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Gokenin

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  • Otagiri Tatsuzou
    Onegaishimasu: I am trying to deepen my understanding of gokenin in Muromachi Japan. As I understand it, the gokenin were originally about 2000 direct vassals
    Message 1 of 18 , Mar 31, 2004
      Onegaishimasu:

      I am trying to deepen my understanding of gokenin in Muromachi Japan.
      As I understand it, the gokenin were originally about 2000 direct
      vassals of Minamoto Yoritomo. They were representatives/officials of
      the shogunate. Their numbers increased over time to about 18000 by
      (during?) the Tokugawa shogunate. The gokenin were not granted the
      privilege of direct audience with the shogun, a privilege held by the
      hatamoto. Gokenin held stipends of less than 260 koku.

      If any have information they can add to or which would correct this
      description, I would be glad to hear of it. For instance: Is being a
      gokenin an inheritable position by law or practise? Were gokenin
      appointed by merit? Was the position bought by bribery? A combination
      of the above. By the late muromachi, is this mostly a status symbol,
      or were actual shogunate functions carried on by the gokenin?

      Could someone point me to good reading resources?

      Arigato Gozaimasu
      Otagiri
    • Anthony J. Bryant
      ... They didn t increase over time -- the term was applied to different people. During the Muromachi period, gokenin were vassals of the shogunate, as opposed
      Message 2 of 18 , Mar 31, 2004
        Otagiri Tatsuzou wrote:

        > Onegaishimasu:
        >
        > I am trying to deepen my understanding of gokenin in Muromachi Japan.
        > As I understand it, the gokenin were originally about 2000 direct
        > vassals of Minamoto Yoritomo. They were representatives/officials of
        > the shogunate. Their numbers increased over time to about 18000 by
        > (during?) the Tokugawa shogunate. The gokenin were not granted the
        > privilege of direct audience with the shogun, a privilege held by the
        > hatamoto. Gokenin held stipends of less than 260 koku.

        They didn't increase over time -- the term was applied to different people.

        During the Muromachi period, gokenin were vassals of the shogunate, as opposed
        to samurai in general. That is, not all samurai owed service directly to the
        shogunate; most were in their clans, not. (Literally, gokenin is often
        translated as "house-men" -- pointing out their connection to the shogunal
        house). These folk were often at odds with the miuchibito, who were direct
        vassals of the Hojo family, who actually RAN the shogunate. (Here's a quandry;
        which is better, to be a direct vassal of the shogun, the office running the
        country, or to be a direct vassal to a family UNDER the shogunate but which
        actually ran things? You can see why the miuchibito and the gokenin were often
        working against each other.)

        Since the Tokugawa shogunate was much larger, and more in control of more things
        and more land, they had more direct vassals. (So here's another quandry: what's
        better, to be a direct vassal of the shogun but living in the provinces
        somewhere, or to be a vassal of the lord of that province?)

        Essentially, gokenin were middle-ranking samurai, and typically had middle-range
        civil service type jobs (in the Edo period). Like any other samurai position, it
        was inheritable, acquirable, marriable, and buyable. <G>



        Effingham
      • Otagiri Tatsuzou
        ... as opposed ... directly to the ... shogunal ... middle-range ... position, it ... Was there a kind of institutional continuity for the gokenin from the
        Message 3 of 18 , Apr 1 10:54 AM
          --- In sca-jml@yahoogroups.com, "Anthony J. Bryant" <ajbryant@i...> wrote:
          > During the Muromachi period, gokenin were vassals of the shogunate,
          as opposed
          > to samurai in general. That is, not all samurai owed service
          directly to the
          > shogunate; most were in their clans, not. (Literally, gokenin is often
          > translated as "house-men" -- pointing out their connection to the
          shogunal
          > house)....
          >
          > Essentially, gokenin were middle-ranking samurai, and typically had
          middle-range
          > civil service type jobs (in the Edo period). Like any other samurai
          position, it
          > was inheritable, acquirable, marriable, and buyable. <G>
          >

          Was there a kind of institutional continuity for the gokenin from the
          Kamakura, through the Ashikaga, and into the beginning of the
          Tokugawa? Or did the Nobunaga/Hideyoshi/Tokugawa govenments
          reinvent/reestablish them from scratch?

