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A late-period Scandinavian???

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  • Briana Lyn Delaney
    I want my persona to be late-period Scandinavian. Dano-Norwegian would be the proper adjective. Really late. It just makes the cut in fact. I need to know
    Message 1 of 1 , Jan 24, 2008
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      I want my persona to be late-period Scandinavian. Dano-Norwegian
      would be the proper adjective.

      Really late. It just makes the cut in fact.

      I need to know what was worn in Scandinavia in this period.

      Those not interested in why I chose the period may stop reading here.

      Sorry for the length, but here is what was happening in the day and
      precisely why I chose that era. As a lifelong Lutheran...

      Here I stand...I can do no other.

      DENMARK

      Christian II acceded peacefully to the throne of Denmark and Norway in
      1513, but, as in Sweden, he was forced out of power, in spite of great
      abilities and some constructive accomplishments. He was a hardworking
      monarch, solicitous of the welfare of his people. He worked to reform
      municipal government, suppress piracy, and foster Danish trade and the
      prosperity of Copenhagen. He established uniform weights and measures,
      abolished the death penalty for witchcraft, and devoted attention to
      education at all levels. He was also interested in ecclesiastical
      affairs. Christian even tried to get Martin Luther to Denmark, and in
      1521 forebade the publication of the papal bull of excommunication of
      Luther. Yet he was not a Protestant and had no desire for a break with
      Rome; he did intend to control and reform the church. This is shown in
      his remarkable legal code, which included many provisions relating to
      church affairs. Among these were the following: appeals to Rome were
      forbidden, and the king and his council were to sit as a court of
      final appeal in spiritual cases; the jurisdiction of the bishops'
      courts was greatly reduced; and the clergy were forbidden to acquire
      land. Other regulations enforced on bishops the systematic performance
      of their duties and sought to secure a body of clergymen adequate to
      their tasks. No doctrinal alterations were contemplated, and even the
      prohibition of appeals to Rome was intended chiefly to check the flow
      of money from Denmark to the Curia.

      This law code, embodying the ecclesiastical and secular measures that
      have been mentioned, roused a good deal of opposition, and it is not
      clear whether it ever went into effect. It was indeed one of the
      factors in his deposition. He had also antagonized the Danish nobles
      by favoring the peasants and the bishops, by executing some of their
      number in the Bloodbath of Stockholm, and by showing an interest in
      the followers of Luther. He had disregarded his coronation promises,
      he was at war with Lbeck, he was having troubles in Sweden, and he was
      on bad terms with his uncle, Duke Frederick of Schleswig-Holstein.

      In 1522 nobles and bishops in Jutland conspired to depose Christian
      and to put his uncle Frederick on the throne. Disaffection spread, and
      Christian fled Denmark in 1523 with the plan to recruit an army
      abroad. In 1532 he mounted an invasion of southern Norway and made the
      mistake of trusting a safe-conduct from Frederick I. He was made
      prisoner, and remained in captivity until his death in 1559. Though
      Frederick promised at his coronation to persecute Lutherans, it was in
      his reign (1523 33) that the Catholic church was destroyed in Denmark.
      He soon adopted a policy of protecting Lutheran preachers and
      reformers, of whom the most famous was Hans Tausen. In 1527, when
      asked by the bishops to take steps which would re-emphasize the
      Catholic character of the church, Frederick replied that nobody was to
      be forced to renounce his faith, and that the king had power only over
      men's lives and property but not their souls. In practice, the policy
      of Frederick favored the spread of Lutheranism and the dissolution of
      the old church. From 1526 Danish bishops had their appointments
      confirmed by the king and never again sought papal confirmation. In
      several important cities, including Copenhagen, the reformers gained
      the upper hand. Throughout Denmark the monasteries gradually
      disappeared, and churches were destroyed with the king's permission.
      Schleswig and Holstein were ruled by the king's oldest son, Christian,
      a convinced Lutheran, who gave a great impetus to the Lutheran forces
      in his territories and influenced his father in the same direction.

      It was, in fact, the known Lutheranism of Christian that prevented his
      election to the throne when his father died in 1533. On the council,
      which had the right of electing the king, the majority was Catholic,
      and, therefore, opposed his accession. The split in the council caused
      a decision to postpone the election, and this was followed by an
      invasion in favor of the imprisoned Christian II, led by a German
      prince who was a cousin of the deposed monarch. In the civil war that
      followed, Denmark was brought to the verge of dissolution before the
      final victory of Duke Christian, son of Frederick I, who received help
      from Gustavus Vasa. In 1537 he became Christian III. The accession of
      Christian was epoch-making for the reorganization of the Danish
      church. The new king was seriously in need of money, and it was
      natural that he should look for help to the bishops, who were the
      richest men in Denmark. When they proved recalcitrant, he had them
      arrested and imprisoned, and took possession of their property. All
      were eventually released except one who died in prison but their old
      positions were not restored to them. The king's action was widely
      applauded, because the bishops had been very unpopular.

      To help in the continued reform of the church, Christian secured from
      the elector of Saxony the services of one of Luther's chief assistants
      and colleagues, Johann Bugenhagen, who came to Denmark in 1537.
      Bugenhagen crowned Christian and his queen, replacing the archbishop
      of Lund, who had traditionally performed that function. Later,
      Bugenhagen ordained seven Lutheran clergymen as superintendents to
      replace the deposed bishops. This was the first time that bishops had
      not been ordained by a regularly consecrated bishop, and it was a
      deliberate break with tradition: A bishop probably could have been
      found to perform the act. Bugenhagen became a professor of theology at
      the University of Copenhagen, which had been closed during the years
      of trouble and was opened again in 1537. It now had a new Protestant
      faculty, and one of its purposes was the education of the clergy.

      In 1537 a new Church Ordinance was officially adopted. It was drawn up
      by a commission of clergymen appointed by the king and approved by
      Luther. In 1550 there appeared Christian III's Bible, the first
      complete translation into Danish. When the king died in 1559, the
      Protestant church in Denmark was established on firm foundations.

      The Reformation in Denmark was more of a popular movement than in
      Sweden. This was not true in Norway and Iceland, dependencies of
      Denmark. Although there were reforming tendencies in both places,
      there was no popular movement, and the Reformation was imposed by
      force, especially in the reign of Christian III.

      this is from http://vlib.iue.it/carrie/texts/carrie_books/gilbert/12.html

      Gjertrud
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