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Re: Gokenin

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  • Otagiri Tatsuzou
    ... as opposed ... directly to the ... shogunal ... middle-range ... position, it ... Was there a kind of institutional continuity for the gokenin from the
    Message 1 of 18 , Apr 1, 2004
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      --- In sca-jml@yahoogroups.com, "Anthony J. Bryant" <ajbryant@i...> wrote:
      > During the Muromachi period, gokenin were vassals of the shogunate,
      as opposed
      > to samurai in general. That is, not all samurai owed service
      directly to the
      > shogunate; most were in their clans, not. (Literally, gokenin is often
      > translated as "house-men" -- pointing out their connection to the
      shogunal
      > house)....
      >
      > Essentially, gokenin were middle-ranking samurai, and typically had
      middle-range
      > civil service type jobs (in the Edo period). Like any other samurai
      position, it
      > was inheritable, acquirable, marriable, and buyable. <G>
      >

      Was there a kind of institutional continuity for the gokenin from the
      Kamakura, through the Ashikaga, and into the beginning of the
      Tokugawa? Or did the Nobunaga/Hideyoshi/Tokugawa govenments
      reinvent/reestablish them from scratch?

      Otagiri
    • Solveig
      Noble Cousin! Greetings from Solveig! First of all you should read the stuff put out by Farris and Mass both of whom have written extensively on pre-modern
      Message 2 of 18 , Apr 1, 2004
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        Noble Cousin!

        Greetings from Solveig!

        First of all you should read the stuff put out by Farris and Mass both of
        whom have written extensively on pre-modern Japan. You should also check
        out the appropriate volume of the Cambridge History of Japan.

        >If any have information they can add to or which would correct this
        >description, I would be glad to hear of it. For instance: Is being a
        >gokenin an inheritable position by law or practise?

        Most everything in Japan was dejure appointive and defacto heritable.
        However, inheritance was most emphatically not necessarily to the eldest
        son. Generally, the holder of position would try to arrange succession
        during their lifetime by the most capable candidate. For ordinary property,
        family headship, and stuff like that, succession could go to females as
        late as the middle of the Kamakura period.

        >Was the position bought by bribery?

        I wouldn't rule it out, but it was not all that normative. Another way
        to look at things. For example, the imperial court had a number of ways
        it could persuade people to do things. They could offer titles, opportunities
        to participate in important ceremonies, and things like that as inducements.
        While their was exchange value in this sort of arrangement, the initiative
        was often more with the superior than you appear to be suggesting. Money
        was often obtained by other means. A lot of civic construction was financed
        by "subscriptions" with groups of officials going around collecting for these
        efforts.
        --

        Your Humble Servant
        Solveig Throndardottir
        Amateur Scholar

        +----------------------------------------------------------------------+
        | Barbara Nostrand, Ph.D. | Solveig Throndardottir, CoM, CoS |
        | deMoivre Institute | Carolingia Statis Mentis Est |
        | mailto:nostrand@... | mailto:bnostran@... |
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      • Otagiri Tatsuzou
        ... Heck, now I m echoing my own posts. I think there is something up with the Yahoo mail... Otagiri
        Message 3 of 18 , Apr 1, 2004
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          --- In sca-jml@yahoogroups.com, "Otagiri Tatsuzou" <ronbroberg@y...>
          wrote:
          > Was there a kind of institutional continuity for the gokenin from the
          > Kamakura, through the Ashikaga, and into the beginning of the
          > Tokugawa? Or did the Nobunaga/Hideyoshi/Tokugawa govenments
          > reinvent/reestablish them from scratch?
          >
          > Otagiri


          Heck, now I'm echoing my own posts. I think there is something up with
          the Yahoo mail...

