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14194[SCA-JML] Re: Jito and Shugo, was Gokenin

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  • Solveig
    Apr 18, 2004
      Noble Cousin!

      Greetings from Solveig! Some of the articles being quoted sound a bit confused.
      Here is an article by Frederic translated by Roth and published by Harvard.

      Bushi. "Man of arms." Since 721, this term was used for professional
      warriors, coming into general use in the late eleventh century and
      replacing the terms mono-no-fu, tsuwamono, musha, and saburai, which
      later became the word samurai. Starting in the Kamakura period, the
      bushi were part of the "warriors' house," or buke, an early
      designation of the shogun's entourage. Later, the term buke became
      synonymous with 'bushi class" [this is how I use the term] and
      encompassed all warriors. Leagues of warriors, or bushidan,
      especially in the provinces, gave rise to the great warrior clans,
      and therafter the only true bushi were those in the bushidan, while
      others were called tsuwamono. During the Edo period, the bushi were
      classified according to a strict hierarchy, dominated by the shogun,
      within which each bushi occupied a place determined by his status
      (daimyou, hatamoto, gokenin, hanhi, etc.) and that of the lord he
      served. This hierarchy was abolished in 1869, and the former bushi
      became part of the new shizoku class. Finally, in 1947, all social
      distinctions were abolished and members of the shizoku class became
      simple citizens. (2002 p. 94)

      Jitou. In the late Heian period, land used to remunerate certain
      provincial bureaucrats or representatives of the shouen Intendants).
      Startin in the Kamakura period (or perhaps even a little before, in
      the mid-twelfth century),
      however, this term no longer referred to land but to estate
      intendants and tax collectors for the owners. [Farris in Heavenly
      Warriors stresses the continuity of this class from developments in
      the Heian period] The position of jitou became more or less
      hereditary starting in 1221. In the Muromachi period, "jitou"
      designated mainly a low-ranking local lord (koku-jin); in the Edo
      period, it was simply the title of a person with a certain share
      (chigryou) in a daimyou's fief. [This is why the jitou do not appear
      on the organizational chart for the Edo Bakufu at the back of
      Kodansha Kogojiten.] (2002 p. 425)

      Gokenin. Direct vassals of a shogun. In the Kamakura period, term for
      some 2,000 samura families who became hereditary vassals of Minamoto
      no Yoritomo and received land (ando) or became jitou or shuugo. The
      gokenin served as the shogun's personal guard and constituted the
      basis of his army. In the Muromachi period, the gokenin were divided
      into two classes, those under direct control of the shogun, the
      houkoushuu, and those under a shugo, the jitou-gokenin. During the
      Edo period, the gokenin were the shogun's lowest-ranked direct
      vassals, below the hatamoto, and did not have the privilege of being
      received by the shogun. Their income varied widely but rarely
      exceeded 200 koku, which meant that many of them were impoverished
      and became merchants or artisans. (200 p. 255)

      Bottom line. There were a lot more jitou out there than there were
      gokenin during the Kamakura period. The gokenin of the Kamakura
      period held a variety
      of appointments and only some of them were jitou. The shugo (constables) were
      the real provincial innovation of the Kamakura Bakufu. Later the
      gokenin become much more numerous. Finally, jitou were fairly common
      as late as 1600. We see them functioning as estate stewards and local
      government authorities in early kyougen plays such as Ukosako. There
      is no identity between gokenin, bushi, or jitou.

      Your Humble Servant
      Solveig Throndardottir
      Amateur Scholar

      | Barbara Nostrand, Ph.D. | Solveig Throndardottir, CoM, CoS |
      | deMoivre Institute | Carolingia Statis Mentis Est |
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