Kabbalah Mystica [was: two Tents of Meeting]
- Dan Washburn writes:
>You might also find "Medieval Alchemists and Cannabis" to be of
> Thanks for all your excellent citations re Kaneh Bosem,
> cannabis, and the anointing oil. I appreciate the
> scholarship involved.
And here's the citation from the Talmud regarding the Incense
Offering made during morning prayers:
Kereitot 6a, Yerushalmi Yoma 4:5
"The Rabbis taught:
How is the incense mixture formulated:
368 maneh were in it.
365 corresponding to the days of the solar year - a maneh for each day,
half in the morning and half in the afternoon; and three extra maneh,
from which the Kohen Gadol would bring both his handfuls into the Holy
of Holies on Yom Kippur.
He would return them to the mortar on the day before Yom Kippur, and
grind them very thoroughly so that it would be exceptionally fine.
Eleven kinds of spices were in it as follows:
Stacte, Onycha, Galbanum, Frankincense - each weighing 70 maneh;
Myrrh, Cassia, Spikenard, Saffron - each weighing 16 maneh;
Costus - 12 maneh;
Aromatic Bark - 3 maneh;
Kaneh Bosem - 9 maneh.
Additionally, there is:
Carshina lye, 9 kab;
Cyprus wine, 3 se'ah and 3 kab
( if he has no Cyprus wine, he uses old white wine);
Sodom salt, a quarter kab;
and a minute amount of 'Maaleh Ashan', a smoke-raising herb.
Rabbi Nassan the Babylonian says: Also a minute amount of Jordan
If he placed fruit honey into it, he invalidated it. But if he left
out any of the spices, he is liable to the death penalty.
Rabban Shimon ben Gamaliel says: The stacte is simply the sap that
drips from the balsam trees.
Why is Carshina lye used? To bleach the onycha, to make it pleasing.
Why is Cyprus wine used? So that the onycha could be soaked in it, to
make it pungent.
Even though urine is more suitable for that [because of the ammonia],
nevertheless they do not bring urine into the Temple out of respect.
It is taught, Rabbi Nassan says: As one would grind the incense
another would say: "Grind thoroughly, thoroughly grind", because the
sound is beneficial for the spices. If one mixed it in half-quantities,
it was fit for use, but as to a third or a quarter - we have not heard
Rabbi Yehudah said: This is the general rule - In its proper
proportion, it is fit for use in half the full amount; but if he left
out any one of the spices, he is liable to the death penalty.
It is taught, Bar Kappara says: Once every sixty or seventy years, the
accumulated leftovers reached half the yearly quantity. Bar Kappara
taught further: Had one put a kortov of fruit honey into it, no person
could have resisted its scent. Why did they not mix fruit honey into
it? Because the Torah says: "For any leaven or any fruit honey, you are
not to burn from them a fire-offering to the Lord." (Leviticus 2:11)
Getting back to your question:
> It's been a million years since I read the Sacred Magic ofAbraham ben Simeon's "Kabbalah Mystica" [aka "The Mystical Kabbalah <or
> Abramelin the Mage, but it had a big impact on me at the
> time. Can you tell me how the formula for the anointing oil
> relates to the structure of the book?
'Sacred Magic'> of Abrahamelim the Mage", along with Honorius of Thebes'
"Sworn Book" and Solomon's "Ars Almadel", simultaneously espouses both
magical and theurgical aims.
Unlike the 'Beatific Vision Quest' described in the "Sworn Book" [which
is rather like the 'Deification' exercises of the Eastern Orthodox
Church, coupled with prayer cycles resembling something like those found
in a 'Book of Hours'], the "Kabbalah Mystica" takes the entire chapter
from Exodus that describes the Tent and its Apparatus as the basis for
its theurgical prescription, leading up to the Conversation with one's
Tutelary Spirit/Daimon/Genius/Holy Guardian Angel/Beloved.