          Otagiri
        • Anthony J. Bryant
          ... Interesting question. I don t think there s really a simple one-sentence answer, but the basic point is that all warrior houses had their retainers. The
          Message 4 of 18 , Apr 2, 2004
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            Otagiri Tatsuzou wrote:


            > Was there a kind of institutional continuity for the gokenin from the
            > Kamakura, through the Ashikaga, and into the beginning of the
            > Tokugawa? Or did the Nobunaga/Hideyoshi/Tokugawa govenments
            > reinvent/reestablish them from scratch?

            Interesting question.

            I don't think there's really a simple one-sentence answer, but the basic point
            is that all warrior houses had their retainers. The go-kenin were just those who
            happened to be direct retainers of the house that ruled the country, as opposed
            to being retainers of other vassal lords.


            Effingham
          • Anthony J. Bryant
            ... They had fiefs and incomes, remember. They had their own taxes to collect, just like everyone else. ... No; it was performed by the lords of the provinces
            Message 5 of 18 , Apr 2, 2004
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              Otagiri Tatsuzou wrote:


              > Who paid their stipends in the early sixteenth century when the
              > shogunate itself was broke?

              They had fiefs and incomes, remember. They had their own taxes to collect, just
              like everyone else.

              > Would Hideyoshi's sword-hunt and/or comprehensive land survey have
              > been performed by gokenin?

              No; it was performed by the lords of the provinces (and *their* retainers) under
              Hidyoshi's command.


              Effingham
            • Otagiri Tatsuzou
              ... collect, just ... All samurai had their own fiefs? Including garrison troops barracked in the city? What was the nature of the relation between a daimyo
              Message 6 of 18 , Apr 3, 2004
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                --- In sca-jml@yahoogroups.com, "Anthony J. Bryant" <ajbryant@i...> wrote:
                > Otagiri Tatsuzou wrote:
                >
                >
                > > Who paid their stipends in the early sixteenth century when the
                > > shogunate itself was broke?
                >
                > They had fiefs and incomes, remember. They had their own taxes to
                collect, just
                > like everyone else.
                >

                All samurai had their own fiefs? Including garrison troops barracked
                in the city?

                What was the nature of the relation between a daimyo and the kokujin
                (ji-samurai) within the nominal borders of his shugyo? Were kokujin
                vassals? Did they perform military service for the daimyo outside of
                vassalage?

                Otagiri
              • Ii Saburou
                ... Daimyo kept fiefs, and samurai served the daimyo, getting paid from the taxes they levied. If you for some reason lost your position and became ronin
                Message 7 of 18 , Apr 3, 2004
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                  On Sun, 4 Apr 2004, Otagiri Tatsuzou wrote:

                  > --- In sca-jml@yahoogroups.com, "Anthony J. Bryant" <ajbryant@i...> wrote:
                  > > Otagiri Tatsuzou wrote:
                  > >
                  > >
                  > > > Who paid their stipends in the early sixteenth century when the
                  > > > shogunate itself was broke?
                  > >
                  > > They had fiefs and incomes, remember. They had their own taxes to
                  > collect, just
                  > > like everyone else.
                  > >
                  >
                  > All samurai had their own fiefs? Including garrison troops barracked
                  > in the city?

                  Daimyo kept fiefs, and samurai served the daimyo, getting paid from the
                  taxes they levied. If you for some reason lost your position and became
                  'ronin' (usually for being on the wrong end of a battle). Ronin had no
                  income, and could either find another lord to take them in, or--as often
                  seemed to happen--form a small band and raid the villages and farms for
                  what they could.

                  -Ii
                • Solveig
                  Noble Cousin! Greetings from Solveig! ... It was how they were paid. This sort of arrangement goes all the way back to land allocation to kuge under the
                  Message 8 of 18 , Apr 3, 2004
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                    Noble Cousin!

                    Greetings from Solveig!

                    >All samurai had their own fiefs? Including garrison troops barracked
                    >in the city?

                    It was how they were paid. This sort of arrangement goes all the way
                    back to land allocation to kuge under the ritsuryou system. The buke
                    version was generally less direct as they often held tax collection
                    or rent collection rights from which they derived a share while the
                    kuge in theory held actual tax or rent rights.