          Otagiri
        • Otagiri Tatsuzou
          ... as opposed ... middle-range ... position, it ... Was there a kind of institutional continuity for the gokenin from the Kamakura through the Ashikiga and
          Message 4 of 18 , Apr 1 12:21 PM
            --- In sca-jml@yahoogroups.com, "Anthony J. Bryant" <ajbryant@i...> wrote:

            > During the Muromachi period, gokenin were vassals of the shogunate,
            as opposed
            > to samurai in general....
            > Essentially, gokenin were middle-ranking samurai, and typically had
            middle-range
            > civil service type jobs (in the Edo period). Like any other samurai
            position, it
            > was inheritable, acquirable, marriable, and buyable. <G>
            >


            Was there a kind of institutional continuity for the gokenin from the
            Kamakura through the Ashikiga and into the Tokugawa shogunates? Or did
            Nobunaga/Hideyoshi/Tokugawa governments have to recreate/reestablish them.

            Who paid their stipends in the early sixteenth century when the
            shogunate itself was broke?

            Would Hideyoshi's sword-hunt and/or comprehensive land survey have
            been performed by gokenin?

            Thanks again
            Otagiri
          • Solveig
            Noble Cousin! Greetings from Solveig! First of all you should read the stuff put out by Farris and Mass both of whom have written extensively on pre-modern
            Message 5 of 18 , Apr 1 2:10 PM
              Noble Cousin!

              Greetings from Solveig!

              First of all you should read the stuff put out by Farris and Mass both of
              whom have written extensively on pre-modern Japan. You should also check
              out the appropriate volume of the Cambridge History of Japan.

              >If any have information they can add to or which would correct this
              >description, I would be glad to hear of it. For instance: Is being a
              >gokenin an inheritable position by law or practise?

              Most everything in Japan was dejure appointive and defacto heritable.
              However, inheritance was most emphatically not necessarily to the eldest
              son. Generally, the holder of position would try to arrange succession
              during their lifetime by the most capable candidate. For ordinary property,
              family headship, and stuff like that, succession could go to females as
              late as the middle of the Kamakura period.

              >Was the position bought by bribery?

              I wouldn't rule it out, but it was not all that normative. Another way
              to look at things. For example, the imperial court had a number of ways
              it could persuade people to do things. They could offer titles, opportunities
              to participate in important ceremonies, and things like that as inducements.
              While their was exchange value in this sort of arrangement, the initiative
              was often more with the superior than you appear to be suggesting. Money
              was often obtained by other means. A lot of civic construction was financed
              by "subscriptions" with groups of officials going around collecting for these
              efforts.
              --

              Your Humble Servant
              Solveig Throndardottir
              Amateur Scholar

              +----------------------------------------------------------------------+
              | Barbara Nostrand, Ph.D. | Solveig Throndardottir, CoM, CoS |
              | deMoivre Institute | Carolingia Statis Mentis Est |
              | mailto:nostrand@... | mailto:bnostran@... |
              +----------------------------------------------------------------------+
              | Note. Many popular "free" email services are automatically routed to |
              | the trash by my email filters. |
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            • Otagiri Tatsuzou
              ... Heck, now I m echoing my own posts. I think there is something up with the Yahoo mail... Otagiri
              Message 6 of 18 , Apr 1 2:17 PM
                --- In sca-jml@yahoogroups.com, "Otagiri Tatsuzou" <ronbroberg@y...>
                wrote:
                > Was there a kind of institutional continuity for the gokenin from the
                > Kamakura, through the Ashikaga, and into the beginning of the
                > Tokugawa? Or did the Nobunaga/Hideyoshi/Tokugawa govenments
                > reinvent/reestablish them from scratch?
                >
                > Otagiri


                Heck, now I'm echoing my own posts. I think there is something up with
                the Yahoo mail...

