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14191Re: Jito and Shugo, was Gokenin

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  • Otagiri Tatsuzou
    Apr 18, 2004
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      --- In sca-jml@yahoogroups.com, "Andrew Leitch" <kinder@w...> wrote:
      > Once again, its after midnight and I'm writing my reply from work
      and I
      > don't have my library or old rekishi notes at hand. So, fully
      expecting to
      > be shot down in flames by Effingham-dono, here's my two yens
      > :)

      From what I've been reading, your 2 yen (mon ?) is worth a little
      more. I'd thought I add a little more on the nature of samurai from
      Carl Streenstrup's _Hojo Shigetoki (1198-1261) and his Role in the
      History of Political and Ethical Ideas in Japan_.

      "A gokenin or shogunate houseman was a warrior who owned a piece of
      inherited land to which his right was confirmed by the bakufu. Most
      but not all gokenin held jitou-shiki or stewardships. These gave them
      not only income but also the right to police the area (kendan) and a
      series of other public competences, in return for service duties to
      the bakufu. Not all shugo were gokenin but, as far as we know, all
      jito were.

      A warrior who had no such confirmation and accordingly did not perform
      services for the bakufu was a hi-gokenin, He might serve the emperor,
      a prince, a kuge family, a shrine or a temple, or be an independent
      landowner or myoushu. Souhei or monk soldiers wer not considered
      hi-gokenin but ranked with the routou mentioned below.

      Gokenin and hi-gokenin together constituted the warriors or samurai.
      The minimum requirements for being a samurai were to own bow and
      arrows and a horse trained for combat, to have received martial
      training, to have enough landed income to acquire and keep these
      accoutrements, and to fight on horseback, which according to the mode
      of warfare of the age required some kachi or footmen to protect the
      horse against other samurais' foot soldiers. One kachi was the
      absolute minimal requirement. Finally, a samurai was required to have
      his landed income from inherited land and to derive it through shiki
      higher up in the social scale than mere cultivators' shiki. This did
      not preclude his holding cultivators' shiki besides and doing actual
      farmwork himself. There were no doubt many blurred cases. But the
      foundation for the gradually developing seperation of warriors and
      non-warriors was already being laid in the Kamakura times: the samurai
      being a gentleman of independent means (as in England until lately, it
      took two generations to make him) who fought on horseback, and the
      rest of the people commoners who tilled the soiled, produced goods, or
      traded. In between were the warriors' retinue men, or juusha."

      Highest in rank among the juushu were the wakatou, who were samurai in
      the process of training. These might be adopted into the household.
      Those lacking in hereditary and finacial means were called routou. The
      y fought on foot, carried swords, and sometimes held office. Below
      them were chugen who did not carry swords and fought with spear.

      As to goods -v- money, in the Kamakura money was beginning to be used
      in normal commerce. The bakufu tried to stifle this as a way of
      checking inflation and the wealthy Western provinces. Mutsu was
      required to use barter/goods in its finacial transactions/taxes until
      the Nambu and Dewa controlled the region during the Sengoku.
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