                    The daimyou are fundamentally a category of rights holder. If your
                    fief was large enough then you were classified as a daimyou. If it
                    was smaller, you were classified as a shomyou. There is more than a
                    bit of confusion about all of this. The position of original significance
                    was actually "shugo" which was a kind of provincial military governor
                    or constable created during the Kamakura period. Shugo were awarded
                    large
                    fiefs and were also daimyou.
                    --

                    Your Humble Servant
                    Solveig Throndardottir
                    Amateur Scholar

                    +----------------------------------------------------------------------+
                    | Barbara Nostrand, Ph.D. | Solveig Throndardottir, CoM, CoS |
                    | deMoivre Institute | Carolingia Statis Mentis Est |
                    | mailto:nostrand@... | mailto:bnostran@... |
                    +----------------------------------------------------------------------+
                    | Note. Many popular "free" email services are automatically routed to |
                    | the trash by my email filters. |
                    +----------------------------------------------------------------------+
                  • Otagiri Tatsuzou
                    ... significance ... I m aiming my inquiry at a smaller scale than daimyo. The following comes from my reading of Sansom and some documents in Lu: Some samurai
                    Message 9 of 18 , Apr 3, 2004
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                      --- In sca-jml@yahoogroups.com, Solveig <nostrand@a...> wrote:
                      > The daimyou are fundamentally a category of rights holder. If your
                      > fief was large enough then you were classified as a daimyou. If it
                      > was smaller, you were classified as a shomyou. There is more than a
                      > bit of confusion about all of this. The position of original
                      significance
                      > was actually "shugo" which was a kind of provincial military governor
                      > or constable created during the Kamakura period. Shugo were awarded
                      > large
                      > fiefs and were also daimyou.


                      I'm aiming my inquiry at a smaller scale than daimyo. The following
                      comes from my reading of Sansom and some documents in Lu:

                      Some samurai were jito. The jito had the right to collect the taxes
                      for the holder of the tax rights (shiki). In most cases the jito was
                      not the cultivator of the land (sakunin).

                      So how likely are the following statements (in the mid sixteenth century).

                      1) Some samurai are jito
                      2) All jiti are samurai..
                      3) Some jito draw their stipend as a portion of the taxes collected.
                      4) Some jito deliver all the taxes directly to their leige.
                      5) Some samurai receive stipends directly from their leige in the form
                      of goods.
                      6) Some samurai receive stipends directly from their leige as cash


                      And some more questions.
                      Peasants were encouraged to develop new fields. Were these new fields
                      incoporated into the existing shoen systems? Were new shoen estates
                      "registered" somewhere someway? Did significant acreage exist outside
                      the shoen estates?
                    • Andrew Leitch
                      Once again, its after midnight and I m writing my reply from work and I don t have my library or old rekishi notes at hand. So, fully expecting to be shot
                      Message 10 of 18 , Apr 4, 2004
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                        Once again, its after midnight and I'm writing my reply from work and I
                        don't have my library or old rekishi notes at hand. So, fully expecting to
                        be shot down in flames by Effingham-dono, here�s my two yens worth anyway�
                        :)

                        *** On Jito and Shugo-

                        Weren't the jito originally a pre-Ashikaga Imperial tax collector? They
                        were supposed to collect the tax and send it back to the Imperial court
                        noble who technically owned the fief.

                        At some point this system broke down.

                        As the samurai class came into its own, the jito (who'd already militarised
                        to a certain extent to protect their cash) sent a portion of their money
                        upstream to the shugo rather than to court in order to gain further
                        protection. The shugo were military rather than bureaucratic governors at
                        the time.

                        So, the actual control of the land passed from court hands into the hands
                        of the shugo � who were samurai. These guys bickered and fought amongst
                        themselves to secure greater numbers of jito. If they acquired enough land
                        they were called daimyo (doesn�t this just mean �big name�?).

                        Hmmm� by the time the Warring States period ended, jito had ceased to be.
                        Or at least, that�s my impression.

