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Interesting Hemp fibre info

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  • Susan Koziel
    Hi guys, I looking for completely modern structural information on hemp fibres I stumbles across a short chapter in a book that gives some interesting info on
    Message 1 of 1 , Jan 16, 2006
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      Hi guys,
      I looking for completely modern structural
      information on hemp fibres I stumbles across a short
      chapter in a book that gives some interesting info on
      hemp fibre history...
      Excerpt (the relevent bits of the chapter) & reference

      An overview of Hemp production in Hungary, please keep
      in mind this is a sciences book about modern fiber
      crop practices and the history sections are a broad
      overview; excerpt copied directly from
      “Bast and other plant fibres”, edited by Robert R
      Franck, Woodhead Publishing Ltd., 2005
      Chapter 4 by J. Sponner, L. Toth, S. Cziger, and R.R.

      “Part 1
      4.1 Introduction: hemp in Hungary
      Hemp was first mentioned in chronicles of the 12th
      century, after the Hungarian settlement of the
      Carpathian Basin. In 1198 the customs tariff of
      Esztergom enumerates numerates plants including hemp
      and flax. Another record mentions that the pwner of a
      cart carrying hemp or flax had to pay four bundles of
      hemp or flax as duty and according to other records
      dated 1309 a 42 acre hemp field was required for every
      57 acres of land held in villeinage.
      In the Middle Ages hemp processing, spinning and
      weaving were quite common and this work was an
      intrinsic part of the villeins’ feudal obligations.
      According to a document dated 1324, of the 17
      industries listed in Hungary, spinning and weaving
      seem to have been most important.
      It is evident that in the life of the Hungarian
      people hemp has a history of a thousand years, and
      knowledge of the growing and processing of hemp was
      used to make harder-wearing fabrics. Hemp served other
      requirements as well and rope, twine, bags,
      tarpaulins, etc., were produced for agricultural and
      other purposes.
      On small farms and later on large estates hemp was
      essential. On the estates the first machines that were
      operated by mobile steam engines replaced manual tools
      and these engines were fuelled by hemp hurds. In this
      way hemp process waste was used to generate energy for
      the machines. Gradually the demand for hemp products
      grew and production increased to satisfy these wider
      markets. Hemp followed the economic and social changes
      of this lengthy period; it was part of the
      industrialization of the country and it formed the
      basis of its textile industry.
      The city of Szeged played and important role in the
      development of the Hungarian hemp industry. With the
      help of its natural waterway, the Tisza, Szeged – an
      extensive stock breeding centre – became one of the
      biggest collecting and distributive markets in the
      southern part of the country. According to Medieval
      sources, agricultural products, livestock and
      industrial products from distant regions were sold at
      large and busy fairs. The city was not only a trading
      centre but also an important staging post for traffic
      to Italy, the Balkans and the East and the traveler of
      the time could find a relatively well-developed guild
      life within its walls. In 1522 the tithe register of
      the Diocese of Bacs lists 291 independent tradesmen,
      two of them being ropemakers. After gradually
      expelling the Turks from the country the fight for
      freedom against the Habsburgs prevented the economy
      from developing and this situation improved only in
      the middle of the 18th century. The prosperity of the
      economy was greatly helped by settled German
      craftsmanship and the guilds of the city flourished.
      The development of shipping on the river Tisza
      (especially transporting wheat and other agricultural
      products) stimulated the shipbuilding industry, heavy
      canvas and rope manufacture. The rope manufacturers of
      Szeged received their first charter of incorporation
      from Maria Theresa on 20 May 1743.
      The processing of hemp and manufacturing was done in
      small guilds that could be found especially in the
      southern cities of the country. At this time ‘factory
      size’ hemp processing did not exist and only in the
      last two decades of the 18th century do we find three
      ‘factory sized rope-walks’. All three were situated on
      the coast at Fume, in present Croatia.
      The raw material for the numerous little guilds was
      mainly supplied from abroad as the limited production
      of hemp from the small farms was not sufficient to
      satisfy the ‘hungry’ industry’s requirements. The
      local authorities in the country became aware of this
      situation and took important steps to develop hemp
      processing; in other words, it became essential that
      hemp processing develop into a manufacturing industry.
      A survey was made in order to establish which areas
      were most suitable for the cultivation of hemp and
      flax and 20 tonnes of high fibre yield seed was
      brought from Italy. Peasants from Bologna, who had
      several decades of experience in the growing and
      processing of hemp, were settled in the southern part
      of the country. In 1865 Count Rezso Chotek founded the
      first hemp factory in Hungary in Futak-Ojvidik (today
      Novi-Sad, in present Yugoslavia). This plant included
      scotching and other primary processing of the hemp.
      Following the establishment of this factory others
      (spinning, weaving, ropewalks, etc.) sprang up like

      This chapter goes on for 4 more paragraphs but
      concerns the modernized factory processes.
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