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Fabric, patterning, and decoration

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  • Shub Niggurath
    Greetings, A very *long* first post... I am not really new to this per se, but I dropped out of the SCA a number of years ago as time constraints set in. That
    Message 1 of 11 , Aug 22 10:02 PM
      Greetings,
      A very *long* first post...
      I am not really new to this per se, but I dropped out of the SCA
      a number of years ago as time constraints set in. That said, since I
      seem to be having a hard time getting the assistant curator of
      textiles at the AIC to respond to an e-mail request for assistance, I
      thought I would drop a request here.
      Explanation:
      For a class at SAIC I have to research clothing for a historical
      period (...along with everything else for that period locations...),
      and this semester I will have to create one article of clothing from
      that period in a manner that is as historically accurate as
      rationally possible. I chose to work in late Edo period Japan.
      As I have been doing reading, a few "minor" issues have come
      up. For starters, most of the really useful reference books dealing
      most directly with construction and cutting seem to be written
      exclusively in Japanese (...which I of course don't read...).
      [Complete list of references used to date will follow.] A more
      troubling issue is the nearly complete lack of photographic evidence
      for men's clothing in the sources that I have; most kosode pictured
      are apparently intended for women, according to the notations.
      To get an idea of what I should be doing, I picked up a kosode
      from about the 1960's; my assumption is that the basic construction
      shouldn't have changed from the Meiji restoration through to current
      times, although decoration/colors/fabrics would have.
      So. Here are the questions.
      1) If, after reading the list of books that I have at the end, anyone
      can think of a book in English that could answer one or more of my
      questions, please let me know!
      2) Regarding patterning of the basic kosode, is the only difference
      between the garments worn by males and females the length of the
      sleeves, the shape of the corner, and whether or not the body and
      inside of the sleeve are sewn open or closed? It appears that men's
      sleeves were sewn shut on the inside, as was the body, with a fairly
      squared off sleeve end, while for women the sleeve was open on the
      inside (as was the body to an extent), the and the sleeves were
      longer and more rounded (depending on the age/marital status). Is
      this correct?
      3) In regards to decorative motifs, I note that most of the prints
      from the later Edo period show men in either solid colors, stripes or
      plaids (sometimes with crests, sometimes without), while the kosode
      of the women were much more lavishly decorated with graphic motifs.
      The only example I have come across that is definitively labeled as
      being for a male was a juban that had a yuzen-dyed town scene. Would
      heavily embroidered/tie-dyed/yuzen dyed or applied leaf be most
      typically reserved for either women or Noh? Or would it be perfectly
      acceptable to have a garishly decorated men's garment?* I have not
      seen any historical examples; would it be acceptable to decorate
      haori with graphic designs?
      4) Linings merit barely a mention, except to say that they were
      sometimes heavily decorated in order to skirt sumptuary laws. The
      first question then is, what did they use for linings? Plain or
      satin weave silk/bast/cotton (...after it was introduced...)? I
      assume that the lining was not typically a figured silk satin...
      5) From what I can determine, it appears that the sewing on my 1960's
      era kosode are tight running stitches. Is this the sort of stitch
      that was typically used for construction?
      6) Perhaps the most important question is, as I can possibly BS my
      instructor on everything else, where can I get materials in authentic
      widths/weaves/materials? My first choice, give that I am probably
      going to be primarily decorating with yuzen-dying and hand painting,
      with some shibori, embroidery, and applied gold leaf, is chirimen
      [silk crepe]. However, as I plan on doing a garment for a male, a
      silk twill might be more appropriate. ...And of course I need (want)
      that pesky lining material, whatever it is. Are there any websites
      of which people here are aware that sell the correct *undyed*
      fabrics? (Lest anyone think I'm crazy for trying this using accurate
      materials, well, that's part of the project. I would fail the
      project if I tried to use a US standard fabric width. ...Or machine
      stitched it... ...Or silk-screened the designs...)

      *I have noted a single kataginu in a book about "folk" clothing that
      had a free-hand yuzen-dyed picture of three rabits and a full moon,
      along with the wearer's choice of crests.