                        There�s a number of terms of which I�m not sure though:

                        Go-zamurai � samurai who are from farmer stock? Or maybe are traditionally
                        associated with a given fief?

                        Hatamoto � senior vassals of a daimyo who control distinct areas of land
                        smaller than a Han?

                        Karo � elderly advisers, retired generals, uncles etc.

                        *** On Stipends-

                        I don�t believe that all samurai had their own fiefs. Especially once
                        Tokugawa got in control. A stipend was an income derived from tax gathered
                        from the Lord�s lands but it was not directly tied to any particular patch
                        of land.

                        A retainer on a stipend did not own a village which he had to look after.
                        He was in direct vassalage to his lord and served at his residence (mansion
                        or castle). He got paid a stipend in the same way that we might collect a
                        yearly salary. The retainers which had their own plot of land, which were
                        infiefed, as it were, were go-zamurai or hatamoto perhaps? Hmmm� I lack
                        enough of the right names to describe this situation properly�

                        I do remember that Tokugawa Ieyasu had a deliberate policy of
                        disenfranchising the samurai from their feudal land base. The payment of
                        stipends or salaries was essential to this. It was just another method he
                        had of ensuring that samurai did not rise up and rebel. The theory being
                        that without significant ties to land and the peasant class, their sense of
                        responsibility for them was diminished and they would also lack a feudal
                        base of operations to return to and stage rebellions from.

                        **** Otagiri Tatsuzou�s questions �


                        1) Some samurai are jito
                        2) All jito are samurai..

                        - I don�t think the jito really existed by the mid-sixteenth century, IMHO.
                        I'm sure someone will tell us though. :)

                        3) Some jito draw their stipend as a portion of the taxes collected.
                        - I think that they drew a percentage (of around 50%?) from the taxes
                        collected.

                        4) Some jito deliver all the taxes directly to their leige.
                        - Nope, I don�t think so.

                        5) Some samurai receive stipends directly from their leige in the form of
                        goods.
                        - Goods? Like rice? Almost certainly, eh. I can�t imagine a town or city
                        based samurai being paid in rice though. More likely in cold, hard cash�
                        gold bullion of some sort. Promisary notes?

                        6) Some samurai receive stipends directly from their leige as cash
                        - I reckon. :)

                        And some more questions.
                        Peasants were encouraged to develop new fields. Were these new fields
                        incoporated into the existing shoen systems? Were new shoen estates
                        "registered" somewhere someway? Did significant acreage exist outside
                        the shoen estates?

                        - New fields were developed by nanushi, I think (that name doesn't sound
                        right...). Anyway, the �grass parters�, who reclaimed swamps or cut down
                        forests. These new lands were often not straight away incorporated into the
                        shoen system. The jito might still collect tax from it, but they might
                        keep the rice all to themselves (with very little maneuvering on their
                        part).

                        The amount of tax collected depended on how recently the last land survey
                        was done. A jito might have 5000 tan of land to collect tax from in
                        theory. But given a bit of growth, he might actually administer 6,500 tan
                        of land because the taxes were set at the last land survey, say 80 years
                        ago.

                        Of course, land surveyors could always be bribed to underestimate land size
                        and production value as well.

                        I hope this makes sense.

                        IIRC, Oda Nobunaga and Tokugawa Ieyasu were into land surveys in a big way
                        as it increased their income significantly.

                        Segayama no Andre
                        (Andre de Montsegur)
                      • Ii Saburou
                        Regarding taxes, one history professor I had pointed out several intersting things that would happene in both China and Japan. It was usual for peasants to
                        Message 11 of 18 , Apr 4, 2004
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                          Regarding taxes, one history professor I had pointed out several
                          intersting things that would happene in both China and Japan. It was
                          usual for peasants to hide a certain amount of the proceeds from the tax
                          collectors. Rulers would then raise taxes to an artificial number (say,
                          80%) which is what they would take from the rice reported.

