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1Sharia Watch 3 [24 June 02]

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  • shariawatch
    Nov 10, 2002
      Afghanistan (8) Bangladesh (1) Bosnia (1) Brunei (1) Dubai (1)
      Egypt (1) India (1) Indonesia (1) Iran (2) Jordan (4) Kenya (1)
      Malaysia (9) Nigeria (6) Pakistan (4) Palestine (1) Saudi Arabia (2)
      Sudan (2) United Kingdom (4) USA (1) World (+ links to literature)

      SHARIA WATCH : a collection quotes of recent news articles on Sharia,
      for research purposes only. [*]


      Islamists attack `Afghan Rushdie' June 18, 2002

      Powerful Islamic fundamentalists have launched a fierce
      attack on Sima Samar, the minister of women's affairs, accusing her of
      blasphemy, labelling her "Afghanistan's Salman Rushdie" and demanding
      that she be given "appropriate punishment" which, under sharia law,
      means death.

      The letter [in: Mujahed, Soldier of God], titled
      "Afghanistan's Salman Rushdie?", claims that Samar told a Canadian
      newspaper in April: "I don't believe in sharia". Although sharia's
      relevance to the complexities of modern life is debated, every Muslim
      is expected to accept its principles.

      Germany 'to fiercely resist' Afghan plans for re-imposing Sharia
      http://www.irna.com/en/head/020618185842.ehe.shtml June 18

      Germany warned against introducing Sharia laws in the
      war-ravaged country, saying it would 'fiercely resist' the move, DPA
      Afghan President Hamid Karzai announced during the Loya Jirga
      grand assembly meeting that Islamic Sharia laws would be

      Islamists Retain Powerful Influence 17 June 2002

      When Afghanistan's next government takes office, it will most
      likely be known as the "Islamic" transitional administration of
      Afghanistan. That is due to a strong demand from Islamists to reject
      the government's Bonn-designated name of simply Transitional Authority
      as too secular. The dispute is a measure of how successfully Islamic
      fundamentalists are maintaining their influence as the country
      undergoes political change.

      The fundamentalist leaders say they are determined to play a
      major part in shaping the country's future and in assuring that it
      conforms to their vision of an Islamic state. That vision is for a
      society governed by Islamic law and resistant to change from the West,
      particularly with regard to the traditional role of women.

      Britain hands peacekeeping control to Turks
      The Daily Telegraph - 2002-06-21

      Wali Ahmad, a Taliban-era Sharia judge, said he was worried
      that Afghanistan was entering a new era of moral decay because of what
      he called the proliferation of anti-Islamic values.

      "We think it is hypocritical that the US forces and the UN are banning
      the production of opium in Afghanistan while at the same time
      overseeing the importation of vodka and wine in large trucks. We don't
      want Kabul to be turned into one giant bar again," he said.

      In fact, US troops in Afghanistan are banned from drinking, whereas
      many European soldiers, along with some foreign journalists, consume
      large quantities of alcohol, which, along with drugs, is banned by

      Afghans split over brutal laws /ChristianScienceMonitor June 20, 2002

      President Hamid Karzai has given Islamic traditionalists fresh
      hope – and human rights activists new concerns – with his declaration
      that the nation will continue to follow sharia, and his inaugural wish
      that "... God cut [off] the hands of people who try to steal our
      national heritage."

      "The sharia that Karzai speaks of should be the same as it was
      during [King Zahir Shah]'s era; officially sharia should be the law,
      but in practice it should not be implemented 100 percent," says Maulvi
      Sami Ullah, an Islamic scholar, the headmaster of a Sufi Islamic
      school, and a delegate to the grand assembly.

      Analysis of New Cabinet /HumanRightsWatch June 20, 2002

      The appointment of Fazul Hadi Shinwari to the post of Chief
      Justice of the Supreme Court also raises serious human rights
      concerns. Shinwari was quoted in press interviews in January as saying
      that Shari'a punishments including stoning and amputation would be
      retained, albeit with stricter due process guarantees than under the
      Taliban. His position contradicted Karzai's assertion during a visit
      to the United States that same month that Shari'a punishments could
      only be imposed in a society in which social justice and freedom from
      hunger prevailed.