      Sources used in English:
      "Excerpted Masterpieces from the Bunka Gakuen Costume Museum", Bunka
      Gakuen Costume Museum, 2003
      "Five Centuraies of Japanese Kimono", The Art Institute of Chicago,
      1992
      "Kosode: 16th-19th Century Textiles from the Nomura Collection",
      Amanda Mayer Stinchecum, 1984
      "The Japanese Kimono", Hugo Munsterberg, 1996 (this book is
      essentially useless)
      "When Art Became Fashion: Kosode in Edo-Period Japan", Dale Carolyn
      Gluckman & Sharon Sadako Takeda, 1992
      "Shogun: The Shogun Age Exhibition", The Tokugawa Art Museum, 1984
      "Sengoku: Revised Edition", Anthony Bryant & Mark Arsenault, 1997
      [Okay, not about clothing, but assuming that Mr. Bryant put all of
      his research into the book, it gives a good broad overview of general
      culture/life. Aside to Baron Effingham: Maybe I just got a bad copy,
      but a lot of the interior illustrations are pretty badly pixelated,
      and the font on pp.213-228 is completely FUBAR'd.]

      Sources with pretty pictures in Japanese:
      "Edo no Dandizumu", Shigeki Kawakami, 2007
      "Genshoku Nihon fukushokushi", Gafu Izutsu, 1998
      "Fukushokushi Zue", Heiro Kitagawa, 1969
      "Subarashii Shozoku no Sekai", Tadamoto Hachijo,
      2005
      "Isho ni yoru kabuki no kenkyu : kabuki isho no keisei to shomin
      fukushoku to no kakawari", Tamie Mori, 2003 [This appears to have
      direct pattern layouts and instructions. HOWEVER it also appears to
      be for dolls. Oops. At a guess, the patterns could be scaled up
      accurately, but since I can't ready Japanese, I would need someone to
      read it and make direct sense of it for me.]
      "Yosuku Kojitsu Zukan" [Can't author or date; it's not coming up in
      WorldCat right now for some reason.]

      Final note: if there is interest, there is a possibility that high-
      res OCR'd .pdf files of everything listed except "Sengoku: Revised
      Edition", "Shogun: The Shogun Age Exhibition" and "Fukushokushi Zue"
      might exist somewhere...
    • wodeford
      ... The SCA s focus time period ends at 1600. I admit the Edo period is not my focus, but I ll take a crack at these as best I can. ... Pretty much, as far as
      Message 2 of 11 , Aug 24 8:08 PM
        --- In sca-jml@yahoogroups.com, "Shub Niggurath" <shubniggurath@...>
        wrote:
        > I chose to work in late Edo period Japan.
        The SCA's focus time period ends at 1600. I admit the Edo period is
        not my focus, but I'll take a crack at these as best I can.

        > 2) Regarding patterning of the basic kosode, is the only difference
        > between the garments worn by males and females the length of the
        > sleeves, the shape of the corner, and whether or not the body and
        > inside of the sleeve are sewn open or closed? It appears that men's
        > sleeves were sewn shut on the inside, as was the body, with a fairly
        > squared off sleeve end, while for women the sleeve was open on the
        > inside (as was the body to an extent), the and the sleeves were
        > longer and more rounded (depending on the age/marital status). Is
        > this correct?

        Pretty much, as far as I am aware, though all the modern women's
        kimono I own have squared edges. You generally see the rounded sleeve
        edges on furisode. Women's kosode/kimono tend to be made with long
        hems, which would allow the garment to be worn trailing (you still see
        this on geisha and dancers), or hiked up and held in place by their
        obi in a fold called "ohashori." You can see the ohashori fold on
        these three ladies in an early photo:
        http://homepage2.nifty.com/anonym/images/ohashori00.jpg

        > 3) Would heavily embroidered/tie-dyed/yuzen dyed or applied leaf be
        > most typically reserved for either women or Noh? Yes.

        You can thank the Tokugawa Shogunate for this. The townies were
        getting uppity and extravagant in the late 17th century and "dressing
        above their station" pretty much because they could afford to.
        Sumptuary laws were enacted and clothing starts to become more
        outwardly conservative. Textile artists (and their consumers) get
        around the sumptuary laws by turning to luxurious, often highly
        decorative linings that are the wearer's secret. To this day, men's
        haori often have linings with beautiful scenes on them.

        > Or would it be perfectly acceptable to have a garishly decorated
        men's garment?*

        For that, you have to go back to the Momoyama period - or look at
        theatrical costumes, which are influenced by what was being worn - and
        given as gifts to actors back in the 16th century - by the higher
        ranking members of the samurai class.

        > I assume that the lining was not typically a figured silk satin...
        Most modern haori linings with painted embellishment are a smooth
        weave silk. Trying to paint on anything else would not be impossible,
        so I cannot definitively rule it out, but it doesn't make a whole lot
        of sense.

