cosmas of Prague (c. 1045-1125) offered
        Czechs the story of their own origins. He tells of Bohemus (or ?ech,
        in the vernacular), who first brought the Czechs into their own land,
        called Bohemia (Cechy) after him. Later came the legendary prophetess
        Libu?e, foundress of Prague, whose misogynist subjects convinced her
        to select a husband as duke. Her choice fell on the peasant Premysl,
        founder of the Premyslid dynasty that ruled the duchy (later kingdom)
        of Bohemia into the fourteenth century. Yet Cosmas, an elderly cleric
        by the time he began to write (c. 1120), offered these ancient tales
        along with a measure of skepticism: "since these things are said to
        have occurred in ancient times, we leave it to the reader to judge
        whether they are fact or fiction" (63). Cosmas preferred to rely on
        his own experience and on the testimony of eyewitnesses, so he devoted
        two of his chronicle's three books to the time in which he lived. He
        recognized the personal risk--"it seems to us much safer to narrate a
        dream, to which no one bears witness, than to write the deeds of
        present-day men"--and yet did not shy away from offering judgments on
        the personalities and political leaders of his own day (183). As the
        dean of Prague cathedral and an octogenarian widower, Cosmas enjoyed
        the free-speaking boldness that old age and high rank could provide.
        The result is a rich and important twelfth-century text that deserves
        to be known better by students of medieval Europe.

        Outside today's Central Europe, historians of medieval Bohemia are not
        so numerous. Partly for that reason, I (who also study medieval
        Bohemia) have agreed to write this review for TMR in spite of my long
        friendship with its translator, Lisa Wolverton. This review's readers
        should know that I was not involved in any stage of the translation's
        preparation but that I did offer the publisher a brief evaluation of
        the text once it was in press; a quotation from that evaluation
        appears on the book's back cover. With full knowledge of this, TMR's
        editors still asked for my review. My agreement reflects my high
        opinion of the precise and accessible translation of a very important
        text, a translation accompanied by an impressive scholarly apparatus
        that includes an introduction, bibliography, index, maps, genealogical
        charts and extensive notes. I hope and expect that many scholars and
        other students of the Middle Ages will read it.

        As Wolverton explains in her introduction, the <i>Chronicle of the
        Czechs</i> is what historians have called a "national history." It
        tells, and by telling creates, the story of a medieval people. Whereas
        the contemporary Normans, for example, benefited from several
        chroniclers, Cosmas stands alone for the Czechs. His chronicle
        provides the only narrative source, and often the only extant source
        of any kind, for most of the events and people he describes. Cosmas
        thus remains the fountainhead of the history of early and high
        medieval Bohemia.

        The locations and characters that populate Cosmas's chronicle--in
        distinction to those described by his contemporaries Eadmer and
        Orderic Vitalis--will be unfamiliar to most readers of this
        translation, the first one into English. Instead of Canterbury,
        Hereford and London, here we encounter Stara Boleslav, M?lník and
        especially Prague. Instead of a succession of Williams and Roberts,
        here we meet multiple B?etislavs and Borivojs. Some of their names
        will test the Anglophone tongue--try Detrisek, for example (219). Even
        good old saintly Wenceslas (a tenth-century duke, not a king) appears
        here not in his Latinate guise, but as the Czech Václav (as Wolverton
        explains in a footnote).

        Great profit awaits those willing to overcome this unfamiliarity,
        however, and Wolverton has provided all the necessary tools.
        Genealogies, lists of dukes and bishops, and well-drawn maps will
        allow even undergraduate readers to follow along without getting
        hopelessly lost. Even better, rich footnotes--yes, footnotes instead
        of endnotes--identify countless allusions and explain many things that
        Cosmas assumed his (mostly) clerical readers would know. What is a
        mitre? A suffragan? Prime and the other liturgical hours? Wolverton's
        notes offer succinct, clear answers that make this text particularly
        accessible to undergraduates.

