A late-period Scandinavian???
- I want my persona to be late-period Scandinavian. Dano-Norwegian
would be the proper adjective.
Really late. It just makes the cut in fact.
I need to know what was worn in Scandinavia in this period.
Those not interested in why I chose the period may stop reading here.
Sorry for the length, but here is what was happening in the day and
precisely why I chose that era. As a lifelong Lutheran...
Here I stand...I can do no other.
Christian II acceded peacefully to the throne of Denmark and Norway in
1513, but, as in Sweden, he was forced out of power, in spite of great
abilities and some constructive accomplishments. He was a hardworking
monarch, solicitous of the welfare of his people. He worked to reform
municipal government, suppress piracy, and foster Danish trade and the
prosperity of Copenhagen. He established uniform weights and measures,
abolished the death penalty for witchcraft, and devoted attention to
education at all levels. He was also interested in ecclesiastical
affairs. Christian even tried to get Martin Luther to Denmark, and in
1521 forebade the publication of the papal bull of excommunication of
Luther. Yet he was not a Protestant and had no desire for a break with
Rome; he did intend to control and reform the church. This is shown in
his remarkable legal code, which included many provisions relating to
church affairs. Among these were the following: appeals to Rome were
forbidden, and the king and his council were to sit as a court of
final appeal in spiritual cases; the jurisdiction of the bishops'
courts was greatly reduced; and the clergy were forbidden to acquire
land. Other regulations enforced on bishops the systematic performance
of their duties and sought to secure a body of clergymen adequate to
their tasks. No doctrinal alterations were contemplated, and even the
prohibition of appeals to Rome was intended chiefly to check the flow
of money from Denmark to the Curia.
This law code, embodying the ecclesiastical and secular measures that
have been mentioned, roused a good deal of opposition, and it is not
clear whether it ever went into effect. It was indeed one of the
factors in his deposition. He had also antagonized the Danish nobles
by favoring the peasants and the bishops, by executing some of their
number in the Bloodbath of Stockholm, and by showing an interest in
the followers of Luther. He had disregarded his coronation promises,
he was at war with Lbeck, he was having troubles in Sweden, and he was
on bad terms with his uncle, Duke Frederick of Schleswig-Holstein.
In 1522 nobles and bishops in Jutland conspired to depose Christian
and to put his uncle Frederick on the throne. Disaffection spread, and
Christian fled Denmark in 1523 with the plan to recruit an army
abroad. In 1532 he mounted an invasion of southern Norway and made the
mistake of trusting a safe-conduct from Frederick I. He was made
prisoner, and remained in captivity until his death in 1559. Though
Frederick promised at his coronation to persecute Lutherans, it was in
his reign (1523 33) that the Catholic church was destroyed in Denmark.
He soon adopted a policy of protecting Lutheran preachers and
reformers, of whom the most famous was Hans Tausen. In 1527, when
asked by the bishops to take steps which would re-emphasize the
Catholic character of the church, Frederick replied that nobody was to
be forced to renounce his faith, and that the king had power only over
men's lives and property but not their souls. In practice, the policy
of Frederick favored the spread of Lutheranism and the dissolution of
the old church. From 1526 Danish bishops had their appointments
confirmed by the king and never again sought papal confirmation. In
several important cities, including Copenhagen, the reformers gained
the upper hand. Throughout Denmark the monasteries gradually
disappeared, and churches were destroyed with the king's permission.
Schleswig and Holstein were ruled by the king's oldest son, Christian,
a convinced Lutheran, who gave a great impetus to the Lutheran forces
in his territories and influenced his father in the same direction.
It was, in fact, the known Lutheranism of Christian that prevented his
election to the throne when his father died in 1533. On the council,
which had the right of electing the king, the majority was Catholic,
and, therefore, opposed his accession. The split in the council caused
a decision to postpone the election, and this was followed by an
invasion in favor of the imprisoned Christian II, led by a German
prince who was a cousin of the deposed monarch. In the civil war that
followed, Denmark was brought to the verge of dissolution before the
final victory of Duke Christian, son of Frederick I, who received help
from Gustavus Vasa. In 1537 he became Christian III. The accession of
Christian was epoch-making for the reorganization of the Danish
church. The new king was seriously in need of money, and it was
natural that he should look for help to the bishops, who were the
richest men in Denmark. When they proved recalcitrant, he had them
arrested and imprisoned, and took possession of their property. All
were eventually released except one who died in prison but their old
positions were not restored to them. The king's action was widely
applauded, because the bishops had been very unpopular.
To help in the continued reform of the church, Christian secured from
the elector of Saxony the services of one of Luther's chief assistants
and colleagues, Johann Bugenhagen, who came to Denmark in 1537.
Bugenhagen crowned Christian and his queen, replacing the archbishop
of Lund, who had traditionally performed that function. Later,
Bugenhagen ordained seven Lutheran clergymen as superintendents to
replace the deposed bishops. This was the first time that bishops had
not been ordained by a regularly consecrated bishop, and it was a
deliberate break with tradition: A bishop probably could have been
found to perform the act. Bugenhagen became a professor of theology at
the University of Copenhagen, which had been closed during the years
of trouble and was opened again in 1537. It now had a new Protestant
faculty, and one of its purposes was the education of the clergy.
In 1537 a new Church Ordinance was officially adopted. It was drawn up
by a commission of clergymen appointed by the king and approved by
Luther. In 1550 there appeared Christian III's Bible, the first
complete translation into Danish. When the king died in 1559, the
Protestant church in Denmark was established on firm foundations.
The Reformation in Denmark was more of a popular movement than in
Sweden. This was not true in Norway and Iceland, dependencies of
Denmark. Although there were reforming tendencies in both places,
there was no popular movement, and the Reformation was imposed by
force, especially in the reign of Christian III.
this is from http://vlib.iue.it/carrie/texts/carrie_books/gilbert/12.html