Here are some links to these texts, which reside on Joe & Candy
Peterson's "Esoteric Archives" site:
The Sacred Magic of Abramelin the Mage
Liber Juratus, or the Sworne Booke of Honorius
Lesser Key of Solomon: Book 4: Ars Almadel
And here are the links for images from the "Juratus", which are related
to the 'aemeth' seal from the Kelley & Dee "Enochian" workings:
I place the "Kabbalah Mystica" with the exercises found in the writings
of ( for instance ) Isaac Luria's student Chaim Vital [Safed is not very
far from Ramallah, by-the-way], and those found in the writings of
Averroes, Abulafia, Halevi, & Maimonides [ briefly ] - which treat of
the union with the Active Intellect, the World Spirit of the Tenth
Sphere; and which is considered by them to be the source of Prophecy and
Here's an example of what I'm talking about, from al-Farabi:
Pre-eternal creation... is made by the intermediary of the ten
intellects emanating from one another; the first nine each produce,
besides the intellect which is immediately subordinated, one of the
celestial spheres, to which it gives its form while at the same time
constituting the soul of the sphere. The tenth, the active intellect,
governs the souls in this world, divided and constricted by material
And here's another from Giordano Bruno:
"But the active intellect by incessant labor (for it is foreign to
human nature and the human condition which is wearied, beaten, incited,
solicited, distracted, and as though torn by the inferior potencies)
always sees its object immobile, fixed and constant, and always in
plenitude, and in the same splendor of beauty. Therefore the object
always ravishes him insofar as he fails to offer himself to it, and
always restores him insofar as he succeeds in offering himself to it. It
always enflames his passion as much as it is resplendent in his thought;
it is always as cruel to him by withdrawing itself as he similarly
withdraws himself, and always so beautiful in communicating itself to
the degree that he offers himself to it. It always martyrs him separated
from him by space; and it always delights him because he is conjoined to
it in his affection."
See "Our Tutelary Spirit", Chapter Four of Plotinus' Third Ennead,
which can be read in conjunction with Apuleius' "The Daemon of
There's also a nice bit in Philo of Alexandria's "The Giants", entitled
'Angels, Souls, and Daemons'.
There are several quotes of interest in Corbin's "The Man of Light in
Iranian Sufism", 1971, which touch on 'the philosopher's Angel', and
which are taken from the "Ghayat al-Hakim" or "Aim of the Wise", aka
The "Picatrix" is a compilation of Sabian material put together in the
11th C.E.V., and was, according to Scholem, widely circulated in a
Hebrew translation that can still be found (in part) in MS. Munchen 214.
Helmut Ritter referred to it as an "Arabic manual of Hellenistic magic"
in his edition of the text. Here are a few extracts of note:
" 'The first thing you have to do in relation to yourself,
is to meditate attentively on the spiritual entity
(ruhaniyata-ka, "your Angel") which rules you and which is
associated with your Star - namely your Perfect Nature -
which the sage Hermes mentions in his book, saying:
'When the microcosm which is man becomes perfect in nature, his
soul is then the homologue of the Sun stationed in heaven, whose
rays shed light on all horizons.'
Similarly, Perfect Nature rises in the soul; its rays strike and
penetrate the faculties of the subtle organs of wisdom; they
attract these faculties, cause them to rise in the soul, just as
the rays of the Sun attract the energies of the terrestrial world
and cause them to rise in the atmosphere."
"Wise Socrates declared that Perfect Nature is called the Sun of
the philosopher, the original Root of his being and at the same
time the Branch springing from him. Hermes was asked: 'How does one
achieve knowledge of wisdom? How can one bring it down to this
world below?' 'Through Perfect Nature,' he answered. 'What is the
root of wisdom?' 'Perfect Nature.' 'What is the key to wisdom?'