        > 5) From what I can determine, it appears that the sewing on my
        > 1960's era kosode are tight running stitches. Is this the sort of
        > stitch that was typically used for construction?
        Can you tell if it's hand or machine stitching? Running stitch appears
        to be the most common hand stitch for the Japanese garments I've
        gotten my hands on. Given that garments traditionally may need to be
        taken completely apart for cleaning or resizing, running stitch is the
        easiest to remove, and one of the fastest, easiest hand-stitches to
        perform.

        > 6) Perhaps the most important question is, as I can possibly BS my
        > instructor on everything else, where can I get materials in authentic
        > widths/weaves/materials?

        eBay, believe it or not. Do a search on "kimono roll" or "kimono
        bolt." Ichiroya, ryu-japan, japan-antiques and kyoto.antique are all
        sellers I've dealt with and they're reputable. Ichiroya also has a
        "kimono flea market" web page at http://www.ichiroya.com/

        I don't see this on your list. Somewhat outdated, but it's a mostly
        good overview, though she tends to do crazy making things like use Edo
        period woodblock prints to depict of pre-Edo period clothing.
        Minnich, Helen Benton. Japanese Costume and the Makers of Its Elegant
        Tradition. Tokyo: Charles E. Tuttle Co., 1963

        And this is a lovely little book that I don't know if you know about:
        Noma, Seiroku. Japanese Costume and Textile Arts. New York and Tokyo,
        John Wetherhill, Inc. and Heibonsha, jointly, 19774 (ISBN 0-8348-1026-3).

        Good luck with your project.

        Saionji no Hanae
        West Kingdom
      • Solveig Throndardottir
        Noble Cousin! Greetings from Solveig! I am somewhat confused by your message. ... What is the AIC? ... What is SAIC? ... This should not be all that
        Message 3 of 11 , Aug 24 8:24 PM
          Noble Cousin!

          Greetings from Solveig! I am somewhat confused by your message.

          > I seem to be having a hard time getting the assistant curator of
          > textiles at the AIC to respond to an e-mail request for assistance, I
          > thought I would drop a request here.

          What is the AIC?

          > For a class at SAIC

          What is SAIC?

          > For starters, most of the really useful reference books dealing
          > most directly with construction and cutting seem to be written
          > exclusively in Japanese (...which I of course don't read...).

          This should not be all that surprising. However, all is not lost.
          Some Japanese books have diagrams. The measurements in
          these diagrams are given either in metric or in the old Japanese
          shaku/sun/bu system where a shaku is 0.9942 feet and the rest
          are 1/10 of the previous measure. Sometimes, they are given in
          both systems. You should try to obtain a copy of the nuikata
          book ISBN: 4773984058 and you should check out the
          resources at the Kyoto Costume Museum

          http://www.iz2.or.jp/english/

          Which has a costume history of Japan.

          A reasonably good costume history of the Edo Period is:

          ISBN: 479050509X

          There are quite a few sources out there for prints and
          colour usage. I suggest the following book as a good
          start:

          ISBN: 4095045019

          The fabric to use varies a bit by garment, but in general,
          linen, hemp, ramie, and of course silk are appropriate.
          You can also use cotton. Stitching is generally similar to
          a basting stitch for outer garments as they were disassembled
          for cleaning. Some other garments such as the kesa are not
          intended to be laundered. These can be stitched tightly.
          Also, some undergarments no part of which is visible may
          be tightly stitched as well as these can be boiled or otherwise
          cleaned without worry.

          Your Humble Servant
          Solveig Throndardottir
          Amateur Scholar






          [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
        • Shub Niggurath
          ... My apologies: AIC=Art Institute of Chicago. (It s the big one that has the lion statues up front that they keep putting silly hats on.) ... SAIC=School of
          Message 4 of 11 , Aug 25 9:40 AM
            --- In sca-jml@yahoogroups.com, Solveig Throndardottir <nostrand@...>
            wrote:
            >
            > Noble Cousin!
            >
            > Greetings from Solveig! I am somewhat confused by your message.

            > What is the AIC?

            My apologies: AIC=Art Institute of Chicago. (It's the big one that
            has the lion statues up front that they keep putting silly hats on.)

            >
            > > For a class at SAIC
            >
            > What is SAIC?

            SAIC=School of the Art Institute of Chicago. AKA "Hell of No-Sleep
            on Earth".