      Rabble of warlords vie for cabinet control / Scotsman 23 June 2002

      The powerful Tajik [Fahim], who leads the northern alliance,
      is, himself, close to Bruhanuddin Rabbani, whose fundamentalist
      political party, Jamiat Islami, implemented harsh Sharia laws between
      1992 and 1996 and continues to devalue the role of women in Afghan

      A close ally of both Fahim and Rabbani, Abdul Rasool Sayyaf, a
      powerful adherent of Saudi-style Wahabbism, railroaded through a new
      name for Afghanistan's government last week, adding the word "Islamic"
      on to the front of the Transitional Government of Afghanistan. When
      another delegate to the assembly gave a speech defending women's
      rights, Sayyaf's associates threatened to put the man on trial, said
      Zia-Zarifi. "The night after his speech, armed fundamentalists paid a
      visit to his home and threatened him," he added.

      Another strict Islamist, Kamal Shinwari, was returned to his
      post by Karzai as the chief justice of Afghanistan. Judge Shinwari
      called in January for the full implementation of the Sharia, Islamic
      law, which calls for, among other things, the cutting off of hands of
      thieves and the stoning of adulterers.

      Focus on women's prison in Kabul /UN Irin news 10 Jun 2002

      Shyma was put behind bars after alleging that her husband was
      having an affair with another man. "My husband told the police that I
      was spreading vicious rumours about him, and they put me in jail
      instead. But I have done nothing wrong," she maintained.

      Shyma said she had been forced to keep her children with her as there
      was no-one else to look after them, men traditionally in Afghan
      culture not having the responsibility of single-handedly caring for
      children. Four other women at the prison also had their children with


      Escalating Violence Threatens Press Freedom June 17, 2002

      Reporters without Borders has noted that these attacks usually
      occur right after the publication of articles written on "sensitive
      subjects." In Bangladesh, especially in rural areas, it is dangerous
      to write about extremist groups (religious or political), corrupt
      officials, war criminals, or mafia gangs involved in smuggling, drug
      trafficking, or racketeering. Most Bangladeshi journalists are aware
      of these risks and therefore have no other choice than to practice
      self-censorship. [..]

      The authorities reacted very violently to the publication in
      the Far Eastern Economic Review magazine of an article by Bertil
      Lintner on the rise of pro-Islamist movements in Bangladesh.


      Bosnian charities aid terror? May 16 , 2002

      These suspicions led to the closure of the Bosnian offices of
      three Islamic charities including BIF, Global Relief Foundation and
      the Saudi-based Alharamain earlier this year. An official with the
      Bosnian Ministry of Internal Affairs also said the Saudi High Relief
      Commission, one of the largest Islamic charities in the world, would
      likely be closed in the near future as well because raids revealed
      inappropriate materials that appear to indicate terrorist activity.

      The Saudi High Relief Commission, which refused UPI's repeated
      interview requests, has spent an estimated $800 million over the last
      10 years on a wide range of humanitarian projects. Kadic and other
      officials confirmed that suspicious activities by BIF, HRC and GRF
      include millions of dollars in aid that remain unaccounted for,
      associations with individuals arrested in a plot against the U.S.
      Embassy in Sarajevo, educational materials that endorse terror
      activities, and what appeared to be planning materials for terrorist
      strikes throughout Europe.


      Father of four jailed for theft, whipped for damage June 21, 2002

      A local father of four who nipped 107 metres of electric cable
      on two different occasions this year and sold it in Limbang for
      RM$3.50 per kilo was yesterday sentenced to one-year jail and two
      strokes of the rattan cane.

      A charge of committing mischief by the act of damaging the
      cable, which calls for mandatory whipping, was also pressed against
      him yesterday.


      Islamic Bank commences Johara - Exclusive banking service for women

      Dubai Islamic Bank (DIB), one of the leading financial
      institutions in the UAE, today announced the commencement of Johara,
      an exclusive bouquet of comprehensive, value-added banking services
      for women.

