Cosmic HyperEvolution --"Early Galaxies of Universe Harbored Potential for Plane
- URL to an interesting post from The Daily Galaxy
Civilizations billions of years old? Where are they? Did they just
decide to go someplace more interesting? Evolve to a higher plane.
Vernor Vinge touched on this in his Fire Upon The Deep.
First few paragraphs
The case for highly evolved advanced technological civilizations billions
of years older than Earth-based humans just grew stronger according to new
research from the Niels Bohr Institute. All objects in the image are distant
galaxies - not stars. Early galaxies from the infancy of the Universe more
than 12 billion years ago evolved much more quickly than previously
thought, new research shows. This means that already in the early history of the
Universe, there was potential for planet formation and life.
For several thousand years after the Big Bang 13.7 billion years ago, the
Universe consisted of a hot, dense primordial soup of gases and particles.
But the Universe was expanding rapidly and the primordial soup became less
dense and cooled. However, the primordial soup was not evenly distributed,
but was denser in some areas than others. The density in some of the
densest areas increased due to gravity and began to contract, forming the first
stars and galaxies. This took place approximately 500 million years after
the Big Bang.
The earliest galaxies were probably comprised of primitive, giant stars
that consisted of only hydrogen and helium. There were no heavier elements.
They first appeared later in the evolution of the Universe, created by
nuclear processes in the stars.
Researchers have studied 10 galaxies in the early universe by using quasars
as light sources. In order to use quasars as light sources the quasar has
to lie behind the galaxy you want to observe. By looking at the light from
the distant quasar (A) that shines through the galaxy (B) on its way to
Earth, researchers can determine which elements the galaxy contains from the
light that is absorbed. This is seen as lines in the spectrum of the quasar.
A star is a giant ball of glowing gas that produces energy by fusing
hydrogen and helium into heavier and heavier elements. When no more energy can
be extracted the star dies and massive clouds of dust and gas are flung out
into space. These large clouds are condensed and recycled into new stars in
a gigantic cosmic cycle. The new stars that are formed will have a higher
content of heavier elements than the previous and for each generation of
star formation there are more and more of the heavy elements and metals. And
heavy elements (especially carbon and oxygen) are necessary for the
formation of planets and life, as we know it.
The image below is from the Nordic Optical Telescope of one of the quasars
researchers have looked at. After having removed the quasar light from the
image, the distant galaxy appears, which is indicated by an arrow in the
image to the right. They discovered that the galaxies from the very early
universe had a surprisingly large quantity of heavy elements. Credit: Nordic
Up until now, researchers thought that it had taken billions of years for
stars to form and with that, galaxies with a high content of elements
heavier than hydrogen and helium. But new research from the Niels Bohr Institute
shows that this process went surprisingly quickly in some galaxies.
"We have studied 10 galaxies in the early Universe and analysed their light
spectra. We are observing light from the galaxies that has been on a 10-12
billion year journey to Earth, so we see the galaxies as they were then.
Our expectation was that they would be relatively primitive and poor in
heavier elements, but we discovered somewhat to our surprise that the gas in
some of the galaxies and thus the stars in them had a very high content of
heavier elements. The gas was just as enriched as our own Sun," explains
Professor Johan Fynbo from the Dark Cosmology Centre at the Niels Bohr
Institute, University of Copenhagen."
(Just a pawn on the great chessboard of life)
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