        Once readers get past the unfamiliar names, they will find much that
        is less exceptional than characteristic of twelfth-century Europe,
        especially Central Europe. For example, Cosmas tells of Crusaders on
        their way to Jerusalem who passed through Bohemia in 1096, attacking
        and forcibly baptizing Jews, and of the Prague bishop who both failed
        to prevent these violent christenings and later quietly overlooked the
        same Jews' return to the practice of Judaism. (Cosmas clearly
        disapproved of both the forced conversions and the bishops' later
        "negligence" in allowing Bohemian Jews to relapse.) Students of the
        Gregorian reform movement will note that the twelfth-century prelate
        Cosmas makes no secret of his wife or his son, but that he also
        praises the virginity of bishops such as St. Adalbert (d. 997). Those
        familiar with the events at Canossa in 1077 will be struck by the
        several accounts here of the election of bishops of Prague--in short,
        Bohemia's dukes nearly always managed to appoint their own choices, so
        long as the other Bohemian nobles didn't object. Rich gifts then
        invariably secured the approval of the Mainz archbishop and especially
        the emperor, who personally invested each new bishop with ring and
        staff, all with hardly a nod towards Rome. Those interested in
        questions of ethnic identity or even the development of medieval
        "nationalism" should consider Cosmas's warm approval of a newly
        elected duke's 1055 expulsion of all Germans from Bohemia--an
        expulsion that included the duke's own mother!

        Cosmas's chronicle also tells tales of saints, of miracles, and even
        of thefts of relics. It takes a keen interest in Bohemia's
        ecclesiastical politics, and especially of the periodic division of
        the realm into two bishoprics. But fundamentally, as Wolverton notes,
        Cosmas offers a political tale. The majority of the text relates
        rollicking stories of war and political intrigue, of brotherly strife
        and ruthless rivalries between noble families. Readers will find
        sufficient orientation in this translation's introduction, which
        provides a clear, brief guide to Cosmas and his world. For the larger
        picture and its detailed analysis, Wolverton's own monograph is
        essential: <i>Hastening Toward Prague: Power and Society in the
        Medieval Czech Lands</i> (Philadelphia, 2001).

        Even on their own, Cosmas's many evocative anecdotes provide the
        reader an excellent sense of the exercise of political power in high
        medieval Bohemia. Brothers and other rivals are tonsured by force,
        blinded and castrated, or simply assassinated. Cosmas himself seems to
        have witnessed the aftermath of one failed plot, by which the nobleman
        Mutina evidently sought to overthrow Duke Svatopluk (r. 1107-9) in
        favor of Borivoj II (r. 1100-7; 1117-20)--the latter both preceded and
        eventually succeeded his cousin Svatopluk. Raging mad, Duke Svatopluk
        ordered the death of Mutina and all his kin. Here and elsewhere,
        Cosmas does not shrink from offering his own opinion.

        What should I say about the death of Mutina's sons, whose
        death seemed crueler than any death? They were little
        boys of good disposition, with faces worth looking at,
        lovable in appearance, of the like that no skilled
        craftsman would be able to express in white ivory, nor a
        painter on a wall. We saw them pitifully dragged into the
        market, frequently crying out: "Mother! Mother!" when the
        bloody butcher killed them both under his arm with a
        small knife, like piglets. Everyone scattered, striking
        their breasts, in order not to see the butcher performing
        such a cruel misdeed" (212).

        A Prague official, suspected by a subsequent duke of favoring a rival,
        was later subjected to a more creative punishment. Before being sent
        away to exile in Poland, he was dragged around the market square by
        his beard with "a huge, mangy dog, drunk on yesterday's broth...tied
        to his shoulders,...barking and shitting on [him]." Public
        humiliation, indeed.

        Cosmas's important chronicle survives in more than a dozen
        manuscripts, and Bertold Bretholz long ago published an excellent
        critical edition: <i>Die Chronik der Böhmen des Cosmas von Prag</i>,
        Monumenta Germaniae Historica, Scriptores, n.s. II (Berlin, 1923). Yet
        the quality and precision of Wolverton's translation--and especially
        the inclusion of its extensive footnotes--will now make her text the
        best starting point even for most Anglophone scholars. Cosmas,
        educated at Liège, infuses his text with biblical, Christian and
        classical quotations and allusions. Bretholz's edition painstakingly
        identified many of these, and Wolverton (and the series editors)
        wisely included them in the translation's footnotes. When Cosmas is
        echoing the Psalms or the <i>Aeneid</i>, Lucan's <i>Civil War</i> or
        Regino of Prüm's <i>Chronicle</i>, the notes keep the reader informed
        without breaking the flow of the text itself.