                Otagiri
              • Anthony J. Bryant
                ... Interesting question. I don t think there s really a simple one-sentence answer, but the basic point is that all warrior houses had their retainers. The
                Message 7 of 18 , Apr 2 2:10 AM
                  Otagiri Tatsuzou wrote:


                  > Was there a kind of institutional continuity for the gokenin from the
                  > Kamakura, through the Ashikaga, and into the beginning of the
                  > Tokugawa? Or did the Nobunaga/Hideyoshi/Tokugawa govenments
                  > reinvent/reestablish them from scratch?

                  Interesting question.

                  I don't think there's really a simple one-sentence answer, but the basic point
                  is that all warrior houses had their retainers. The go-kenin were just those who
                  happened to be direct retainers of the house that ruled the country, as opposed
                  to being retainers of other vassal lords.


                  Effingham
                • Anthony J. Bryant
                  ... They had fiefs and incomes, remember. They had their own taxes to collect, just like everyone else. ... No; it was performed by the lords of the provinces
                  Message 8 of 18 , Apr 2 2:12 AM
                    Otagiri Tatsuzou wrote:


                    > Who paid their stipends in the early sixteenth century when the
                    > shogunate itself was broke?

                    They had fiefs and incomes, remember. They had their own taxes to collect, just
                    like everyone else.

                    > Would Hideyoshi's sword-hunt and/or comprehensive land survey have
                    > been performed by gokenin?

                    No; it was performed by the lords of the provinces (and *their* retainers) under
                    Hidyoshi's command.


                    Effingham
                  • Otagiri Tatsuzou
                    ... collect, just ... All samurai had their own fiefs? Including garrison troops barracked in the city? What was the nature of the relation between a daimyo
                    Message 9 of 18 , Apr 3 6:32 PM
                      --- In sca-jml@yahoogroups.com, "Anthony J. Bryant" <ajbryant@i...> wrote:
                      > Otagiri Tatsuzou wrote:
                      >
                      >
                      > > Who paid their stipends in the early sixteenth century when the
                      > > shogunate itself was broke?
                      >
                      > They had fiefs and incomes, remember. They had their own taxes to
                      collect, just
                      > like everyone else.
                      >

                      All samurai had their own fiefs? Including garrison troops barracked
                      in the city?

                      What was the nature of the relation between a daimyo and the kokujin
                      (ji-samurai) within the nominal borders of his shugyo? Were kokujin
                      vassals? Did they perform military service for the daimyo outside of
                      vassalage?

                      Otagiri
                    • Ii Saburou
                      ... Daimyo kept fiefs, and samurai served the daimyo, getting paid from the taxes they levied. If you for some reason lost your position and became ronin
                      Message 10 of 18 , Apr 3 8:05 PM
                        On Sun, 4 Apr 2004, Otagiri Tatsuzou wrote:

                        > --- In sca-jml@yahoogroups.com, "Anthony J. Bryant" <ajbryant@i...> wrote:
                        > > Otagiri Tatsuzou wrote:
                        > >
                        > >
                        > > > Who paid their stipends in the early sixteenth century when the
                        > > > shogunate itself was broke?
                        > >
                        > > They had fiefs and incomes, remember. They had their own taxes to
                        > collect, just
                        > > like everyone else.
                        > >
                        >
                        > All samurai had their own fiefs? Including garrison troops barracked
                        > in the city?

                        Daimyo kept fiefs, and samurai served the daimyo, getting paid from the
                        taxes they levied. If you for some reason lost your position and became
                        'ronin' (usually for being on the wrong end of a battle). Ronin had no
                        income, and could either find another lord to take them in, or--as often
                        seemed to happen--form a small band and raid the villages and farms for
                        what they could.

                        -Ii
                      • Solveig
                        Noble Cousin! Greetings from Solveig! ... It was how they were paid. This sort of arrangement goes all the way back to land allocation to kuge under the
                        Message 11 of 18 , Apr 3 8:33 PM
                          Noble Cousin!

                          Greetings from Solveig!

                          >All samurai had their own fiefs? Including garrison troops barracked
                          >in the city?