      The banking and financial products and services offered by the
      Johara service include specialized consultation and advise on
      financial planning, a choice of banking accounts – term deposit
      accounts, savings accounts and current accounts – a range of finance
      and foreign exchange services, locker facilities and access to a
      specialized 24x7 telebanking service (..) Internet banking services
      for the added convenience of its members.


      Woman turns tables on male polygamy /ME Times 14 June 2002

      An Egyptian woman has been arrested for polygamy after one of
      her husbands found she had been married to two other men, with whom
      she also had children, police said last Tuesday.

      Under Egyptian and Islamic law, a man may marry up to four women, but
      a woman is permitted no more than one husband.

      In another case of a woman accused of polygamy, a newspaper
      here reported last August that 32-year-old Sabah Abdel Kader had been
      arrested for being married to five men at the same time.


      Muslim personal law board elects new president June 24, 2002

      Rabey, rector of the Nadwatul Ulema, a famous Islamic
      university in Uttar Pradesh capital Lucknow, will head the All-India
      Muslim Personal Law Board (AIMPLB), which was formed three decades ago
      to protect the "Shariah" or the Islamic law. As in the past, he was
      elected unanimously and succeeded Qazi Mujahidul Islam Qasmi, who died
      in April.

      Expressing satisfaction over the work done by the board to
      fight the threat of replacing the Muslim personal law with a common
      civil code, he said there was no scope for Muslims to go against the
      Shariah and follow another law.


      Civilian killings rise in Aceh insurgency June 18, 2002

      Advocates of the new links with Indonesia's army and police,
      including the U.S. deputy defense secretary, Paul Wolfowitz, contend
      that Indonesia can only become a model of a moderate Muslim country if
      it is fortified by a U.S.-influenced military that is able to hold the
      archipelago country together against the forces of extremism.
      The government of President Megawati Sukarnoputri has offered special
      autonomy for Aceh that would allow the province to keep a greater
      percentage of the revenues from its natural resources. The government
      has also allowed provincial authorities to introduce Sharia, the legal
      code of Islam.
      These gestures have proved insufficient, and the war bleeds on.
      Successive American administrations have opposed independence for
      Aceh. No other major government supports independence, either.


      Intrusive Remarks by German Officials Contrary to EU Ideals June 20

      Tehran Times The German cooperation minister on Tuesday
      warned the Loya Jirga delegates against returning to Islamic law, or
      the Sharia. The German official argued that if they decide to restore
      the Sharia in their country, they would deviate from the path of
      democracy! The minister's remark is flagrant interference in
      Afghanistan's internal affairs, as it is up to the Afghan people and
      their representatives at Loya Jirga to decide the kind of constitution
      they want for their country, not the outsiders, including German

      Besides the interfering remarks made by the German
      cooperation minister about Afghanistan, German Foreign Minister
      Joschka Fischer also made some intrusive comments about the Islamic
      Republic [Iran] by criticizing what he alleged were human rights
      violations in this country.

      Iran raises age of consent for brides to 13

      The decision by Iran's Expediency Council arbitration body
      watered down a bill passed by the reformist-dominated parliament in
      2000 which tried to raise the age of consent to 15 for girls and 18
      for boys to cut teenage marriages and ease criticism of Iran's human
      rights record.

      That bill was vetoed by the Guardian Council, a 12-man body dominated
      by conservative clerics whose job it is to ensure legislation conforms
      to Islamic Sharia law.


      Jordan profs fired for suicide bomb views June 5, 2002

      Eight professors of Islamic studies who refused to label human
      bomb attacks as suicide operations have been fired from public
      universities following orders from security authorities, Muslim
      Brotherhood sources said Wednesday.

      Most of those dismissed were graduates and former professors
      of sharia, or Islamic law, in Saudi Arabia. They "refused to amend the
      ideology curricula to describe the martyr operations as suicide
      bombings," the Brotherhood sources said.

      Students to start Tawjihi exams June 15, 2002

      Of this number, 86,192 students will be tested according to
      the new system, which includes theoretical computer science, while
      17,465 students will resit the general exam.