                          Thus, whenever someone wanted more, they could actually lower taxes but
                          increase enforcement and actually gather in more income. Of course,
                          rulers have to always be wary that they aren't starving their workers...
                          too much.

                          -Ii

                          On Sun, 4 Apr 2004, Andrew Leitch wrote:

                          > The amount of tax collected depended on how recently the last land survey
                          > was done. A jito might have 5000 tan of land to collect tax from in
                          > theory. But given a bit of growth, he might actually administer 6,500 tan
                          > of land because the taxes were set at the last land survey, say 80 years
                          > ago.
                          >
                          > Of course, land surveyors could always be bribed to underestimate land size
                          > and production value as well.
                          >
                          > I hope this makes sense.
                          >
                          > IIRC, Oda Nobunaga and Tokugawa Ieyasu were into land surveys in a big way
                          > as it increased their income significantly.
                          >
                          > Segayama no Andre
                          > (Andre de Montsegur)
                          >
                          >
                          > UNSUBSCRIBE: E-mail sca-jml-unsubscribe@yahoogroups.com
                          > Yahoo! Groups Links
                          >
                          >
                          >
                          >
                          >
                          >
                        • Solveig
                          Noble Cousin! You should really read some of the books written by Mass. You will find pretty good answers to your questions. ... Yes. ... Probably. However
                          Message 12 of 18 , Apr 4, 2004
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                            Noble Cousin!

                            You should really read some of the books written by Mass. You will find
                            pretty good answers to your questions.

                            >1) Some samurai are jito

                            Yes.

                            >2) All jiti are samurai..

                            Probably. However there are no plurals in Japanese and Japanese is
                            definitely not Latin or Greek so it should simply be jito not jiti.
                            The Jito were created at about the time of the Genjpei War. They
                            are a major feature in the Kamakura Bakufu.

                            >3) Some jito draw their stipend as a portion of the taxes collected.

                            Very technically, the shoen managers are not collecting taxes they are
                            collecting rents and shares of crops. The shoen were generally tax exempt.

                            >4) Some jito deliver all the taxes directly to their leige.

                            No. The estate owners and the feudal liege are often completely different and
                            possibly unrelatged people.

                            >5) Some samurai receive stipends directly from their leige in the form
                            >of goods.

                            This can become complicated. However, the answer is pretty much yes.
                            Vassals typically received an annual gift of cloth for their uniforms.
                            You can get a glimps of this in as I recall the end of the first movie
                            in Inagaki's Samurai Trilogy.

                            >6) Some samurai receive stipends directly from their leige as cash

                            This may happen, but it sounds pretty unusual. The vassals generally
                            received agricultural rights. Even today, Japanese avoid obvious
                            exchanges of cash. Even if cash is being given, it is frequently
                            placed in an envelope and conveyed on a tray or some other device.

                            >Peasants were encouraged to develop new fields. Were these new fields
                            >incoporated into the existing shoen systems? Were new shoen estates
                            >"registered" somewhere someway? Did significant acreage exist outside
                            >the shoen estates?

                            Yes, pretty much to all of those questions. However, you really
                            should read Mass. Incidentally, land was either part of the shoen
                            system or it was part
                            of the old ritsuryou system. One is land taxable by the imperial government
                            and the other is land exempt from imperial taxation.

                            Again about "daimyou",. While it is literally <big><name> it really refers
                            to the size of land holdings. You should recall that private fields can be
                            called "myouden". During the Kamakura Period, the jitou were independent
                            of the shugou and came under the shugou during the Muromachi Period. The
                            old posts of jitou and shugou are pretty much replaced by the Tokugawa.
                            --

                            Your Humble Servant
                            Solveig Throndardottir
                            Amateur Scholar

