- On Fri, 29 Sep 2000 15:39:04 -0400
Ronald Wallenfels <wallenfels@...> wrote:
> *This message was transferred with a trial version ofFurther literature about gardu = kurtash:
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> On Fri, 29 Sep 2000 13:04:45 +0200 "R.J. van der Spek"
> <rj.vander.spek@...> writes:
> > Thank you very much for your suggestion. Fantastic! I
> > completely convinced. The mountaineers are out now. I
> > always felt uneasy about them, but I saw no
> > Garduaia thus is correct; next task to find out: what
> is it?
> > Certainly not Gordyenians, probably no gentilic at all.
> > title is borne by people with normal Urukean names. It
> > probably a loanword and Mc Ewan's idea may be correct.
> > seems not te be a loanword from Greek. I do not know
> > Aramaic; perhaps somebody has a suggestion.
> > It seems to be a profession (perhaps a so far unknown
> > kinishtu of garduaia??) or a social class.
> A quick check of Jastrow reveals the vocable garedday
> i.e., "common weaver" (note : the e is really shwa). This
> is not an
> inconceivable title for a low-level temple functionary,
> but I am not
> completely comfortable with the different vocalic ending.
> There is a
> related term in Syriac (Smith).
M.A. Dandamaev, Slavery in Babylonia from Nabopolassar to
Alexander the Great (626-331 BC) Northern Illinois
University press 1987, p. 568-584
M.W. Stolper, Entrepreneurs and empire. The Murashû Archive,
the Murashû Firm, and Persian Rule in Babylonia.
Istanbul/Leiden 1985, 56-59
P. Briant, Histoire de l'empire perse de Cyrus à Alexandre.
Paris 1996, 471-5.
Briant quotes an interesting Aramaic document: P. Grelot,
Documents araméens d'Égypte (Paris 1972), No. 70 = G.R.
Driver, Aramaic documents of the fifth century (Oxford
1957), No. 9 (cf. nrs. 7 and 12). This document concern a
sculptor who belongs to the grd' class. Driver translates:
A gardu (the word is Iranian and seems to mean `house slave,
oiketes') a some sort of dependent person liable to service
of different kinds. There were hadrus of gardu.ME$ in the
Murashu Archive, which points at military service. There
were also "gardu's of the king". See Chicago Assyrian
Dictionary s.v. gardu.
So we are still not much further: IF the gar-du-u2-a-a of
our diary are gardu.ME$, then it means that these persons
still did exist in the hellenistic period, and that they
seem to be dependent persons in the service of the king, or
perhaps in the service of the temple. And they can be very
well sculptors in view of the Aramaic document.
"Weaver" does not seem very likely.
Prof.dr. R.J. van der Spek
Faculteit der Letteren
De Boelelaan 1105
1081 HV AMSTERDAM
Tel.: +31 20 4446490
Fax.: +31 20 4446500
- At 13.04 29/09/00 +0200, Bert van der Spek wrote:
>Thank you very much for your suggestion. Fantastic! I am
>completely convinced. The mountaineers are out now. I have
>always felt uneasy about them, but I saw no alternative.
>Garduaia thus is correct
The suggestion of Bert van der Spek and Ronald Wallenfels to read
in the Astronomical Diary No. -168 A15 lu2.gar-du-u2-a-a, "members
of the gardu-class", instead of lu2.$a2-du-u2-a-a, "mountaineers",
is noteworthy; I overlooked this possibility. Let me point out,
however, that the latter reading is not originally mine (cp. Ron
Wallenfels' assertion, 28 Sep 2000, on "the speculative nature of
del Monte's reading LU2.$a2-du-u2-a-a as $addu^'a "mountain dweller."",
but was proposed by the first editors, A.J. Sachs and H. Hunger,
Astronomical Diaries II, p. 476 (and 477: "the mountain-dwellers");
it was merely accepted by me, just overlooking other possibilities.
I'm afraid, however, that both readings rest on speculation. The
objection to the reading lu2.$a2- (cp. Bert van der Spek, 26 Sep
2000: "Mountaineers in correct Akkadian would be shadduaia (with
double d)." is not cogent, in my opinion. That the ancient scribes
were inclined to write any derivative of $adu, "mountain", with the
sign KUR = $ad, "mountain", is inherent in the cuneiform graphic
system; it is, strictly speaking, a logographic writing with
phonetic complements. Even $adu is often written KUR-du, that is
$ad-du. That $ad(d)u'a, "mountain dweller", is almost always
attested in the writing KUR-du-, may be due to accident; cp. the
adverb $ad(d)ua'i$, "like a mountain", written both KUR-du- and
$a2-du-. I'm not so sure that we can get rid of the original
"mountain-dwellers" of Sachs and Hunger.
The situation with the reading lu2.gar-du- is similar: gardu(a) is
always written ga-ar-, as pointed out by Ron Wallenfels, but it
does not rule out the possibility of a single writing gar-. In
short, both interpretations are under the circumstances equally
valid, I think.
Apologies to all list members for the technicisms of this message.
With best regards,
Giuseppe Del Monte
Prof. Dr. Giuseppe del Monte
Cattedra di Storia del Vicino Oriente antico
Dpt. Scienze storiche del mondo antico
Università di Pisa
via Galvani 1 - I-56100 Pisa
Fax 39-050-500668 - E-mail delmonte@...