                          It was how they were paid. This sort of arrangement goes all the way
                          back to land allocation to kuge under the ritsuryou system. The buke
                          version was generally less direct as they often held tax collection
                          or rent collection rights from which they derived a share while the
                          kuge in theory held actual tax or rent rights.

                          The daimyou are fundamentally a category of rights holder. If your
                          fief was large enough then you were classified as a daimyou. If it
                          was smaller, you were classified as a shomyou. There is more than a
                          bit of confusion about all of this. The position of original significance
                          was actually "shugo" which was a kind of provincial military governor
                          or constable created during the Kamakura period. Shugo were awarded
                          large
                          fiefs and were also daimyou.
                          --

                          Your Humble Servant
                          Solveig Throndardottir
                          Amateur Scholar

                          +----------------------------------------------------------------------+
                          | Barbara Nostrand, Ph.D. | Solveig Throndardottir, CoM, CoS |
                          | deMoivre Institute | Carolingia Statis Mentis Est |
                          | mailto:nostrand@... | mailto:bnostran@... |
                          +----------------------------------------------------------------------+
                          | Note. Many popular "free" email services are automatically routed to |
                          | the trash by my email filters. |
                          +----------------------------------------------------------------------+
                        • Otagiri Tatsuzou
                          ... significance ... I m aiming my inquiry at a smaller scale than daimyo. The following comes from my reading of Sansom and some documents in Lu: Some samurai
                          Message 12 of 18 , Apr 3 9:33 PM
                            --- In sca-jml@yahoogroups.com, Solveig <nostrand@a...> wrote:
                            > The daimyou are fundamentally a category of rights holder. If your
                            > fief was large enough then you were classified as a daimyou. If it
                            > was smaller, you were classified as a shomyou. There is more than a
                            > bit of confusion about all of this. The position of original
                            significance
                            > was actually "shugo" which was a kind of provincial military governor
                            > or constable created during the Kamakura period. Shugo were awarded
                            > large
                            > fiefs and were also daimyou.


                            I'm aiming my inquiry at a smaller scale than daimyo. The following
                            comes from my reading of Sansom and some documents in Lu:

                            Some samurai were jito. The jito had the right to collect the taxes
                            for the holder of the tax rights (shiki). In most cases the jito was
                            not the cultivator of the land (sakunin).

                            So how likely are the following statements (in the mid sixteenth century).

                            1) Some samurai are jito
                            2) All jiti are samurai..
                            3) Some jito draw their stipend as a portion of the taxes collected.
                            4) Some jito deliver all the taxes directly to their leige.
                            5) Some samurai receive stipends directly from their leige in the form
                            of goods.
                            6) Some samurai receive stipends directly from their leige as cash


                            And some more questions.
                            Peasants were encouraged to develop new fields. Were these new fields
                            incoporated into the existing shoen systems? Were new shoen estates
                            "registered" somewhere someway? Did significant acreage exist outside
                            the shoen estates?
                          • Andrew Leitch
                            Once again, its after midnight and I m writing my reply from work and I don t have my library or old rekishi notes at hand. So, fully expecting to be shot
                            Message 13 of 18 , Apr 4 10:01 AM
                              Once again, its after midnight and I'm writing my reply from work and I
                              don't have my library or old rekishi notes at hand. So, fully expecting to
                              be shot down in flames by Effingham-dono, here�s my two yens worth anyway�
                              :)

                              *** On Jito and Shugo-

                              Weren't the jito originally a pre-Ashikaga Imperial tax collector? They
                              were supposed to collect the tax and send it back to the Imperial court
                              noble who technically owned the fief.

                              At some point this system broke down.

                              As the samurai class came into its own, the jito (who'd already militarised
                              to a certain extent to protect their cash) sent a portion of their money
                              upstream to the shugo rather than to court in order to gain further
                              protection. The shugo were military rather than bureaucratic governors at
                              the time.

                              So, the actual control of the land passed from court hands into the hands
                              of the shugo � who were samurai. These guys bickered and fought amongst
                              themselves to secure greater numbers of jito. If they acquired enough land
                              they were called daimyo (doesn�t this just mean �big name�?).