            > This should not be all that surprising. However, all is not lost.
            > Some Japanese books have diagrams. The measurements in
            > these diagrams are given either in metric or in the old Japanese
            > shaku/sun/bu system where a shaku is 0.9942 feet and the rest
            > are 1/10 of the previous measure. Sometimes, they are given in
            > both systems. You should try to obtain a copy of the nuikata
            > book ISBN: 4773984058 and you should check out the
            > resources at the Kyoto Costume Museum

            As I have to go to the library today anyways, I will see what I can
            track down there; they have a pretty good interlibrary loan system.

            <snip>

            Thank you for the advice; I know that late Edo is about 250 years
            OOP, so I especially appreciate any assistance that can be rendered.
          • Shub Niggurath
            ... sleeve ... see ... Meh. I was going to try to avoid doing women s clothing for this project; the whole fashion program is pretty heavily geared towards
            Message 5 of 11 , Aug 25 10:06 AM
              >
              > Pretty much, as far as I am aware, though all the modern women's
              > kimono I own have squared edges. You generally see the rounded
              sleeve
              > edges on furisode. Women's kosode/kimono tend to be made with long
              > hems, which would allow the garment to be worn trailing (you still
              see
              > this on geisha and dancers), or hiked up and held in place by their
              > obi in a fold called "ohashori." You can see the ohashori fold on
              > these three ladies in an early photo:

              Meh. I was going to try to avoid doing women's clothing for this
              project; the whole fashion program is pretty heavily geared towards
              womens wear, so I wanted a chance to do something slightly different.

              >
              > > 3) Would heavily embroidered/tie-dyed/yuzen dyed or applied leaf
              be
              > > most typically reserved for either women or Noh? Yes.
              >
              > You can thank the Tokugawa Shogunate for this. The townies were
              > getting uppity and extravagant in the late 17th century
              and "dressing
              > above their station" pretty much because they could afford to.
              > Sumptuary laws were enacted and clothing starts to become more
              > outwardly conservative. Textile artists (and their consumers) get
              > around the sumptuary laws by turning to luxurious, often highly
              > decorative linings that are the wearer's secret. To this day, men's
              > haori often have linings with beautiful scenes on them.

              Yay for sumptuary laws that didn't work! It certainly makes my life
              a little easier, since I don't think that I'll get more than about a
              month from start to finish for construction. I do recall a ukiyo-e
              print that showed three courtesans (?, I assume so at least...)
              holding a haori up with a scene of Mt. Fuji on it. Wish I could
              remember the artists/title off the top of my head.

              > For that, you have to go back to the Momoyama period - or look at
              > theatrical costumes, which are influenced by what was being worn -
              and
              > given as gifts to actors back in the 16th century - by the higher
              > ranking members of the samurai class.

              Okay; I didn't really want to do Noh garments, so again, this makes
              my life a little simpler.

              > Most modern haori linings with painted embellishment are a smooth
              > weave silk. Trying to paint on anything else would not be
              impossible,
              > so I cannot definitively rule it out, but it doesn't make a whole
              lot
              > of sense.

              I suppose that embroidery/applied leaf wouldn't make any sense for
              the inside of a garment, which does kinda leave free-hand resist
              dying of painting.


              > Can you tell if it's hand or machine stitching?

              Definitely *not* a machine stitch, but clearly done by someone more
              competent at hand sewing than I.

              Running stitch appears
              > to be the most common hand stitch for the Japanese garments I've
              > gotten my hands on. Given that garments traditionally may need to be
              > taken completely apart for cleaning or resizing, running stitch is
              the
              > easiest to remove, and one of the fastest, easiest hand-stitches to
              > perform.

              > eBay, believe it or not. Do a search on "kimono roll" or "kimono
              > bolt." Ichiroya, ryu-japan, japan-antiques and kyoto.antique are all
              > sellers I've dealt with and they're reputable. Ichiroya also has a
              > "kimono flea market" web page at http://www.ichiroya.com/

              ...Would you believe that I hadn't thought of that one...? I could
              slap myself right now; I'd been struggling through bad google
              translations of Japanese sites while not even seeing the obvious. :P

              I am checking out some of it while I type this.

              > I don't see this on your list. Somewhat outdated, but it's a mostly
              > good overview, though she tends to do crazy making things like use
              Edo
              > period woodblock prints to depict of pre-Edo period clothing.
              > Minnich, Helen Benton. Japanese Costume and the Makers of Its
              Elegant
              > Tradition. Tokyo: Charles E. Tuttle Co., 1963

              I recall that the school library has this book, although I hadn't
              checked up on it yet. Thanks for the warning on historical accuracy.