'Perfect Nature.' 'What then is perfect Nature?' he was asked. 'It
is the heavenly entity, the philosopher's Angel, conjoined with his
Star, which rules him and opens the doors of wisdom for him,
teaches him what is difficult, reveals to him what is right, in
sleeping as in waking.' "
In his "Hokhmah ha-Nefesh", Rabbi Eleazar of Worms writes:
"Every Angel who is an Archon of the zodiacal sign (sar mazzal)
of a person when it is sent below has the image of the person who
is under it.... And this is the meaning of 'And God created man in
His image, in the image of God He created him' (Gen. 1:27). Why is
[it written] twice, 'in His image' and 'in the image'? One image
refers to the image of man and the other to the image of the Angel
of the zodiacal sign that is in the image of the man."
The identification of one's Guardian Angel with one's 'dominant
planet' <or 'Star'> is mentioned by a number of writers.
In the Second Chapter (entitled "On the Harmony of the World. On the
Nature of Man according to the Stars. How to Attract Something from Some
One Particular Star.") of Book Three of his "Three Books on Life", 1998,
Marsilio Ficino returns to the idea of astrologically examining the
Nature of one's Angel, and in the final paragraph of that Chapter has
this to say:
"The specific rule for an individual would be to investigate
which Star promised what good to the individual at his nativity, to
beg grace from that Star rather than from another, and to await
from any given Star not just any gift and what belongs to other
Stars, but a gift proper to that one."
Writing in Chapter 3 of his "De Harmonia Mundi Totius" (see D.P.
Walker's "Spiritual and Demonic Magic from Ficino to Campanella", 1975,
Francesco Giorgi is largely in agreement with Ficino on the importance
of determining which planet dominates one's life, but feels that it's
unnecessary to draw up one's horoscope to accomplish this, since one's
own 'innate tendencies' will indicate this to anyone willing to observe
& assess their own behavior.
Giorgi goes on to say that we should, "having removed all hindrances,
submit ourselves to our Guiding Spirit, which, if we do not resist, will
show us the way to which the Heavens, our Genius and the Supreme Ruler
lead us...", since the Angels lead people "in that direction to which
their Star inclines them."
Gershom Scholem refers to the 'Perfect Nature' described in the
"Picatrix" in Chapter 6 of his "On the Mystical Shape of the Godhead:
Basic Concepts in the Kabbalah", 1991, which is entitled "Tselem: The
Concept of the Astral Body". In this Chapter, which discusses the
concept of the 'tselem' (the 'unique, individual spiritual shape of each
human being', or 'astral body') and its relationship to prophecy in
various Kabbalistic texts, he provides the following quote from the
"When I wished to find knowledge of the secrets of creation, I
came upon a dark vault within the depths of the earth, filled with
blowing winds.... Then there appeared to me in my sleep a shape of
most wondrous beauty [giving me instructions how to conduct myself
in order to attain the highest things]. I then said to him: 'Who
are you?' And he answered: 'I am your perfected nature.' "
The quote given above follows another, taken from the "Shushan
"The deeply learned Rabbi Nathan, of blessed memory, said to me:
Know that the complete secret of prophecy to a prophet consists in
that he suddenly sees the form of his self standing before him, and
he forgets his own self and ignores it...and that form speaks with
him and tells him the future. And concerning this our sages said.
'Great is the power of the prophets, who make the form [appearing
to them] to resemble its Former.'
And the learned sage Rabbi Abraham ibn Ezra, of blessed memory,
said: 'The one who hears [at the time of prophecy] is a human
being, and the one who speaks is a human being.'
And another learned man wrote the following: 'It occurred to me,
by the power of combination [of letters of the holy names of God]
and by solitary meditation, that I encountered that light which
accompanied me, as I have discussed in the book 'Sha'arei Tsedek'.
But to see my own form standing before me - this I was not granted
and this I cannot bring about.'
Yet another learned man writes the following: 'And I, the young
one, know and acknowledge with full certainty that I am not a
prophet nor the son of a prophet, and I have not the holy spirit
and I do not make use of the heavenly voice <Bath Kol>; these
things have not been vouchsafed to me, and I have not taken off my
garment or washed my feet.