                            +----------------------------------------------------------------------+
                            | Barbara Nostrand, Ph.D. | Solveig Throndardottir, CoM, CoS |
                            | deMoivre Institute | Carolingia Statis Mentis Est |
                            | mailto:nostrand@... | mailto:bnostran@... |
                            +----------------------------------------------------------------------+
                            | Note. Many popular "free" email services are automatically routed to |
                            | the trash by my email filters. |
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                          • Otagiri Tatsuzou
                            ... and I ... expecting to ... worth anyway… ... From what I ve been reading, your 2 yen (mon ?) is worth a little more. I d thought I add a little more on
                            Message 13 of 18 , Apr 18, 2004
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                              --- In sca-jml@yahoogroups.com, "Andrew Leitch" <kinder@w...> wrote:
                              >
                              > Once again, its after midnight and I'm writing my reply from work
                              and I
                              > don't have my library or old rekishi notes at hand. So, fully
                              expecting to
                              > be shot down in flames by Effingham-dono, here's my two yens
                              worth
                              anyway…
                              > :)


                              From what I've been reading, your 2 yen (mon ?) is worth a little
                              more. I'd thought I add a little more on the nature of samurai from
                              Carl Streenstrup's _Hojo Shigetoki (1198-1261) and his Role in the
                              History of Political and Ethical Ideas in Japan_.

                              "A gokenin or shogunate houseman was a warrior who owned a piece of
                              inherited land to which his right was confirmed by the bakufu. Most
                              but not all gokenin held jitou-shiki or stewardships. These gave them
                              not only income but also the right to police the area (kendan) and a
                              series of other public competences, in return for service duties to
                              the bakufu. Not all shugo were gokenin but, as far as we know, all
                              jito were.

                              A warrior who had no such confirmation and accordingly did not perform
                              services for the bakufu was a hi-gokenin, He might serve the emperor,
                              a prince, a kuge family, a shrine or a temple, or be an independent
                              landowner or myoushu. Souhei or monk soldiers wer not considered
                              hi-gokenin but ranked with the routou mentioned below.

                              Gokenin and hi-gokenin together constituted the warriors or samurai.
                              The minimum requirements for being a samurai were to own bow and
                              arrows and a horse trained for combat, to have received martial
                              training, to have enough landed income to acquire and keep these
                              accoutrements, and to fight on horseback, which according to the mode
                              of warfare of the age required some kachi or footmen to protect the
                              horse against other samurais' foot soldiers. One kachi was the
                              absolute minimal requirement. Finally, a samurai was required to have
                              his landed income from inherited land and to derive it through shiki
                              higher up in the social scale than mere cultivators' shiki. This did
                              not preclude his holding cultivators' shiki besides and doing actual
                              farmwork himself. There were no doubt many blurred cases. But the
                              foundation for the gradually developing seperation of warriors and
                              non-warriors was already being laid in the Kamakura times: the samurai
                              being a gentleman of independent means (as in England until lately, it
                              took two generations to make him) who fought on horseback, and the
                              rest of the people commoners who tilled the soiled, produced goods, or
                              traded. In between were the warriors' retinue men, or juusha."

                              Highest in rank among the juushu were the wakatou, who were samurai in
                              the process of training. These might be adopted into the household.
                              Those lacking in hereditary and finacial means were called routou. The
                              y fought on foot, carried swords, and sometimes held office. Below
                              them were chugen who did not carry swords and fought with spear.

                              As to goods -v- money, in the Kamakura money was beginning to be used
                              in normal commerce. The bakufu tried to stifle this as a way of
                              checking inflation and the wealthy Western provinces. Mutsu was
                              required to use barter/goods in its finacial transactions/taxes until
                              the Nambu and Dewa controlled the region during the Sengoku.
                            • Solveig
                              Noble Cousin! Greetings from Solveig! Some of the articles being quoted sound a bit confused. Here is an article by Frederic translated by Roth and published
                              Message 14 of 18 , Apr 18, 2004
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                                Noble Cousin!

                                Greetings from Solveig! Some of the articles being quoted sound a bit confused.
                                Here is an article by Frederic translated by Roth and published by Harvard.