      Sitting for the new system will be 21,887 students for the
      scientific stream, 47,876 students for the literal stream, 15,687 for
      the vocational stream and 748 for the sharia stream.

      Credit corporation offers farmers Sharia-based financing June 21,2002

      The Agricultural Credit Corporation (ACC), Jordan's sole
      agricultural loan provider since 1989, has granted JD1.5 million worth
      of Islamic-based, profit-on-transaction financing to 317 farmers since

      Farmers in the past boycotted the ACC because they opposed the
      concept of interest-based loans, and since the corporation is the sole
      finance provider in the agricultural sector, it was our responsibility
      to cater to those who preferred an Islamic approach to assistance,
      Freij said.

      Women ask for divorce according to the new marital law - Feb.22,2002

      The marital status law gives the Sharia court the opportunity
      to try to maintain the relations between the wife and the husband as a
      first phase and when efforts fail, the court resorts to " divorce " as
      a last solution, as requested by the wife.

      Worthy, mentioning that like other Arab and Islamic states,
      the right of divorce was confined to the man alone in Jordan and this
      was before amending the marital status law which gave the woman the
      right to ask for "separation" despite the opposition of certain
      Islamic sides.

      This law was issued in the mid of December, 2001 in accordance with a
      proposal submitted by a royal committee for human rights formed by
      King Abdullah in 2000 in the context of the efforts aiming at making
      administrative, economic and social reforms in the country.


      Sharia for NEP, majimbo for the rest? comment June 22, 2002

      Despite growing scepticism about whether the Constitutional
      Review Commission will be able to finish its work, the progress of
      consultations with citizens continues to be of great interest.

      That northern Kenyans refer to the rest of the country as
      "down Kenya," as though they are in a totally different nation, is not
      a surprise. Their infrastructure is sorely lacking. They have suffered
      immensely from repeated armed conflicts, which the rest of the country
      patronisingly calls "cattle rustling" and "tribal raids."

      That northern Kenyans have consolidated a position on this
      injustice is long overdue. And that this position is finding
      expression in their calls for a concerted developmental focus on the
      region, or for majimbo, is certainly understandable.

      However, that this position is taking on religious overtones and also
      finding expression in calls for a province governed by Sharia (Islamic
      law) is something that will require even greater consideration than
      the proposals for majimbo.

      Is Majimbo Federalism?
      The contemporary political history of Kenya


      Case against State Govts over criminal law to be heard tomorrow

      The Federal Court will hear tomorrow lawyer Zaid Ibrahim's
      application for leave to seek a declaration that the Kelantan and
      Terengganu State Governments have no right to enact any criminal law.

      Sale of $500 Million of Global Islamic Bonds started June 18, 2002

      Malaysia plans to sell $500 million of five-year Islamic bonds
      this week as it seeks to compete with Bahrain to be the center of a
      $200 billion finance industry, bankers involved in the sale said.

      The bonds are the first U.S.-dollar bonds to be sold by a government
      that comply with an Islamic ban on the payment or receipt of interest,
      which the religion equates with usury.

      Malaysia is selling the bonds to help kick-start an
      international market in debt that meets Sharia, or Islamic law, the
      bankers said. The bonds are sold to investors who abide by the Koran.

      The bonds will pay investors about 1 percentage point more than the
      London Interbank Offer Rate, or Libor, using a Sharia- compliant

      Malaysia is competing with Bahrain to establish a global
      Islamic finance center, an industry that has grown by more than 10
      percent a year and has assets worth about $200 billion, according to
      industry estimates. Bahrain is the main banking center in the oil-rich
      Persian Gulf.

      Malaysian Ruling Party Annual Congress Convenes 20 Jun 2002

      UMNO, which has ruled Malaysia since independence from Britain
      in 1957, saw its popularity slip in the 1999 elections. Mr. Mahathir
      appeared to have alienated some Muslim Malays when he fired and jailed
      his popular deputy Anwar Ibrahim. The introduction of Islamic law
      could be a key ballot issue in the next elections.