Nevertheless, I call on heaven and earth to witness - as the
heavens are my witness and my Guarantor is on high! - that one day
I was sitting and writing down a Kabbalistic secret, when suddenly
I saw the form of my self standing before me, and my own self
disappeared from me, and I was forced and compelled to cease
What Scholem finds remarkable in these texts is that what these folks
experienced "was not a Divine apparition or an Angel, but their own pure
form." They are confronted by their own "essential nature, a kind of
personal Angel intrinsically belonging to man, which here becomes
visible to him."
Further on, he quotes Rabbi Isaac ha-Cohen of Soria in support of
this, and below is a slightly different & longer translation of that
quote, from Moshe Idel's "The Mystical Experience in Abraham Abulafia",
"All the camps of the Shekinah have there neither image nor
corporeal form, but spiritual emanation, and likewise on the other
Angelic levels. However, the tenth level, which is closest to human
beings, called isim (etsem), [i.e., persons] is visible to the
prophets. All agree that they possess the form of a body, similar
to [that of] a human being, and very awesome. And the prophet sees
all sorts of his powers becoming weaker and changing from form to
form, until his powers cast off all forms and are embodied into the
power of the form revealed to him, and then his strength is
exchanged with that of the Angel who speaks with him. And that form
gives him strength to receive prophecy, and it is engraved in his
heart as a picture, and when the messenger has performed his
mission the prophet casts off that form and returns to his original
form, and his limbs and strength come back as they were before and
are strengthened, and he prophesies in human form."
The prophet strips himself of himself, in order to be clothed with
his Angelic self. As Philo of Alexandria puts it, in his 'Heres': "For
this is the time for the creature to encounter the Creator, when it has
recognized its own nothingness [oudenia]."
In his 'Ozar Chaim', Rabbi Isaac of Acre speaks of this state reached
by the prophet
"after he has stripped off every corporeal thing, because of
the great immersion of his soul in the Divine spiritual world:
this 'container' [hekala - form of the body] will see his own
form, literally, standing before him and speaking to him, as a
man speaks to his friend; and his own form will be forgotten,
as if his body does not exist in the world.... And this spirit
shall at times come to all the prophets, according to the
Divine Will. But the master of all the prophets, Moses our Teacher,
peace be upon him, always received a holy spirit which did not
leave him for even one hour, only when his soul was still sunk in
corporeal things, to hear the words of the Israelites that he might
guide them and instruct them, either in temporary or permanent
instructions, for which reason he had to say, 'Stay and I shall
hear what God commands' (Num. 9:8); he stood and separated from
them and cast his soul off from those sensory things with which he
was involved on their behalf, and there rested upon him the spirit
and spoke with him."
This is how Rabbi Ezra of Gerona describes the procedure, in the
"The ancient Hassidim elevated their thought to its source. They
would recite the mitzvoth and the devarim, and through this
recitation and the attachment [devekut] of their thought [to the
Divine], the devarim were blessed and increased, receiving an
influx of emanation from the annihilation of thought. This can be
compared to one who opens a pool of water, which then spreads in
Rabbi Azriel of Gerona writes of this in his 'Chapter on the
kavanah' (this from Gershom Scholem's "Origins of the Kabbalah", 1987:
And he who elevates himself in such a manner, from word to word,
through the power of his intention, until he arrives at Ain-Sof,
must direct his kavanah [intention] in a manner corresponding to
his perfection, so that the higher Will is clothed in his will, and
not only so that his will is clothed in the higher Will.... Then,
when the higher Will and the lower will, in their indistinctness
and in their devekut [cleaving together] to the [Divine] Unity,
become one, the flux pours forth according to the measure of its
perfection.... And if it approaches it in this manner, the higher
Will approaches it and grants to its power firmness and to its will
the impulse to perfect and execute everything, even if it be
according to the will of its soul, in which the higher Will has no
part.... For as far as the will clings to an object that
corresponds to the higher Will, the impulse [of the Divine Will] is
clothed in it and is attracted, following its own [human] will,
toward every object for which it exerts itself with the power of
its kavanah. And it draws down the flux, which crowns the secret of
things, and essences through the path of Chokmah and with the
spirit of Binah and with the firmness of Daath.... it draws the
flux from power to power and from cause to cause, until its actions
are concluded in the sense of its will.... And this is the path
among the paths of prophecy, upon which he who makes himself
familiar with it will be capable of rising to the rank of
And the prophet views this Angelic self before him, as if in a
mirror. This is how Rabbi Moses Isserles describes it:
"For the coarse matter that is in man stands opposite the prophet
or one who contemplates, behind the clear light that is in the
soul, which is like a mirror for him, and he sees in it, in an
inner vision, his own form."