        Heavily laden with authoritative citations and self-conscious in its
        rhetoric, at times even slipping into rhymed prose or verse, the Latin
        of Cosmas's chronicle offer a challenge to any translator. Here again
        both the scholar and the student are well served. Wolverton's
        translation is meticulous and consistent. The introduction dedicates
        several pages to her carefully considered translation of particular
        words, such as <i>regnum</i>, <i>urbs</i>, <i>civitas</i>,
        <i>metropolis</i>, and <i>miles</i>--and of her decision not to
        translate other words, such as <i>comes</i>, "as the term does not
        carry the same hierarchical or vassalic connotations in the Czech
        Lands that it does elsewhere in Europe" (23). The result is precise
        and reliable, even (occasionally) at the partial expense of fluidity.
        The Latin original retains its primacy. The reader not only grasps the
        meaning, but also quite often becomes acquainted with the idiomatic
        expression. Swords are not just worn, they "hang on the thigh," for
        example (e.g., 116, 127). When the translation simply cannot convey
        the Latin wordplay of the original, Wolverton indicates this in a
        footnote (e.g., the "hostile lances" in the phrase, "Non nos
        <i>hostilia</i> portamus <i>hastilia</i>, p. 224).

        Wolverton's careful and precise method of translation keeps her text
        remarkably close to the meaning and even the syntax of the Latin,
        word-for-word and phrase-for-phrase. This tendency towards a literal
        rather than a more flowing but less accurate translation will benefit
        the same readers who will appreciate the liberal notes: scholars and
        advanced undergraduates working, perhaps, on research essays. Every
        translator must make her own decisions, and of course there are places
        where I might have chosen a different word or phrase than Wolverton
        has. Only very rarely does her translation risk misunderstanding. Some
        North American readers, for example, might be tempted to think of
        yellow maize instead of wheat or barley grain when they read "ears of
        tender corn" (<i>spicas tenere segetis</i>), though British readers
        will have no such trouble (226, cf. 188). One particularly difficult
        passage involving the study of logic in France leads Wolverton to
        suggest that Cosmas may be alluding specifically to Abelard, who was
        active in Paris around that time (250 n. 293). I read the Latin
        passage a bit differently and find unconvincing the (admittedly
        tantalizing) suggestion that Cosmas had Abelard in particular in mind.

        But this is, quite literally, to quibble with one speculative footnote
        of the translation's nearly one thousand notes. Wolverton has indeed
        produced a remarkable piece of scholarship, and not just a handy
        translation of an important high-medieval chronicle. The introduction,
        footnotes and other elements of the scholarly apparatus greatly
        enhance the book's value for historians and other scholars of the
        Middle Ages, readers who might not otherwise take the time to read the
        Latin edition. To them I highly recommend it. Nor will I hesitate to
        recommend or assign it to my own students, for whom it offers
        unprecedented access to the world of central Europe in the twelfth
        century.


        --
        -- Jenne Heise / Jadwiga Zajaczkowa
        jenne@...
      • Sfandra
        Thanks for the heads-up on this book, Jadwiga. I ll certainly be adding it to my (omg-ever-increasing) library.... --Sfandra ****************** Posadnitsa
        Message 3 of 3 , Sep 17, 2009
        • 0 Attachment
          Thanks for the heads-up on this book, Jadwiga. I'll certainly be adding it to my (omg-ever-increasing) library....

          --Sfandra



          ******************
          Posadnitsa Sfandra Dmitrieva Chernigova
          KOE, Maunche, Apprentice to Maitresse Irene LeNoir
          Haus Von Drakenklaue, Kingdom of the East
          ******************
          Never 'pearl' your butt.


          --- On Thu, 9/17/09, jenne@... <jenne@...> wrote:

          > From: jenne@... <jenne@...>
          > Subject: [sig] [Fwd: TMR 09.09.15 Wolverton, The Chronicle (repost without accents)]
          > To: "Slavic Interest Group " <sig@yahoogroups.com>
          > Date: Thursday, September 17, 2009, 2:41 PM
          >
          >
          > ---------------------------- Original Message
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