      Pas' Hudud Bill: 'We will intervene if it is within our power' June18

      "The Federal Government will intervene to stop the
      implementation of the Terengganu Syariah Criminal Enactment if it is
      within its power to do so," Prime Minister Datuk Seri Dr Mahathir
      Mohamad said today.

      [Terrenganu] Pas will only consider views based on Hukum Allah
      Source: New Straits Times Publication date: 2002-06-18

      A Pas leader said the Terengganu Government will not entertain
      views and suggestions based on human logic when reviewing the draft of
      its Syariah Criminal Enactment Bill, which includes hudud.

      State Executive Councillor Harun Taib, who is chairman of the Bill's
      drafting committee, said only views and suggestions based on hukum
      Allah (God's Laws) would be considered.

      [Terengganu] Shahrizat avoiding Hudud Bill dialogue
      Source: New Straits Times Publication date: 2002-06-13

      Terengganu Menteri Besar Datuk Seri Abdul Hadi Awang has
      accused Women and Family Development Minister Datuk Shahrizat Abdul
      Jalil of running away from the dialogue session with drafters of the
      Terengganu Syariah Criminal Enactment Bill, which includes hudud, this

      "After making so much fuss about it, she does not want to attend the
      dialogue," he said after visiting Pas president Datuk Fadzil Mohd Noor
      at Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Hospital today. The closed-door
      dialogue is with women groups from the joint action committee who
      oppose it.

      [Terengganu] WANITA Umno congress /New Straits Times 2002-06-20

      Kemaman Wanita chief Rohani Abdullah said when Pas took over
      Terengganu from the Barisan Nasional Government, it introduced a women
      affairs portfolio.

      "However, Pas was only concerned with the plight of some 2,000
      single mothers in the State." She claimed that the portfolio, which
      was handled by a State male executive councillor, was only concerned
      with finding partners for these mothers.

      Malaysian Islamic Opposition Leader Dies Jun. 23, 2002

      The soft-spoken Fadzil, known for being hardworking and
      intelligent, joined PAS after completing a course on Islamic Sharia
      Law at University Al-Azhar in Egypt in 1967.

      New agents to bring more clients for BCB trustee service June 20,2002

      Commerce Bank Bhd's (BCB) subsidiary Bumiputra-Commerce
      Trustee Bhd (BCT) is confident of signing up more customers for its
      "Hibah Harta" and "Hadiah Sulaman Kasih" trustee services with the
      appointment of three network marketing agents.

      Hibah Harta, designed for Muslims, and Hadiah Sulaman Kasih
      for non-Muslims, offer a fast, secure and efficient process of asset
      transfer and distribution with BCT acting as the trustee.

      Hibah Harta complies with Syariah principles and BCT has the
      endorsement of the Federal Territory Fatwa Council to offer the
      service to Muslims.


      Euro-MPs Pass Resolution Condemning Arrests & Death Penalties
      http://allafrica.com/stories/200206180649.html June 18, 2002

      The 233-strong EPP-ED Group has taken the lead on many
      humanitarian issues including the crises in Zimbabwe, Madagascar,
      Equatorial Guinea and the Democratic Republic of Congo, plus
      highlighted the opportunity presented by peace in Angola, and urged
      Nigeria to halt the stoning to death of women under Sharia Law. Now
      with Africa's leaders preparing the final NEPAD proposals for the G-8
      Summit, many are watching to ensure that this new structure's peer
      review mechanism really does apply to human rights, economics,
      elections and good governance.

      The EPP-ED Group is the largest Political Group in the
      626-member European Parliament and represents Conservative and
      Christian Democrat parties from all 15 EU Member States

      Woman Wins Award (+ $25,000) for Anti-Sharia Campaign
      http://allafrica.com/stories/200206180234.html June 18, 2002

      A Nigerian woman and co-ordinator of a human rights
      organisation, BAOBAB for Women's Human Rights, Ms. Ayesha Imam has
      been selected as this year's John Humphrey Freedom Award recipient for
      her work against the restrictive and discriminatory forms that the new
      Sharia criminal laws in Nigeria have taken.