Rabbi Judah ibn Malka states his accordance with this view in his
'Commentary to Sefer Yetzirah':
"The author said: 'I have seen with my own eyes a man who saw a
power in the form of an Angel while he was awake, and he spoke with
him and told him future things.' The sage said: 'Know that he sees
nothing other than himself, for he sees front and back, as one who
sees himself in a mirror, who sees nothing other than himself, and
it appears as if it were something separate from your body, like
you. In the same manner, he sees that power which guards his body
and guides his soul, and then his soul sings and rejoices,
distinguishes and sees.' And three powers overcome him: the first
power is that which is intermediary between spirit and soul, and
the power of memory and the power of imagination, and one power is
that which imagines. And these three powers are compared to a
mirror, as by virtue of the mixing the spirit is purified, and by
the purification of the spirit the third power is purified. But
when the spirit apprehends the flux which pours out upon the soul,
it will leave power to the power of speech, according to the flow
which comes upon the soul, thus it shall influence the power of
speech, and that itself is the Angel which speaks to him and tells
him future things."
> I'm also interested in the history of magic squares. Do youAlthough the French manuscript that Mathers and Ambelain worked from is
> have any ideas on the historical sources for all those
> interesting word square charms at the end of The Sacred
deficient with regard to the more complete German manuscript, in both
cases the words are transliterated in accordance with the Sephardic
pronunciation of Hebrew.
In his "Jewish Alchemists", Raphael Patai reasons that, if the author
of the "Kabbalah Mystica" had written in German, we would expect to find
instead the Ashkenazic pronunciation common to Central and Eastern
Europe from the thirteenth century on.
This, and the fact that the Spanish plural 's' is employed throughout,
suggests that the individual responsible for translating the Hebrew
original into German was a Sephardic Jew - not uncommon in the Germanies
after their expulsion from Spain in 1492.
Which is one of the reasons I'm looking closely at the Sephardic
communities in Spain & Palestine.
The magic squares are given in full in the German "Buch Abramelin: das
ist Die Egyptischen Grossen Offenbarungen oder des Abraham von Worms
Buch Der Wahren Praktik in der Uralten Gottlichen Magie", published in
2001 by Georg Dehn.
The squares are a mix of the sort found in the "Sepher Maphteah
Shlomo", which is considered to be a later production than the "Kabbalah
Mystica", although Patai discusses the evidence arguing for "Abramelin"
being a sixteenth century production deploying earlier material and
bound up with an engaging narrative package.
As for magic squares in general, here's a ramble through some sites
that may be of interest:
A Short History of Pattern Poetry
by Dick Higgins; from his book
Pattern Poetry: Guide to an Unknown Literature,
State University of New York Press, 1987
Short biography of Dick Higgins
A Short History of Pattern Poetry
Higgins and his friend Charles Doria [ also of the Fluxus Group ]
translated Giordano Bruno's "On the Composition of Images, Signs and
Ideas" into English back in '91.