                              Hmmm� by the time the Warring States period ended, jito had ceased to be.
                              Or at least, that�s my impression.

                              There�s a number of terms of which I�m not sure though:

                              Go-zamurai � samurai who are from farmer stock? Or maybe are traditionally
                              associated with a given fief?

                              Hatamoto � senior vassals of a daimyo who control distinct areas of land
                              smaller than a Han?

                              Karo � elderly advisers, retired generals, uncles etc.

                              *** On Stipends-

                              I don�t believe that all samurai had their own fiefs. Especially once
                              Tokugawa got in control. A stipend was an income derived from tax gathered
                              from the Lord�s lands but it was not directly tied to any particular patch
                              of land.

                              A retainer on a stipend did not own a village which he had to look after.
                              He was in direct vassalage to his lord and served at his residence (mansion
                              or castle). He got paid a stipend in the same way that we might collect a
                              yearly salary. The retainers which had their own plot of land, which were
                              infiefed, as it were, were go-zamurai or hatamoto perhaps? Hmmm� I lack
                              enough of the right names to describe this situation properly�

                              I do remember that Tokugawa Ieyasu had a deliberate policy of
                              disenfranchising the samurai from their feudal land base. The payment of
                              stipends or salaries was essential to this. It was just another method he
                              had of ensuring that samurai did not rise up and rebel. The theory being
                              that without significant ties to land and the peasant class, their sense of
                              responsibility for them was diminished and they would also lack a feudal
                              base of operations to return to and stage rebellions from.

                              **** Otagiri Tatsuzou�s questions �


                              1) Some samurai are jito
                              2) All jito are samurai..

                              - I don�t think the jito really existed by the mid-sixteenth century, IMHO.
                              I'm sure someone will tell us though. :)

                              3) Some jito draw their stipend as a portion of the taxes collected.
                              - I think that they drew a percentage (of around 50%?) from the taxes
                              collected.

                              4) Some jito deliver all the taxes directly to their leige.
                              - Nope, I don�t think so.

                              5) Some samurai receive stipends directly from their leige in the form of
                              goods.
                              - Goods? Like rice? Almost certainly, eh. I can�t imagine a town or city
                              based samurai being paid in rice though. More likely in cold, hard cash�
                              gold bullion of some sort. Promisary notes?

                              6) Some samurai receive stipends directly from their leige as cash
                              - I reckon. :)

                              And some more questions.
                              Peasants were encouraged to develop new fields. Were these new fields
                              incoporated into the existing shoen systems? Were new shoen estates
                              "registered" somewhere someway? Did significant acreage exist outside
                              the shoen estates?

                              - New fields were developed by nanushi, I think (that name doesn't sound
                              right...). Anyway, the �grass parters�, who reclaimed swamps or cut down
                              forests. These new lands were often not straight away incorporated into the
                              shoen system. The jito might still collect tax from it, but they might
                              keep the rice all to themselves (with very little maneuvering on their
                              part).

                              The amount of tax collected depended on how recently the last land survey
                              was done. A jito might have 5000 tan of land to collect tax from in
                              theory. But given a bit of growth, he might actually administer 6,500 tan
                              of land because the taxes were set at the last land survey, say 80 years
                              ago.

                              Of course, land surveyors could always be bribed to underestimate land size
                              and production value as well.

                              I hope this makes sense.

                              IIRC, Oda Nobunaga and Tokugawa Ieyasu were into land surveys in a big way
                              as it increased their income significantly.

                              Segayama no Andre
                              (Andre de Montsegur)
                            • Ii Saburou
                              Regarding taxes, one history professor I had pointed out several intersting things that would happene in both China and Japan. It was usual for peasants to
                              Message 14 of 18 , Apr 4 12:19 PM
                                Regarding taxes, one history professor I had pointed out several
                                intersting things that would happene in both China and Japan. It was
                                usual for peasants to hide a certain amount of the proceeds from the tax
                                collectors. Rulers would then raise taxes to an artificial number (say,
                                80%) which is what they would take from the rice reported.