      She has brought international attention to the discriminatory
      application and conservative nature of Nigerian Sharia law through
      such notable cases as Bariya Ibrahim Magazu, sentenced to 100 strokes
      of the cane for having a baby out of wedlock; Hafsatu Abubakar,
      sentenced to death by stoning (on appeal by BAOBAB, the conviction was
      quashed); and Safiya Hussein, sentenced to death by stoning for
      adultery while the alleged partner was set free.

      I'm Not Anti-Sharia, Says Woman Award Winner /This Day June 23, 2002

      "Not only is the original headline inaccurate, it wholly
      misrepresents the work that BAOBAB for Women's Human Rights and I do.

      "The public conscience work is based on clarifying and improving the
      current versions of Sharia law, rather than allowing the current and
      biased versions of Sharia to stand unchallenged.

      "The issue is not that these laws are religious laws. It is
      that in the name of religious laws, women's rights are being destroyed
      and reduced. "

      "This is why we have helped to popularise the work of the many
      Muslim scholars and jurists around the world on the importance and
      legitimacy of istijihad by using reasoning to develop legal
      principles, and, recognising istihasan (equity) and istisahl (the
      public good) as important principles in drafting laws.

      Why Federal Government won't challenge Sharia in court June 18, 2002

      Stating reasons why Federal Government would not go to court
      over the adoption of Sharia, by some states, the minister [of Justice,
      Mr. Agabi] said only private rights were rights violated by the
      application of the code were Agabi said the rights that are violated
      by the application of Sharia are rights that are vested in private
      persons. They are not rights vested in the penal code. So, it is for
      those whose rights are violated to sue. For instance, when Jangebi's
      hand was cut, it was his hand that was cut. If he feels that his
      rights had been violated and that people should not be subjected to
      that kind of punishment, he should sue.

      [Kano] 2003: Na'abba Mobilises Muslims June 18, 2002

      In his address, the deputy governor of Kano state Dr.
      Abdullahi Umar Gandije, disclosed that the state governor will soon
      enact a legislation to back Hisbah group (sharia enforcing body).

      He said the legislation when promulgated would address the lingering
      problems faced by the men of Hisbah, while carrying out their duties.

      Speaking further, Gandiye who defended the adoption of the Islamic
      legal code in some northern states, took a swipe at "those who are
      hell bent as substaging the law."

      Acceptance Of Sharia Law In Nigeria /RMS Media Services 2000

      Consent to implementation of Sharia depends more on ethnicity
      than religious affiliation. [surveys].

      Islamic Legal Analysis of the Zina Punishment January 20, 2001
      http://www.islamfortoday.com/zinanigeria.htm By Asifa Quraishi


      Supreme Court reserves judgement in Riba case June 23, 2002

      The Supreme Court Shariat Appellate Bench Saturday reserved
      its judgement on Riba case.

      The government is seeking complete reversal of the 1992
      Federal Shariat Court judgment, declaring all forms of interest-based
      banking as un-Islamic.

      All types of `riba' is haram, Supreme Court told June 22, 2002

      Governor: Jehad a threat to national sovereignty June 22, 2002

      [Balochistan] Balochistan Governor Amirul Mulk Mangal said on
      Saturday that the ideology of poet-philosopher Allama Muhammad Iqbal
      must be adopted to spread harmony, Online news agency reported.

      "Iqbal's concept was to have a state where the Sharia (Islamic
      law) was imposed through Ijtihad (independent judgement)."

      Iqbal believed Parliament should comprise technocrats and have the
      powers of Ijtihad and non-Ulema (Muslim clergy) experts should have a
      place in it, he observed.

      Islamic Fundamentalism - conversation with Khaled Ahmed 19 Febr 2002


      Hamas claims responsibility for suicide bombing

      The radical Islamic group Hamas claimed responsibility for
      Tuesday's suicide bombing of a bus in Jerusalem, in a telephone call
      to AFP.
      Ghul's brother, Amjad, told AFP the 23-year-old kamikaze was
      studying Islamic law, or Sharia, at Al-Najah University in Nablus.