Giordano Bruno (1548-1600)
Art of Memory - Selected Bibliography
Collection of strange Magic Squares
The Zen of Magic Squares, Circles, and Stars
The SATOR Magic Square
See also Moeller's "Mithraic Origin and Meanings of the Rotas-Sator
The Mithraic "PATERNOSTER"/"SATOR" square is included in Higgins
"Pattern Poetry"; folks who've been through Santillana & Dechend's
"Hamlet's Mill" might want to refer to the 'Mithras Liturgy' in Marvin
Meyer's "The Ancient Mysteries" re: the 'seven lords of the north pole'
and 'the lord of the pivot':
The roots of combinatorics
Mark Swaney mentioned Jabir's contribution to kabbalistic alchemy,
his "Book of the Balances", back in his post 1419:
The URL below links to a page of his on the subject:
Mark Swaney on the History of Magic Squares
Cat Yronwode's message 1416 is also relevant, as it is concerned with
African divinatory systems forming the basis of much of the later
systems for generating magical qameot [or kameas]:
The URLs below link to some pages about Clifford Algebras in relation
to the I Ching and the Ifa divinatory systems:
What ARE Clifford Algebras and Spinors?
2^8-ions = 256-ions = Voudons and 2^N-ions
Re: Clifford's geometric algebra
ZeroDivisor Tensor Algebras
Stephen Wolfram's website
website for "A New Kind of Science"
Reflections on Stephen Wolfram's "A New Kind of Science"
by Ray Kurzweil
The Man Who Cracked The Code to Everything
DID THE UNIVERSE JUST HAPPEN?
D'Arcy Wentworth Thompson, 1860--1948
D'Arcy Wentworth Thompson Archives
The Ars Magna of Ramon Lull
Raymond Lull (c. 1235 - c. 1316)
Ramon Llull (Raymond Lull or Lully) resources on the Web
G E N E R A T I V E A R T 1 9 9 8
I see Wolfram & Fredkin as Neo-Pythagorean types, like D'Arcy Wentworth
Thompson and Vasilii Vasilevich Nalimov. They see the fields of physics
as transmitting information as well as impressing external forces -
which means that matter is already an information processor. Masonic
Qubits, anyone? This is just the sort of thing that Lull and Al-Kindi
were on about in their "Treatise on Astronomy" and "On the Stellar
Lull's "Book of the Seven Planets"
With regard to literature, pattern poetry takes advantage of the
identity between letters and elements [stoicheia]. Words are spun into
threads, and texts become textiles. Alchemical kabbalists address the
information processing aspects of matter, by composing their own
ideational substances and iterating them through the computational
By the way, Syed Nomanul Haq examines Jabir's 'Science of Balance' at
length in his book "Names, Natures and Things", 1994.
And here's a page pointing up a similar use that Lazzarelli made of the
SYMPATHY OR THE DEVIL: RENAISSANCE MAGIC AND THE AMBIVALENCE OF IDOLS
Tractatus Astrologico Magicus; Aldaraia sive Soyga vocor
The Book of Soyga
SOYGA is a pretty good example of the application of cellular automata
to text generation in general, and magic squares in particular.
Harry Smith brought the Workshop for Potential Literature [aka
'OuLiPo'] to my attention while we were assembling "Mahagonny" [which I
mentioned in passing to a room full of puzzled film students after the
screening in NYC last year]; I've always enjoyed the work of folks like
Perec, Webern, Lull, and Kelly.
Here are a few links to some pages about Georges Perec and about his
book, "Life: A User's Manual":
I think that the etymological relationship of 'tantra' with weaving and
textiles is pretty well known these days:
Here are a few more related links:
Common Threads: Women, Mathematics, and Work
Geometry of Fabrics Bibliography
Charles Babbage incorporated the pattern generation technologies of
Joseph Marie Jacquard's Loom in his Analytical Engine, for purposes of
pattern manipulation and pattern recognition.
