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12193"Transition from Inorganic to Organic Life was Based on Information, Not Chemist

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  • derhexerus
    Oct 15, 2013
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      Fascinating post from The Daily Galaxy

      From: vlandi@...
      To: derhexer@...
      Sent: 10/15/2013 6:09:57 P.M. Eastern Daylight Time
      Subj: The Daily Galaxy: News from Planet Earth & Beyond

      The Daily Galaxy: News from Planet Earth & Beyond

      "Transition from Inorganic to Organic Life was Based on Information, Not Chemistry"

      Posted: 15 Oct 2013 08:41 AM PDT



      In December of 2012, a radical new approach to the question of life's origin was proposed by two Arizona State University scientists that attempts to dramatically redefine the problem. The researchers – Paul Davies, an ASU Regents' Professor and director of the Beyond Center for Fundamental Concepts in Science, and Sara Walker, a NASA post-doctoral fellow at the Beyond Center. "We propose that the transition from non-life to life is unique and definable," added Davies. "We suggest that life may be characterized by its distinctive and active use of information, thus providing a roadmap to identify rigorous criteria for the emergence of life. This is in sharp contrast to a century of thought in which the transition to life has been cast as a problem of chemistry, with the goal of identifying a plausible reaction pathway from chemical mixtures to a living entity."

      In a nutshell, the authors shift attention from the "hardware" – the chemical basis of life – to the "software" – its information content. To use a computer analogy, chemistry explains the material substance of the machine, but it won't function without a program and data. Davies and Walker suggest that the crucial distinction between non-life and life is the way that living organisms manage the information flowing through the system.
      "When we describe biological processes we typically use informational narratives – cells send out signals, developmental programs are run, coded instructions are read, genomic data are transmitted between generations and so forth," Walker said. "So identifying life's origin in the way information is processed and managed can open up new avenues for research."

      One of the great mysteries of life is how it began. What physical process transformed a nonliving mix of chemicals into something as complex as a living cell? For more than a century, scientists have struggled to reconstruct the key first steps on the road to life. Until recently, their focus has been trained on how the simple building blocks of life might have been synthesized on the early Earth, or perhaps in space. But because it happened so long ago, all chemical traces have long been obliterated, leaving plenty of scope for speculation and disagreement. Focusing on informational development helps move away from some of the inherent disadvantages of trying to pin down the beginnings of chemical life.

      "Chemical based approaches," Walker said, "have stalled at a very early stage of chemical complexity – very far from anything we would consider 'alive.' More seriously they suffer from conceptual shortcomings in that they fail to distinguish between chemistry and biology."

      "To a physicist or chemist life seems like 'magic matter,'" Davies explained. "It behaves in extraordinary ways that are unmatched in any other complex physical or chemical system. Such lifelike properties include autonomy, adaptability and goal-oriented behavior – the ability to harness chemical reactions to enact a pre-programmed agenda, rather than being a slave to those reactions."

      "We believe the transition in the informational architecture of chemical networks is akin to a phase transition in physics, and we place special emphasis on the top-down information flow in which the system as a whole gains causal purchase over its components," Davies added. "This approach will reveal how the logical organization of biological replicators differs crucially from trivial replication associated with crystals (non-life). By addressing the causal role of information directly, many of the baffling qualities of life are explained."

      The authors expect that, by re-shaping the conceptual landscape in this fundamental way, not just the origin of life, but other major transitions will be explained, for example, the leap from single cells to multi-cellularity.*In addition to being a post-doctoral Fellow at the Beyond Center, Walker is affiliated with the NASA Astrobiology Institute in Mountain View, Calif., and the Blue Marble Space Institute, Seattle.

      The Daily Galaxy via Arizona State University

      Image Credit: With thanks to http://originslectures.uga.edu/lectures/origin-life


      Stars Orbiting Milky Way's Core --"Act as a Giant Mixer for the Galaxy"

      Posted: 15 Oct 2013 08:16 AM PDT



      In fall of 2012, scientists with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey III (SDSS-III) announced the discovery of hundreds of stars rapidly moving together in long, looping orbits around the center of our Galaxy. "The best explanation for their orbits is that these stars are part of the Milky Way bar," said David Nidever, a Dean B. McLaughin Fellow in the Astronomy Department at the University of Michigan. "We know that the bar plays an important role in determining the structure of the Galaxy, so learning more about these stars will help us understand the whole Galaxy, even out here in the spiral arms."

      The image above is an artist's impression of what the Milky Way might look like viewed from above. The small blue dot is where we are on Earth (not to scale). The solid red arrows show the high-speed stars moving away from Earth that were discovered by SDSS-III. The dashed arrows show the stars moving toward Earth that are expected to be seen by the fourth-generation Sloan Digital Sky Survey

      The team's discovery came from accurately measuring the speeds of thousands of stars near the center of the Milky Way. The center of our Galaxy is 30,000 light-years away—close by cosmic standards—yet we know surprisingly little about it, because the Galaxy's dusty disk hides it from view. In spite of this blind spot, though, we do know a key fact about our Galaxy: like many spiral galaxies, the Milky Way has a 'bar' of stars that orbit together around the Galactic Center.