              > And this is a lovely little book that I don't know if you know
              about:
              > Noma, Seiroku. Japanese Costume and Textile Arts. New York and
              Tokyo,
              > John Wetherhill, Inc. and Heibonsha, jointly, 19774 (ISBN 0-8348-
              1026-3).

              Thanks you for the suggestings and the information. Assuming that I
              don't screw up my dye processes, I will try to post back photos once
              everything is completed.

              ~SM-G
            • wodeford
              ... No problem - it wasn t really clear from your message whether you were planning on a man s or women s outfit for your project. ... I believe it. Last year
              Message 6 of 11 , Aug 25 11:43 AM
                --- In sca-jml@yahoogroups.com, "Shub Niggurath" <shubniggurath@...>
                wrote:
                > Meh. I was going to try to avoid doing women's clothing for this
                > project; the whole fashion program is pretty heavily geared towards
                > womens wear, so I wanted a chance to do something slightly different.

                No problem - it wasn't really clear from your message whether you were
                planning on a man's or women's outfit for your project.

                > Definitely *not* a machine stitch, but clearly done by someone more
                > competent at hand sewing than I.
                I believe it. Last year at San Francisco's Asian Art Museum, during a
                kimono fashion show of the work of Nobuaki Tomita, they had a lady run
                up an unlined kimono by hand in under an hour.

                > ...Would you believe that I hadn't thought of that one...? I could
                > slap myself right now; I'd been struggling through bad google
                > translations of Japanese sites while not even seeing the obvious. :P
                Those particular vendors I mentioned are all capable of handling
                transactions in English and are all a pleasure to deal with, if you
                decide to go that route.

                > Thanks you for the suggestings and the information. Assuming that I
                > don't screw up my dye processes, I will try to post back photos once
                > everything is completed.
                Looking forward to seeing them!

                Saionji no Hanae
                West Kingdom
              • Shub Niggurath
                Greetings again, Again with the questions, questions, questions, most of which I believe will be actually be directly related, once I have the free time
                Message 7 of 11 , Aug 28 3:58 PM
                  Greetings again,
                  Again with the questions, questions, questions, most of which I
                  believe will be actually be directly related, once I have the free
                  time available to again start playing.
                  Regarding hitatare no kamishimo (I think that this is the correct
                  wording?), first, was the hitatare typically lined? The hakama? I
                  can find examples of OOP hakama that appear to be at least partially
                  lined, but hitatare I am less sure of; one from the Tokugawa Art
                  Museum is unlined, but the ones from the Costume Museum appear to be
                  either worn with another osode garment underneath, or have some form
                  of lining.
                  In a related note, when I go to <a
                  href="http://www.iz2.or.jp/english/fukusyoku/busou/index.htm">The
                  Costume Museum</a> and look at the entry in the Kamakura period
                  titled, "Warrior general in kataginu (sleeveless jacket) and hakama
                  (tousers)", I note that their is a folded fabric "plate" at the top of
                  the hakama, similar to modern hakama. I was told while active in the
                  SCA however that this folded/stiffened section of fabric was
                  definitely post-period. I have not noticed this detail in period
                  screens; is the Costume Museum's entry inaccurate?
                  The next question is regarding suitability of fabrics. At
                  ichiroya.com I have found several undyed fabrics that have very small,
                  all-over repeating motifs. (Photos can be seen <a
                  href="http://www.ichiroya.com/item/list3/134917/">here</a>.) The
                  listing says that it is for muji kimono, which appears to be a modern
                  style. Is such fabric suitable for haori, hakama, and hitatare, or
                  should I be looking for fabric without woven motifs?

                  Finally... It looks like I will probably be making haori for the
                  final project. I don't know what my primary ground color will be yet
                  (...probably black...), but I'm going to end up with OOP mon since our
                  instructor wants us to act as designers and do an interpretation of
                  design elements while keeping with the shape/form of the originals.