MECHANIZATION OF REASONING
A Schematic Historical Survey
19th Century Contributions and their Impact on Elements of Modern
Ada Byron Lovelace
And the pattern grammars embedded in the sequences of instructions that
Ada Lovelace composed for the Engine lead back to Panini's Sanskrit
The term 'yantra' can be applied to apparatus as well as diagrams [see,
for instance, Dash's use of the term throughout his "Alchemy and
Metallic Medicines in Ayurveda", 1986.]; it can refer equally to the
design and arrangement of laboratory vessels and furnaces, nuclear
thermoelectric generators, clocks - any diagrammatic or descriptive
And let's not forget Chladni and his "sounds made visible":
Chladni patterns in vibrated plates
Standing Wave Patterns
Acoustic Figures and the Romantic Soul of Reason
Mechanical Oscillations and Wave Simulations
Russell Towle's 4D Star Polytope Animations
Alicia Boole Stott
Uniform Polytopes in Four Dimensions
The old texts I've read that describe mining ore, digging a hole,
placing stones, working clay, casting a crucible, luting it, setting it
among precise arrangements of stones and coals, &tc. are metrical
instructions about geometrical constructions, and put me in mind of the
incantations in the 'Kalevala' for building a boat, and of the
relationship of 'poesis' with construction, generation, and creativity
Raphael Patai-"The Jewish Alchemists: a history and source book", 1994.
Henry Corbin-"Temple and Contemplation", 1986.
Ernst Kühnel and Louisa Bellinger-"Cairene Rugs and Others Technically
Related (15th - 17th Century)", 1957.
Esin Atil-"Renaissance of Islam: Art of the Mamluks", 1981.
Donald King and David Sylvester-"The Eastern Carpet in the Western World
from the 15th to the 17th Century", 1983.
Gershom Scholem-"Origins of the Kabbalah", 1987.
Moshe Idel-"The Mystical Experience in Abraham Abulafia", 1988.
Hashem Atallah and William Kiesel-"Picatrix: The Goal of the Wise",
Labelle Prussin-"Hatumere: Islamic Design in West Africa", 1986.
Aryeh Kaplan-"Meditation and Kabbalah", 1982.
Therese Charmasson-"Recherches sur une Technique Divinatoire: Geomancie
de l'Occident Medieval", 1980.
Claudia Zaslavsky-"Africa Counts: Number and Pattern in African
I.R. Netton-"Muslim Neoplatonists: An Introduction to the Thought of the
Brethren of Purity", 1982.
Jacques Sesiano-"Un traité médiéval sur les carrés magiques, De
l'arrangement harmonieux des nombres", 1996.
Michael Swartz-"Scholastic Magic: Ritual and Revelation in Early Jewish
Alireza Djafari Naini-"Geschichte der Zahlentheorie im Orient", 1982.
George Saliba-"A History of Arabic Astronomy: Planetary Theories during
the Golden Age of Islam", 1994.
Julio Samso-"Islamic Astronomy and Medieval Spain", 1994.
Fanger, Claire(ed.)-"Conjuring Spirits: Texts and Traditions of
Medieval Ritual Magic", 1998.
F. Jamil Ragep, and Sally Ragep(eds.)-"Tradition, Transmission,
Rebecca Macy Lesses-"Ritual Practices to Gain Power", 1998.
Richard Lorch-"Arabic Mathematical Sciences", 1995.
Kalman Bland(ed.)-"The Epistle on the Possibility of Conjunction with
the Active Intellect by Ibn Rushd with the Commentary of Moses Narboni",
Schuyler Camman-"Islamic and Indian Magic Squares", in 'History of
Religion' 8 (19681969), pp.181209, & pp.271299.
Takao Hayashi-"Varahamihiras Pandiagonal Magic Square of the Order
Four", in 'Historia Mathematica' 14 (1987), pp.159166.
Kenneth Harrison-"Vitruvius and Acoustic Jars in England during the
Middle Ages", in 'Ancient Monuments Society Transactions', Volume 15:
Cynthia Hay(ed.)-"Mathematics from Manuscript to Print: 13001600",
Yohanon Aharoni, Michael Avi-Yonah, Anson F. Rainey, & Ze'ev Safrai-"The
Macmillan Bible Atlas", 1993.
Aut Inveniam Viam Aut Faciam,
~ Khem Caigan
"The universe is made of stories, not of atoms."
~ Muriel Rukeyser