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AI that Mimics the Human Brain --The Next Revolution in Artificial Intelligence

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  • derhexer@aol.com
    URL to an interesting article in The Daily Galaxy _http://tinyurl.com/7lot6lu_ (http://tinyurl.com/7lot6lu) The term, Artificial Intelligence was coined in
    Message 1 of 1 , Apr 3, 2012
      URL to an interesting article in The Daily Galaxy
      _http://tinyurl.com/7lot6lu_ (http://tinyurl.com/7lot6lu)

      The term, Artificial Intelligence was coined in 1956 by John McCarthy at
      Massachusetts Institute of Technology. This year, computer scientists
      celebrate the 100th anniversary of the birth of the mathematical genius Alan
      Turing. Turing set the basis for digital computing in the 1930s to anticipate
      our current technilogical age. The quest still remains to create a machine as
      adaptable and intelligent as the human brain.

      Computer scientist Hava Siegelmann of the University of Massachusetts
      Amherst, an expert in neural networks, has taken Turing's work to its next
      logical step by translating her 1993 discovery of "Super-Turing" computation
      into an adaptable computational system that learns and evolves, using input
      from the environment in a way much more like our brains do than classic
      Turing-type computers. She and her post-doctoral research colleague Jeremie
      Cabessa report on the advance in the current issue of Neural Computation.
      "This model is inspired by the brain," she says. "It is a mathematical
      formulation of the brain's neural networks with their adaptive abilities." The
      authors show that when the model is installed in an environment offering
      constant sensory stimuli like the real world, and when all stimulus-response
      pairs are considered over the machine's lifetime, the Super Turing model
      yields an exponentially greater repertoire of behaviors than the classical
      computer or Turing model. They demonstrate that the Super-Turing model is
      superior for human-like tasks and learning.
      "Each time a Super-Turing machine gets input it literally becomes a
      different machine. Classical computers work sequentially and can only operate in
      the very orchestrated, specific environments for which they were programmed.
      They can look intelligent if they've been told what to expect and how to
      respond, Siegelmann says. But they can't take in new information or use it
      to improve problem-solving, provide richer alternatives or perform other
      higher-intelligence tasks".
      In 1948, Turing himself predicted another kind of computation that would
      mimic life itself, but died without developing his concept of a machine that
      could use what he called "adaptive inference." In 1993, Siegelmann, showed
      independently in her doctoral thesis that a very different kind of
      computation, vastly different from the "calculating computer" model and more like
      Turing's prediction of life-like intelligence, was possible. She published
      her findings in Science and in a book shortly after.
      Siegelmann says that the new Super-Turing machine will not only be flexible
      and adaptable but economical. This means that when presented with a visual
      problem, for example, it will act more like our human brains and choose
      salient features in the environment on which to focus, rather than using its
      power to visually sample the entire scene as a camera does. This economy of
      effort, using only as much attention as needed and is another hallmark of
      high artificial intelligence."


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