                                Thus, whenever someone wanted more, they could actually lower taxes but
                                increase enforcement and actually gather in more income. Of course,
                                rulers have to always be wary that they aren't starving their workers...
                                too much.

                                -Ii

                                On Sun, 4 Apr 2004, Andrew Leitch wrote:

                                > The amount of tax collected depended on how recently the last land survey
                                > was done. A jito might have 5000 tan of land to collect tax from in
                                > theory. But given a bit of growth, he might actually administer 6,500 tan
                                > of land because the taxes were set at the last land survey, say 80 years
                                > ago.
                                >
                                > Of course, land surveyors could always be bribed to underestimate land size
                                > and production value as well.
                                >
                                > I hope this makes sense.
                                >
                                > IIRC, Oda Nobunaga and Tokugawa Ieyasu were into land surveys in a big way
                                > as it increased their income significantly.
                                >
                                > Segayama no Andre
                                > (Andre de Montsegur)
                                >
                                >
                                > UNSUBSCRIBE: E-mail sca-jml-unsubscribe@yahoogroups.com
                                > Yahoo! Groups Links
                                >
                                >
                                >
                                >
                                >
                                >
                              • Solveig
                                Noble Cousin! You should really read some of the books written by Mass. You will find pretty good answers to your questions. ... Yes. ... Probably. However
                                Message 15 of 18 , Apr 4 4:10 PM
                                  Noble Cousin!

                                  You should really read some of the books written by Mass. You will find
                                  pretty good answers to your questions.

                                  >1) Some samurai are jito

                                  Yes.

                                  >2) All jiti are samurai..

                                  Probably. However there are no plurals in Japanese and Japanese is
                                  definitely not Latin or Greek so it should simply be jito not jiti.
                                  The Jito were created at about the time of the Genjpei War. They
                                  are a major feature in the Kamakura Bakufu.

                                  >3) Some jito draw their stipend as a portion of the taxes collected.

                                  Very technically, the shoen managers are not collecting taxes they are
                                  collecting rents and shares of crops. The shoen were generally tax exempt.

                                  >4) Some jito deliver all the taxes directly to their leige.

                                  No. The estate owners and the feudal liege are often completely different and
                                  possibly unrelatged people.

                                  >5) Some samurai receive stipends directly from their leige in the form
                                  >of goods.

                                  This can become complicated. However, the answer is pretty much yes.
                                  Vassals typically received an annual gift of cloth for their uniforms.
                                  You can get a glimps of this in as I recall the end of the first movie
                                  in Inagaki's Samurai Trilogy.

                                  >6) Some samurai receive stipends directly from their leige as cash

                                  This may happen, but it sounds pretty unusual. The vassals generally
                                  received agricultural rights. Even today, Japanese avoid obvious
                                  exchanges of cash. Even if cash is being given, it is frequently
                                  placed in an envelope and conveyed on a tray or some other device.

                                  >Peasants were encouraged to develop new fields. Were these new fields
                                  >incoporated into the existing shoen systems? Were new shoen estates
                                  >"registered" somewhere someway? Did significant acreage exist outside
                                  >the shoen estates?

                                  Yes, pretty much to all of those questions. However, you really
                                  should read Mass. Incidentally, land was either part of the shoen
                                  system or it was part
                                  of the old ritsuryou system. One is land taxable by the imperial government
                                  and the other is land exempt from imperial taxation.

                                  Again about "daimyou",. While it is literally <big><name> it really refers
                                  to the size of land holdings. You should recall that private fields can be
                                  called "myouden". During the Kamakura Period, the jitou were independent
                                  of the shugou and came under the shugou during the Muromachi Period. The
                                  old posts of jitou and shugou are pretty much replaced by the Tokugawa.
                                  --

                                  Your Humble Servant
                                  Solveig Throndardottir
                                  Amateur Scholar