      Saudis arrest 13 al-Qaeda suspects /The Scotsman 2002-06-19

      No date was given for the arrests, but some appear to have
      happened several months ago. The announcement, however, came a week
      after Moroccan authorities detained three Saudis, accusing them of
      planning to attack US and British warships in the Straits of
      Gibraltar. The Saudi press agency said investigations were continuing
      into the detainees, who would later face a "sharia [Islamic] court and
      sharia law."

      Analysis: Is Saudi a terrorist nation? June 14, 2002

      Since the kingdom's founding in 1902 by Abdel Aziz ibn Saud,
      the desert country has existed under a strict Wahabi religious code of
      Shariah, or Islamic law, where the mutawa, the religious police, enjoy
      an overwhelming free hand and were allowed to enforce traditions and
      regulations as they see fit.

      Accordingly, the mutawa banned just about everything that is taken for
      granted in the Western world, and even in many other Islamic nations.
      From pop music to long hair, to Western dress for women, all forms of
      individual expression became taboo and severely punishable. Unmarried
      women and single men are prohibited to mix. Women are not even allowed
      to socialize with males to whom they are not directly related.

      Although women in Saudi Arabia make up half the population, they are
      not allowed to vote. Nor are they allowed to drive cars. They are
      excluded from certain professions and they are required to be shrouded
      in long, black abayas whenever they appear in public. Saudi women
      cannot apply for identity cards, receive medical treatment or leave
      the country without consent from their closest male relative. In many
      areas of the country, women cannot even leave their homes without
      being escorted by a male relative. Penalties for failing to acquiesce
      to the rules and regulations imposed by the mutawa can result in
      severe punishment that could include imprisonment, and even death by
      stoning or beheading.

      In a country where alcohol is banned, as are cinemas, nightclubs,
      cafes and other forms of amusements that allow young people to mingle,
      there is no space permitted for the young to spend their built-up
      energy -- an energy that simply had to explode sometime, somewhere.


      Khartoum Bans Fashion Shows June 22, 2002

      In a circular addressed to hotels in the city, the director of
      the state government's tourism administration, Aladdin Khawwad, says
      "fashion shows by girls will no longer be permissible."

      Sudanese Begin Fresh Peace Talks in Kenya Jun 17, 2002

      In his opening remarks, the SPLA's number two, Salva Kir,
      reiterated the rebels insistence on a secular constitution for Sudan.

      "On the issue of religion and state there is no illusion that a
      breakthrough could be found to resolve it. The government of Sudan's
      insistence that every citizen has got to be governed by a theocratic
      constitution under the form of a highly centralized federal system is
      unacceptable to us.

      Yet [presidential adviser] Atabani rejected this possibility
      at a press conference earlier in the day.

      "The word secular has some negative connotations in the Islamic world
      so we would rather not dwell upon labels and semantics. Sharia is part
      of the religion of Islam and as such it is the right of Muslims to
      have sharia. But that sharia must not impinge on the rights of

      "We are ready to agree to a system whereby full religious freedoms are
      granted to all minorities, to all religious groups. Sharia (laws) are
      not applied in southern Sudan for the simple fact that the majority of
      the population there is not Muslim.


      Islamic banking and e-commerce 16June2002

      This very danger of being blown away faces the present day
      Islamic banks in particular, for the Islamic banks have both a
      disadvantage and an advantage in this field. Their disadvantage being
      that they are yet to be recognised by the major central banks as there
      is still not a single definition of what constitutes Islamic banking

      This leaves the Islamic banks with the hard but inevitable
      task of developing the necessary standards and practices whilst at all
      times ensuring the compliance of these standards and the institutions
      for whom they have been specifically developed with the international
      accounting, auditing, governance and ethical thoughts relating to
      their activities which have to be in the first place in accordance
      with the Sharia rules. This will also entail development of the
      Islamic codes and ethical practices in accordance with the Sharia
      standards for the investment, financing and insurance industry as

      Militant groups in the UK /Guardian June 19, 2002

      " Supporters of Sharia"
      Leader: Self-styled Sheikh Abu Hamza
      Membership: Thought to be 200 at most

      Associated closely with Finsbury Park mosque in north London, the
      Supporters of Sharia also wish to re-establish the Caliphate. Abu
      Hamza was named in a Yemeni court as the man who sent eight Britons
      there to carry out terrorist bombings on western targets. Egyptian-
      born Hamza lost both hands and an eye fighting in Afghanistan.