                  ~SM-G
                • JL Badgley
                  ... I m not positive, but I would suppose hitatare followed the same rules for many other garments: lined for winter, unlined for summer. It doesn t require
                  Message 8 of 11 , Aug 29 2:07 AM
                    On Fri, Aug 29, 2008 at 4:28 AM, Shub Niggurath <shubniggurath@...> wrote:
                    > In a related note, when I go to <a
                    > href="http://www.iz2.or.jp/english/fukusyoku/busou/index.htm">The
                    > Costume Museum</a> and look at the entry in the Kamakura period
                    > titled, "Warrior general in kataginu (sleeveless jacket) and hakama
                    > (tousers)", I note that their is a folded fabric "plate" at the top of
                    > the hakama, similar to modern hakama. I was told while active in the
                    > SCA however that this folded/stiffened section of fabric was
                    > definitely post-period. I have not noticed this detail in period
                    > screens; is the Costume Museum's entry inaccurate?

                    I'm not positive, but I would suppose hitatare followed the same rules
                    for many other garments: lined for winter, unlined for summer. It
                    doesn't require lining, though, I'm pretty certain of that.

                    The 'koshi-ita' (the "plate") has been a subject of debate. My
                    current belief is that it is appropriate for late period hakama,
                    though not quite as exaggerated as it became in the Edo and even
                    modern hakama. I'm not sure if it was actually sewn into the garment
                    or how it was attached at the time when it came about.

                    Regarding that particular garment, though, it is a conjecture, as they
                    are taking it from a painting of Oda Nobunaga that does not show the
                    back.

                    Ichiroya is awesome. I'm pretty sure you could find something there
                    to do period clothes with.

                    Hope that helps!

                    -Ii
                  • Solveig Throndardottir
                    Noble Cousin! Greetings from Solveig! I know of no good reason to line hakama. I have worn kendo hakama and noh practice hakama. As I recall, neither were
                    Message 9 of 11 , Aug 29 10:14 PM
                      Noble Cousin!

                      Greetings from Solveig! I know of no good reason to line hakama. I
                      have worn kendo hakama and noh practice hakama. As I recall, neither
                      were lined. Also, I do not generally recall hakama being lined in the
                      Nuikata book, although I think there might be one. I'm thinking of
                      the white, apparently brocade, hakama with the red accents. Or at
                      least that is what I recall the hakama looking like.

                      Your Humble Servant
                      Solveig Throndardottir
                      Amateur Scholar






                      [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                    • wodeford
                      ... (I do. I am still kicking myself that I didn t have a camera with me when the Asian Art Museum displayed an Edo period kataginu kamishimo made of indigo
                      Message 10 of 11 , Aug 31 11:12 AM
                        --- In sca-jml@yahoogroups.com, Solveig Throndardottir <nostrand@...>
                        wrote:
                        >
                        > Noble Cousin!
                        >
                        > Greetings from Solveig! I know of no good reason to line hakama. I
                        > have worn kendo hakama and noh practice hakama.

                        (I do. I am still kicking myself that I didn't have a camera with me
                        when the Asian Art Museum displayed an Edo period kataginu kamishimo
                        made of indigo hemp so fine you could read a newspaper through it.)

                        From http://www.sengokudaimyo.com/garb/garb.ch01.html
                        "Formal hakama were typically lined. Lined hakama were called
                        ai-hakama, distinguishing them from those unlined hakama commonly worn
                        more in summer months, which were called hitoe-hakama."
                      • JL Badgley
                        ... I ve seen it both ways... can t recall if I have examples of both. There are hakama in JIN* that specifically call for being lined. Furthermore, for some
                        Message 11 of 11 , Sep 1, 2008
                          On Mon, Sep 1, 2008 at 1:12 AM, wodeford <wodeford@...> wrote:
                          >
                          > (I do. I am still kicking myself that I didn't have a camera with me
                          > when the Asian Art Museum displayed an Edo period kataginu kamishimo
                          > made of indigo hemp so fine you could read a newspaper through it.)
                          >
                          > From http://www.sengokudaimyo.com/garb/garb.ch01.html
                          > "Formal hakama were typically lined. Lined hakama were called
                          > ai-hakama, distinguishing them from those unlined hakama commonly worn
                          > more in summer months, which were called hitoe-hakama."
                          >
                          I've seen it both ways... can't recall if I have examples of both.
                          There are hakama in JIN* that specifically call for being lined.

                          Furthermore, for some of the finer fabrics, as noted, a good linen
                          underneath can help add body to the fabric (since you aren't dealing
                          with tetron or cotton). We have some silk sashinuki that were
                          constructed this way and have been meaning to try it with our own
                          clothing.


                          -Ii


                          *Jidai Ishou no Nuikata
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