                                Bushi. "Man of arms." Since 721, this term was used for professional
                                warriors, coming into general use in the late eleventh century and
                                replacing the terms mono-no-fu, tsuwamono, musha, and saburai, which
                                later became the word samurai. Starting in the Kamakura period, the
                                bushi were part of the "warriors' house," or buke, an early
                                designation of the shogun's entourage. Later, the term buke became
                                synonymous with 'bushi class" [this is how I use the term] and
                                encompassed all warriors. Leagues of warriors, or bushidan,
                                especially in the provinces, gave rise to the great warrior clans,
                                and therafter the only true bushi were those in the bushidan, while
                                others were called tsuwamono. During the Edo period, the bushi were
                                classified according to a strict hierarchy, dominated by the shogun,
                                within which each bushi occupied a place determined by his status
                                (daimyou, hatamoto, gokenin, hanhi, etc.) and that of the lord he
                                served. This hierarchy was abolished in 1869, and the former bushi
                                became part of the new shizoku class. Finally, in 1947, all social
                                distinctions were abolished and members of the shizoku class became
                                simple citizens. (2002 p. 94)

                                Jitou. In the late Heian period, land used to remunerate certain
                                provincial bureaucrats or representatives of the shouen Intendants).
                                Startin in the Kamakura period (or perhaps even a little before, in
                                the mid-twelfth century),
                                however, this term no longer referred to land but to estate
                                intendants and tax collectors for the owners. [Farris in Heavenly
                                Warriors stresses the continuity of this class from developments in
                                the Heian period] The position of jitou became more or less
                                hereditary starting in 1221. In the Muromachi period, "jitou"
                                designated mainly a low-ranking local lord (koku-jin); in the Edo
                                period, it was simply the title of a person with a certain share
                                (chigryou) in a daimyou's fief. [This is why the jitou do not appear
                                on the organizational chart for the Edo Bakufu at the back of
                                Kodansha Kogojiten.] (2002 p. 425)

                                Gokenin. Direct vassals of a shogun. In the Kamakura period, term for
                                some 2,000 samura families who became hereditary vassals of Minamoto
                                no Yoritomo and received land (ando) or became jitou or shuugo. The
                                gokenin served as the shogun's personal guard and constituted the
                                basis of his army. In the Muromachi period, the gokenin were divided
                                into two classes, those under direct control of the shogun, the
                                houkoushuu, and those under a shugo, the jitou-gokenin. During the
                                Edo period, the gokenin were the shogun's lowest-ranked direct
                                vassals, below the hatamoto, and did not have the privilege of being
                                received by the shogun. Their income varied widely but rarely
                                exceeded 200 koku, which meant that many of them were impoverished
                                and became merchants or artisans. (200 p. 255)

                                Bottom line. There were a lot more jitou out there than there were
                                gokenin during the Kamakura period. The gokenin of the Kamakura
                                period held a variety
                                of appointments and only some of them were jitou. The shugo (constables) were
                                the real provincial innovation of the Kamakura Bakufu. Later the
                                gokenin become much more numerous. Finally, jitou were fairly common
                                as late as 1600. We see them functioning as estate stewards and local
                                government authorities in early kyougen plays such as Ukosako. There
                                is no identity between gokenin, bushi, or jitou.
                                --

                                Your Humble Servant
                                Solveig Throndardottir
                                Amateur Scholar

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                              • Andrew Leitch
                                Thank you Solveig! - Andre Snip * Solveig writes: Noble Cousin! Greetings from Solveig! Some of the articles being quoted sound a bit confused. Here is an
                                Message 15 of 18 , Apr 18, 2004
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                                  Thank you Solveig!

                                  - Andre

                                  Snip * Solveig writes:

                                  Noble Cousin!

                                  Greetings from Solveig! Some of the articles being quoted sound a bit
                                  confused.
                                  Here is an article by Frederic translated by Roth and published by Harvard.

                                  Bushi. "Man of arms." Since 721, * Snip
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