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Re: [seleukids]Nergal/Amamit/Garduaia

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  • R.J. van der Spek
    On Fri, 29 Sep 2000 15:39:04 -0400 ... Further literature about gardu = kurtash: M.A. Dandamaev, Slavery in Babylonia from Nabopolassar to Alexander the Great
    Message 1 of 5 , Oct 2, 2000
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      On Fri, 29 Sep 2000 15:39:04 -0400
      Ronald Wallenfels <wallenfels@...> wrote:
      > *This message was transferred with a trial version of
      > CommuniGate(tm) Pro*
      > On Fri, 29 Sep 2000 13:04:45 +0200 "R.J. van der Spek"
      > <rj.vander.spek@...> writes:
      > > Thank you very much for your suggestion. Fantastic! I
      > am
      > > completely convinced. The mountaineers are out now. I
      > have
      > > always felt uneasy about them, but I saw no
      > alternative.
      > > Garduaia thus is correct; next task to find out: what
      > is it?
      > > Certainly not Gordyenians, probably no gentilic at all.
      > The
      > > title is borne by people with normal Urukean names. It
      > is
      > > probably a loanword and Mc Ewan's idea may be correct.
      > It
      > > seems not te be a loanword from Greek. I do not know
      > > Aramaic; perhaps somebody has a suggestion.
      > > It seems to be a profession (perhaps a so far unknown
      > > kinishtu of garduaia??) or a social class.
      >
      > Bert
      >
      > A quick check of Jastrow reveals the vocable garedday
      > "wool-dresser,
      > i.e., "common weaver" (note : the e is really shwa). This
      > is not an
      > inconceivable title for a low-level temple functionary,
      > but I am not
      > completely comfortable with the different vocalic ending.
      > There is a
      > related term in Syriac (Smith).


      Further literature about gardu = kurtash:

      M.A. Dandamaev, Slavery in Babylonia from Nabopolassar to
      Alexander the Great (626-331 BC) Northern Illinois
      University press 1987, p. 568-584

      M.W. Stolper, Entrepreneurs and empire. The Murashû Archive,
      the Murashû Firm, and Persian Rule in Babylonia.
      Istanbul/Leiden 1985, 56-59

      P. Briant, Histoire de l'empire perse de Cyrus à Alexandre.
      Paris 1996, 471-5.

      Briant quotes an interesting Aramaic document: P. Grelot,
      Documents araméens d'Égypte (Paris 1972), No. 70 = G.R.
      Driver, Aramaic documents of the fifth century (Oxford
      1957), No. 9 (cf. nrs. 7 and 12). This document concern a
      sculptor who belongs to the grd' class. Driver translates:
      domestic staff.

      A gardu (the word is Iranian and seems to mean `house slave,
      oiketes') a some sort of dependent person liable to service
      of different kinds. There were hadrus of gardu.ME$ in the
      Murashu Archive, which points at military service. There
      were also "gardu's of the king". See Chicago Assyrian
      Dictionary s.v. gardu.

      So we are still not much further: IF the gar-du-u2-a-a of
      our diary are gardu.ME$, then it means that these persons
      still did exist in the hellenistic period, and that they
      seem to be dependent persons in the service of the king, or
      perhaps in the service of the temple. And they can be very
      well sculptors in view of the Aramaic document.
      "Weaver" does not seem very likely.

      Best regards,

      Prof.dr. R.J. van der Spek
      Vrije Universiteit
      Faculteit der Letteren
      De Boelelaan 1105
      1081 HV AMSTERDAM
      Tel.: +31 20 4446490
      Fax.: +31 20 4446500
    • Giuseppe Del Monte
      At 13.04 29/09/00 +0200, Bert van der Spek wrote: Dear Ron, ... The suggestion of Bert van der Spek and Ronald Wallenfels to read in the
      Message 2 of 5 , Oct 8, 2000
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        At 13.04 29/09/00 +0200, Bert van der Spek wrote:
        <snip>
        Dear Ron,
        >
        >Thank you very much for your suggestion. Fantastic! I am
        >completely convinced. The mountaineers are out now. I have
        >always felt uneasy about them, but I saw no alternative.
        >Garduaia thus is correct
        <snip>

        The suggestion of Bert van der Spek and Ronald Wallenfels to read
        in the Astronomical Diary No. -168 A15 lu2.gar-du-u2-a-a, "members
        of the gardu-class", instead of lu2.$a2-du-u2-a-a, "mountaineers",
        is noteworthy; I overlooked this possibility. Let me point out,
        however, that the latter reading is not originally mine (cp. Ron
        Wallenfels' assertion, 28 Sep 2000, on "the speculative nature of
        del Monte's reading LU2.$a2-du-u2-a-a as $addu^'a "mountain dweller."",
        but was proposed by the first editors, A.J. Sachs and H. Hunger,
        Astronomical Diaries II, p. 476 (and 477: "the mountain-dwellers");
        it was merely accepted by me, just overlooking other possibilities.

        I'm afraid, however, that both readings rest on speculation. The
        objection to the reading lu2.$a2- (cp. Bert van der Spek, 26 Sep
        2000: "Mountaineers in correct Akkadian would be shadduaia (with
        double d)." is not cogent, in my opinion. That the ancient scribes
        were inclined to write any derivative of $adu, "mountain", with the
        sign KUR = $ad, "mountain", is inherent in the cuneiform graphic
        system; it is, strictly speaking, a logographic writing with
        phonetic complements. Even $adu is often written KUR-du, that is
        $ad-du. That $ad(d)u'a, "mountain dweller", is almost always
        attested in the writing KUR-du-, may be due to accident; cp. the
        adverb $ad(d)ua'i$, "like a mountain", written both KUR-du- and
        $a2-du-. I'm not so sure that we can get rid of the original
        "mountain-dwellers" of Sachs and Hunger.

        The situation with the reading lu2.gar-du- is similar: gardu(a) is
        always written ga-ar-, as pointed out by Ron Wallenfels, but it
        does not rule out the possibility of a single writing gar-. In
        short, both interpretations are under the circumstances equally
        valid, I think.

        Apologies to all list members for the technicisms of this message.
        With best regards,
        Giuseppe Del Monte


        --------------
        Prof. Dr. Giuseppe del Monte
        Cattedra di Storia del Vicino Oriente antico
        Dpt. Scienze storiche del mondo antico
        Università di Pisa
        via Galvani 1 - I-56100 Pisa
        Fax 39-050-500668 - E-mail delmonte@...
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