14191Re: Jito and Shugo, was Gokenin
- Apr 18, 2004--- In email@example.com, "Andrew Leitch" <kinder@w...> wrote:
> Once again, its after midnight and I'm writing my reply from work
> don't have my library or old rekishi notes at hand. So, fullyexpecting to
> be shot down in flames by Effingham-dono, here's my two yensworth
> :)From what I've been reading, your 2 yen (mon ?) is worth a little
more. I'd thought I add a little more on the nature of samurai from
Carl Streenstrup's _Hojo Shigetoki (1198-1261) and his Role in the
History of Political and Ethical Ideas in Japan_.
"A gokenin or shogunate houseman was a warrior who owned a piece of
inherited land to which his right was confirmed by the bakufu. Most
but not all gokenin held jitou-shiki or stewardships. These gave them
not only income but also the right to police the area (kendan) and a
series of other public competences, in return for service duties to
the bakufu. Not all shugo were gokenin but, as far as we know, all
A warrior who had no such confirmation and accordingly did not perform
services for the bakufu was a hi-gokenin, He might serve the emperor,
a prince, a kuge family, a shrine or a temple, or be an independent
landowner or myoushu. Souhei or monk soldiers wer not considered
hi-gokenin but ranked with the routou mentioned below.
Gokenin and hi-gokenin together constituted the warriors or samurai.
The minimum requirements for being a samurai were to own bow and
arrows and a horse trained for combat, to have received martial
training, to have enough landed income to acquire and keep these
accoutrements, and to fight on horseback, which according to the mode
of warfare of the age required some kachi or footmen to protect the
horse against other samurais' foot soldiers. One kachi was the
absolute minimal requirement. Finally, a samurai was required to have
his landed income from inherited land and to derive it through shiki
higher up in the social scale than mere cultivators' shiki. This did
not preclude his holding cultivators' shiki besides and doing actual
farmwork himself. There were no doubt many blurred cases. But the
foundation for the gradually developing seperation of warriors and
non-warriors was already being laid in the Kamakura times: the samurai
being a gentleman of independent means (as in England until lately, it
took two generations to make him) who fought on horseback, and the
rest of the people commoners who tilled the soiled, produced goods, or
traded. In between were the warriors' retinue men, or juusha."
Highest in rank among the juushu were the wakatou, who were samurai in
the process of training. These might be adopted into the household.
Those lacking in hereditary and finacial means were called routou. The
y fought on foot, carried swords, and sometimes held office. Below
them were chugen who did not carry swords and fought with spear.
As to goods -v- money, in the Kamakura money was beginning to be used
in normal commerce. The bakufu tried to stifle this as a way of
checking inflation and the wealthy Western provinces. Mutsu was
required to use barter/goods in its finacial transactions/taxes until
the Nambu and Dewa controlled the region during the Sengoku.
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