- And are originally made of what is in English called Frieze
some notes from `Textiles of the Common Man and Woman 1580-1660'
by Stuart Peachy (England context)
"Raising was napping the fabric with teasling or frizing. Teasling
used the seed pod of a cultivated teasle set in a frame. Frizing uses
fine metal rubbers (sort of like a curry brush) in a circular motion,
and was done to one side only. Cottoning was similar. Frieze, rugs,
and cottons were usually finished at this stage.
Frizado is a sort of napping in a single direction, which especially
when done to a `hairy' woolen produced a sort of shaggy effect.
"A frieze is a corse heavy cloth, the warmest winter outerwear, and
also fashionable when of fine quality. It was made 24" wide and was
very heavy and thick (2mm plus), the heaviest and thickest made.
There is another similar cloth called `rug' which may be the same
basic fabric but in the context of bed covers/blankets rather then
clothing. Clothing made with Frieze listed in estates were usually
outerwear; `gowns' (long overcoats), coats, and jerkins - usually
grey, black or russet, with a little white, red, green and indigo.
The frieze finish is heavily napped such that it looks like felt, and
is usually `hairy shag, nappie or high nap, full of hair'.
(By the way, the Frizado finish mentioned above in part 1 can be
applied to non-frieze cloth.)
One side is `hairy' - which side was worn `out'? Peachy describes the
two schools of thought:
hairy side out... if nap is downward it might shed water- good for
Hairy side in.... if for winter and so primarily for insulation, the
felt windproof side should be out and the hairy side in would trap
pockets of warm air. He points to examples of illustrations that seem
to show shaggy side in.
In 1608-9 frieze was heavily exported from England; exports:
cottons (wool lining) 42000 yards
Broadcloth 16000 yards
Frieze 12000 yards
Kersies (twill) 8400 yards
Penistones 2600 yards
Wadmoles 1900 yards
plus various others in small quantities, for example:
Polonia Cloth 560 yards
Linsey Woolsey 60 yards
Flannel was made in some quantity also, but it was lightweight poor
quality cloth that was not exported much. Frieze nap is raised more
than flannel, which is matted yet flat.
'Cotton' is made of sheep-wool (not the cotton plant!). It is similar
to frieze but is not as dense and not as tightly matted, so is
unsuitable for outerwear but good for lining other cloth. It is
half the weight of frieze or less. It is made of inferior wool,
unsuitable for other uses, and is quite cheap. (About the only
documented mention of using cotton to alone make clothes is for
children, especially in orphanages.) The slack weave of cotton made
it stretchy, so it was used by the military for socks. Like the
frieze, it is made in 24inch widths.
Cotton is about 1/3 the cost of frieze, frieze is about half the cost
of a fine broadcloth.