                                  +----------------------------------------------------------------------+
                                  | Barbara Nostrand, Ph.D. | Solveig Throndardottir, CoM, CoS |
                                  | deMoivre Institute | Carolingia Statis Mentis Est |
                                  | mailto:nostrand@... | mailto:bnostran@... |
                                  +----------------------------------------------------------------------+
                                  | Note. Many popular "free" email services are automatically routed to |
                                  | the trash by my email filters. |
                                  +----------------------------------------------------------------------+
                                • Otagiri Tatsuzou
                                  ... and I ... expecting to ... worth anyway… ... From what I ve been reading, your 2 yen (mon ?) is worth a little more. I d thought I add a little more on
                                  Message 16 of 18 , Apr 18 11:27 AM
                                    --- In sca-jml@yahoogroups.com, "Andrew Leitch" <kinder@w...> wrote:
                                    >
                                    > Once again, its after midnight and I'm writing my reply from work
                                    and I
                                    > don't have my library or old rekishi notes at hand. So, fully
                                    expecting to
                                    > be shot down in flames by Effingham-dono, here's my two yens
                                    worth
                                    anyway…
                                    > :)


                                    From what I've been reading, your 2 yen (mon ?) is worth a little
                                    more. I'd thought I add a little more on the nature of samurai from
                                    Carl Streenstrup's _Hojo Shigetoki (1198-1261) and his Role in the
                                    History of Political and Ethical Ideas in Japan_.

                                    "A gokenin or shogunate houseman was a warrior who owned a piece of
                                    inherited land to which his right was confirmed by the bakufu. Most
                                    but not all gokenin held jitou-shiki or stewardships. These gave them
                                    not only income but also the right to police the area (kendan) and a
                                    series of other public competences, in return for service duties to
                                    the bakufu. Not all shugo were gokenin but, as far as we know, all
                                    jito were.

                                    A warrior who had no such confirmation and accordingly did not perform
                                    services for the bakufu was a hi-gokenin, He might serve the emperor,
                                    a prince, a kuge family, a shrine or a temple, or be an independent
                                    landowner or myoushu. Souhei or monk soldiers wer not considered
                                    hi-gokenin but ranked with the routou mentioned below.

                                    Gokenin and hi-gokenin together constituted the warriors or samurai.
                                    The minimum requirements for being a samurai were to own bow and
                                    arrows and a horse trained for combat, to have received martial
                                    training, to have enough landed income to acquire and keep these
                                    accoutrements, and to fight on horseback, which according to the mode
                                    of warfare of the age required some kachi or footmen to protect the
                                    horse against other samurais' foot soldiers. One kachi was the
                                    absolute minimal requirement. Finally, a samurai was required to have
                                    his landed income from inherited land and to derive it through shiki
                                    higher up in the social scale than mere cultivators' shiki. This did
                                    not preclude his holding cultivators' shiki besides and doing actual
                                    farmwork himself. There were no doubt many blurred cases. But the
                                    foundation for the gradually developing seperation of warriors and
                                    non-warriors was already being laid in the Kamakura times: the samurai
                                    being a gentleman of independent means (as in England until lately, it
                                    took two generations to make him) who fought on horseback, and the
                                    rest of the people commoners who tilled the soiled, produced goods, or
                                    traded. In between were the warriors' retinue men, or juusha."

                                    Highest in rank among the juushu were the wakatou, who were samurai in
                                    the process of training. These might be adopted into the household.
                                    Those lacking in hereditary and finacial means were called routou. The
                                    y fought on foot, carried swords, and sometimes held office. Below
                                    them were chugen who did not carry swords and fought with spear.

                                    As to goods -v- money, in the Kamakura money was beginning to be used
                                    in normal commerce. The bakufu tried to stifle this as a way of
                                    checking inflation and the wealthy Western provinces. Mutsu was
                                    required to use barter/goods in its finacial transactions/taxes until
                                    the Nambu and Dewa controlled the region during the Sengoku.
                                  • Solveig
                                    Noble Cousin! Greetings from Solveig! Some of the articles being quoted sound a bit confused. Here is an article by Frederic translated by Roth and published
                                    Message 17 of 18 , Apr 18 3:13 PM
                                      Noble Cousin!

                                      Greetings from Solveig! Some of the articles being quoted sound a bit confused.
                                      Here is an article by Frederic translated by Roth and published by Harvard.