      Abu Hamza and two other men were arrested in March 1999, held
      under the Prevention of Terrorism Act, but released without charge.
      Last October he was forced to relinquish control of the Finsbury Park
      mosque after a legal fight and recently he was banned by the charities
      commission from speaking at the mosque.

      Fresh fuel for old hatreds - June 22 2002

      ( El-Faisal faces trial in November after being charged, under
      the 1861 Offences Against the Person Act, of encouraging "others to
      murder persons unknown". He denies the charges)

      Keenly watching the outcome will be Sheik Abu Hamza, a London
      cleric often cited as radical or extremist, a label he denies. He
      claims the far Right, not young Muslims, are the main perpetrators of
      attacks on Jews. "In Islam you can say whatever you like as long as
      you don't abuse anybody." But Hamza, whose group, Supporters of Sharia
      (Islamic law), is a magnet for young Muslims and converts, argues that
      Judaism is a racist religion because it is based on Jews being chosen
      by God. "You can't be chosen by race," he says. "God doesn't choose by

      Guardian Special Report - Muslim Britain June 17-21, 2002


      [Senate hearings] Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of
      Discrimination against Women June 17, 2002

      Conservative feminist author Christina Hoff Sommers testified
      against the convention as the wrong way to help women.

      Critics of CEDAW have argued that if we ratify it with
      reservations, those reservations will in the end count for naught. But
      Cornell University law professor Jeremy Rabkin makes a different
      point: Perhaps reservations can basically nullify the treaty. But
      then, what's the point of it? Saudi Arabia, he notes, has ratified
      CEDAW with the "reservation" that it will continue to impose sharia
      law in cases of conflict. "It's part of the general debasement of
      international law. We know going into it that most signatories don't
      mean it," he says. "It's one more push for the idea that
      [international law is] all fantasyland. . . . that the world is a
      costume party."


      Banking on the common good / The Guardian 2002-06-18

      Islamic banks and finance houses have therefore developed a
      number of methods of financing and lending in line with sharia

      A cost plus profit contract that avoids interest. The bank purchases
      the goods the buyer wants, then 'sells' them back at an agreed
      mark-up, receiving the money in monthly instalments. Because the bank
      takes the title to the goods and is involved in buying and selling, it
      counts as a legitimate service. Advancing the money, even at a fixed
      interest rate, would not.

      Essentially a joint venture in which the risk is shared by two parties
      cooperating on a single venture. An individual and a bank enter into
      partnership and both share the equity and often the management of the
      project, as well as the profits or losses.

      Ijara Wa Iktina
      The equivalent of leasing, or hire-purchasing. As long as the leased
      items, most often cars, are used productively it does not contravene
      sharia. [Paul Kelso].

      About Islam: Islamic Jurisprudence

      Usul al Fiqh - Source Methodology In Islamic Jurisprudence

      Taha Jabir Al 'Alwani's multi-chapter study recounts the
      history of Islamic law and the emergence of the four schools of

      Encyclopedia Of The Orient - Introduction to Sharia

      Mental State and the Sharia by Prof.Dr.Omar Hassan Kasule Sr

      Contemporary Legal Rulings in Shi'i Law

      Islamic Laws according to the Fatawa of Ayatullahi al-Husaini Seestani

      Deconstructing and Reconstructing the Shari'a - Denis MacEoin
      the Babi and Baha'i Solutions to the Problem of Immutability

      Women, Shari'a, and Oppression - Where are the Voices of Conservative
      Muslims? http://www.islamfortoday.com/ummzaid06.htm

      Contemporary Islamic influences in sub-Saharan Africa
      An alternative development agenda by Heather Deegan

      On the Position of Women in Islam and in Islamic Society By Dr.
      Hassan al-Turabi. http://www.islamfortoday.com/turabi01.htm

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