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Syndyoceras - An Artiodactyl of the Miocene

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  • Neal Robbins
        This link has an illustration of Syndyoceras. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Syndyoceras_BW.jpg     Syndyoceras was an artiodactyl of the Miocene.
    Message 1 of 1 , Jan 2, 2013
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          This link has an illustration of Syndyoceras.
       
          Syndyoceras was an artiodactyl of the Miocene. The systematic paleontology of it is:
       
      Mammalia Linnaeus 1758
      Artiodactyla Owen 1848
      Ruminantia Scopoli 1777
      Protoceratidae Marsh 1891
      Synthetoceratinae Frick 1937
      Kryptoceratini Webb 1981
      Syndyoceras Barbour 1905
      Syndyoceras cooki Barbour 1905
       
          Syndyoceras had a length of about 1.6 m. (5.2 feet). Each foot had two hooved toes. There were two pairs of horns on the head. The front pair was V-shaped and located on the snout. These horns were fused at the base. The other two horns were situated between the eyes and ears. They curved inward and faced each other in a semicircular shape. Syndyoceras had canine teeth that were tusk-like. They may have been used to root for food in the soil and undergrowth.
          Syndyoceras is in the extinct family Protoceratidae. The animals of that family are distinatly related to deer. The Protoceratidae family existed from the Eocene to the Pliocene. Eocene remains date as far back as 46.2 million years ago. Pliocene fossil remains date as recently as about 4.9 million years ago. [Note - The source of this information is The Paleobiology Database.]
          The holotype of Syndyoceras cooki was found in the Harrison Formation at Syndyoceras Quarry in Sioux County, Nebraska. It dates to the Harrisonian stage (24.8 - 20.43 million years ago) of the Miocene. Harrisonian fossil remains of this species have also been discovered in the Upper Harrison Beds Formation at Stage Agate (5-7 Miles NE) and Niobrara Canyon in Sioux County, Nebraska. Some were unearthed in the Wildcat Hills Beds Formation (Arikaree Group).  Other Harrisonian remains have been excavated in the Upper Harrison Beds Formation at Guernsey in Platte County, Wyoming. [Note - The source of this information is The Paleobiology Database.] 
          Thes publications are references:
       
      D. Palmer, ed. (1999). The Marshall Illustrated Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs and Prehistoric Animals: London: Marshall Editions.
       
      D.R. Prothero and J.A. Ludtke. 2007. Family Protoceratidae in D.R. Prothero and S. Foss (eds.) The Evolution of Artiodactyls 169-176,
       
          Neal Robbins
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