      "We know of the bar's existence from many separate lines of evidence," says Gail Zasowski, a National Science Foundation postdoctoral Fellow at The Ohio State University. "What we don't know is which stars are part of the bar, and what the velocities of those stars are. That information will help us understand how the bar formed, and how its stars relate to the stars in the rest of the Galaxy."

      The trouble is that there is no obvious way to tell a star in the Milky Way's bar apart from any other star in the same neighborhood. Instead, the key to finding bar stars is to measure the velocities of many stars, then see whether some of those stars are moving together in some unusual pattern. Although interstellar dust blocks nearly all visible light, longer infrared wavelengths can partially shine through. So a survey of stellar positions and velocities that operates in infrared light could finally pierce the veil of dust, and collect data from enough stars in the innermost Milky Way to firmly identify which ones are part of the bar

      Enter SDSS-III's new Apache Point Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE). APOGEE uses a custom-built high-resolution infrared spectrograph attached to the 2.5-meter Sloan Foundation Telescope in New Mexico, and is capable of measuring the velocities and chemical compositions of up to 300 stars at once.

      "What separates APOGEE from previous spectroscopic surveys is that we are studying the Galaxy using infrared light," Nidever says. APOGEE began observations in June 2011 and has already observed more than 48,000 stars all over our galaxy.

      In a paper published in the Astrophysical Journal, a worldwide team of scientists including Nidever and Zasowski used data from the first few months of APOGEE observations to measure the velocities for nearly 5,000 stars near the Galactic center. With these velocity measurements, they assembled a picture of how these stars orbit the center of the Milky Way.

      However, quite unexpectedly, they found that a substantial fraction of stars in the inner Galaxy are moving away from us quickly—about 10 percent of the total stars in their sample are moving at more than 200 kilometers per second (400,000 miles per hour) away from the Earth.

      The observed pattern of these fast stars is similar in many different parts of the inner Galaxy, and is the same above and below the midplane of the Galaxy—suggesting that these measurements of fast central stars are not just a statistical fluke, but really are a feature of our Galaxy. The team then compared their observations with the predictions of the bar stars from the latest computer models of the Galaxy—and the observations matched the predictions closely.

      "Based on the evidence from the model comparisons, I am now confident that these fast-moving stars are part of the bar," Nidever says. "I was actually quite surprised that they showed up so clearly in our survey. APOGEE's identification of which stars are part of the bar will allow astronomers to study how stars in the bar and in the rest of the galaxy react to one another.

      "The bar acts like a giant mixer for our galaxy," says Steven Majewski, a professor of astronomy at the University of Virginia and the principal investigator for the APOGEE project."As the bar rotates, it churns up the motions of nearby stars. Over time, this mixing should have a large effect on the disk of our galaxy, including in spiral arms where we live, but this effect is not well understood. This new sample of definitively-identified bar stars gives us a unique opportunity to learn more about exactly how this giant blender mixes up our galaxy."

      But the team's discovery only tells half the story. So far, APOGEE has only observed one side of the bar, the side where the stars are moving away from the Earth. On the other side, the stars must be moving toward Earth. But unfortunately, the Sloan telescope is inconveniently placed: the other half of the Milky Way bar is visible only from Earth's southern hemisphere.

      Seeing the other side of the bar is one of the motivations for a planned fourth generation of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Part of this successor project will implement the same techniques using a 2.5-meter telescope in Chile to observe the rest of the inner Milky Way. The new survey is set to begin in 2014.




      The image above is map of the innermost Milky Way, with circles marking the regions explored by the SDSS-III APOGEE project. Circles marked with "X" show places where the project found high-speed stars associated with the Milky Way's bar moving away from Earth. The lighter regions marked with dots on the other side of the Galactic Center show places where the fourth-generation Sloan Digital Sky Survey hopes to find counterpart bar stars moving toward the Earth.

      Credit: David Nidever (University of Michigan / University of Virginia) and the SDSS-III Collaboration. Background image from the Two-Micron All Sky Survey Image Mosaic (Infrared Processing and Analysis Center/Caltech & University of Massachusetts).

      For more information: The Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment: First Detection of High-velocity Milky Way Bar Stars, Astrophysical Journal Letters, 755(2), L25, doi:10.1088/2041-8205/755/2/L25. Journal reference: Astrophysical Journal Letters.

      The Daily Galaxy via the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

      Image credits: Jordan Raddick (Johns Hopkins University) and Gail Zasowski (The Ohio State University / University of Virginia). Milky Way artist's concept by NASA/JPL-Caltech/R. Hurt (SSC-Caltech).

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