                                      Bushi. "Man of arms." Since 721, this term was used for professional
                                      warriors, coming into general use in the late eleventh century and
                                      replacing the terms mono-no-fu, tsuwamono, musha, and saburai, which
                                      later became the word samurai. Starting in the Kamakura period, the
                                      bushi were part of the "warriors' house," or buke, an early
                                      designation of the shogun's entourage. Later, the term buke became
                                      synonymous with 'bushi class" [this is how I use the term] and
                                      encompassed all warriors. Leagues of warriors, or bushidan,
                                      especially in the provinces, gave rise to the great warrior clans,
                                      and therafter the only true bushi were those in the bushidan, while
                                      others were called tsuwamono. During the Edo period, the bushi were
                                      classified according to a strict hierarchy, dominated by the shogun,
                                      within which each bushi occupied a place determined by his status
                                      (daimyou, hatamoto, gokenin, hanhi, etc.) and that of the lord he
                                      served. This hierarchy was abolished in 1869, and the former bushi
                                      became part of the new shizoku class. Finally, in 1947, all social
                                      distinctions were abolished and members of the shizoku class became
                                      simple citizens. (2002 p. 94)

                                      Jitou. In the late Heian period, land used to remunerate certain
                                      provincial bureaucrats or representatives of the shouen Intendants).
                                      Startin in the Kamakura period (or perhaps even a little before, in
                                      the mid-twelfth century),
                                      however, this term no longer referred to land but to estate
                                      intendants and tax collectors for the owners. [Farris in Heavenly
                                      Warriors stresses the continuity of this class from developments in
                                      the Heian period] The position of jitou became more or less
                                      hereditary starting in 1221. In the Muromachi period, "jitou"
                                      designated mainly a low-ranking local lord (koku-jin); in the Edo
                                      period, it was simply the title of a person with a certain share
                                      (chigryou) in a daimyou's fief. [This is why the jitou do not appear
                                      on the organizational chart for the Edo Bakufu at the back of
                                      Kodansha Kogojiten.] (2002 p. 425)

                                      Gokenin. Direct vassals of a shogun. In the Kamakura period, term for
                                      some 2,000 samura families who became hereditary vassals of Minamoto
                                      no Yoritomo and received land (ando) or became jitou or shuugo. The
                                      gokenin served as the shogun's personal guard and constituted the
                                      basis of his army. In the Muromachi period, the gokenin were divided
                                      into two classes, those under direct control of the shogun, the
                                      houkoushuu, and those under a shugo, the jitou-gokenin. During the
                                      Edo period, the gokenin were the shogun's lowest-ranked direct
                                      vassals, below the hatamoto, and did not have the privilege of being
                                      received by the shogun. Their income varied widely but rarely
                                      exceeded 200 koku, which meant that many of them were impoverished
                                      and became merchants or artisans. (200 p. 255)

                                      Bottom line. There were a lot more jitou out there than there were
                                      gokenin during the Kamakura period. The gokenin of the Kamakura
                                      period held a variety
                                      of appointments and only some of them were jitou. The shugo (constables) were
                                      the real provincial innovation of the Kamakura Bakufu. Later the
                                      gokenin become much more numerous. Finally, jitou were fairly common
                                      as late as 1600. We see them functioning as estate stewards and local
                                      government authorities in early kyougen plays such as Ukosako. There
                                      is no identity between gokenin, bushi, or jitou.
                                      --

                                      Your Humble Servant
                                      Solveig Throndardottir
                                      Amateur Scholar

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                                    • Andrew Leitch
                                      Thank you Solveig! - Andre Snip * Solveig writes: Noble Cousin! Greetings from Solveig! Some of the articles being quoted sound a bit confused. Here is an
                                      Message 18 of 18 , Apr 18 4:31 PM
                                        Thank you Solveig!

                                        - Andre

                                        Snip * Solveig writes:

                                        Noble Cousin!

                                        Greetings from Solveig! Some of the articles being quoted sound a bit
                                        confused.
                                        Here is an article by Frederic translated by Roth and published by Harvard.

                                        Bushi. "Man of arms." Since 721, * Snip
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