Bulletin 5:19 - Special Issue: MBHR Jan-Apr '11 Review
- THE RUSSIAN NATIONALISM BULLETIN
A Biweekly Newsletter of Current Affairs
Vol. 5, No. 19(140), 6 July 2011 - Special Issue
"Anti-Semitism manifestations in the RF, in January - April 2011 (review of Moscow bureau for human rights)"
http://antirasizm.ru, 17 June 2011
C o n t e n t s
3 Popularity of anti-Semitic views
4 Anti-Semitic publications
5 Public actions of anti-Semitic orientation
6 Anti-Semitism and authority representatives
7 Response of authorities to anti-Semitism manifestations
8 Response of public to anti-Semitism
9 Law-enforcement practice
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Situation with anti-Semitism manifestations in Russia has undergone practically no changes as compared with the previous period. Number of attacks on physical persons is still very small though number of vandalism acts remains substantial. It is not always easy to distinguish vandalism acts directed immediately at Jews or being the manifestations of neo-Nazi moods or hooliganism among the latters - like for example drawing of Nazi symbols on facades of houses.
Interrogations of population show that anti-Semitic moods are still quite widespread among the population though anti-Caucasian and anti-American moods prevail. Anti-Semitic editions are still actively disseminated, and authorities make practically no actions in this connection.
In general signs of anti-Semitism are practically missing in statements and actions of authorities though glaring cases took place on some occasions - like for example acknowledgement of "Protocols of the Elders of Zion" by bodies of office of public prosecutor to be a document containing no signs of ethnic dissension. But such cases can be explained rather by incompetence of experts then by deliberate intent.
Though many people ranking themselves within the Orthodox church continue implanting anti-Judaic and anti-Semitic myths actively, official leaders of the Russian Orthodox church stress their respect towards traditional religions including Judaism resolutely and dissociate themselves from manifestations of hatred motivated by religion or ethnicity.
Crimes of anti-Semitic orientation become the subjects of examination by judicial bodies more and more often but verdicts concerning such cases are predominantly suspended.
During the period from January till April 2011 two attacks on Jews were recorded.
On January 2 an attack on girl taken for a Jew was committed in Moscow in upper vestibule of underground station "Chistiye prudy".
On April 16 the activist of "Yabloko" Anatoly Rabinovich was beaten by skinheads in Moscow.
Small number of attacks (during this period 6 persons perished and 29 persons were wounded totally as a result of attacks motivated by xenophobia) can be explained first of all by difficulties of identification of Jews (it is notable that the attack on January 2 was committed "by mistake" - the victim was not a Jew).
During the period from January till April 16 facts of anti-Semitic vandalism were recorded. Taking into consideration that 42 similar cases of vandalism were recorded totally during this period, this figure is the evidence of substantial role the anti-Semitism plays in world outlook of Russian nationalists. The flash of such actions late in April is not occasional either: on April 20 neo-Nazis marked A. Hitler's birthday.
In January xenophobic graffiti including swastika were discovered in Kurgan.
On February 3 it became known that former military cutter with machine-gun was covered with swastika in Lipetsk near central entrance to Victory park.
On March 3 it became known that in Kirov drawings of Nazi swastika appeared around the whole city on facades of houses.
On March 10 it became known that swastika and insulting inscriptions appeared on the place of death of the lawyer Stanislav Markelov and the journalist Anastasia Baburova.
On March 14 it became known that in Nyagan (Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Area) leaflets were stuck instigating ethnic dissension (with drawing of swastika).
On March 18 it became known that in one of rooms of department of accidents examination of GIBDD (Directorate of road safety) of Arkhangelsk emblem of Nazi Germany with swastika and Nazi eagle was stuck on the back of a chair for visitors.
On March 24 it became known about dissemination of anti-Semitic leaflets in Ivanovo.
On April 12 it became known that anti-Semitic drawings with inscription "Say no to Yids' infection!" appeared on the walls of apartment houses and institutions in Rybinsk.
On April 12 it became known about discovery of two xenophobic and pro-Nazi graffiti in Yekaterinburg.
On April 15 inscriptions: "sieg heil" and also drawing of swastika were discovered on the building of Moscow school No 356.
On April 19 it became known that swastika and anti-Semitic inscriptions appeared on the fence of Jewish cemetery in Penza.
On the night of April 20 unknown persons desecrated Moslem graves at Novosormovsky cemetery in Nizhniy Novgorod. Totally 11 graves were damaged and fascist swastika was drawn on them.
At the match of "Spartacus" and "Krasnodar" teams that took place on April 20 a spreader "Happy birthday, 89" was hanging devoted to Hitler's birthday.
On April 20 in Moscow unknown extremists hang the poster with inscription "Happy birthday, grandfather Adolph!" at the passage to a tunnel at Nakhimovsky avenue.
On April 22 fascist swastika with insulting inscription was drawn on the mosque enclosure in Novotroitsk town (Orenburg region).
On April 28 it became known about discovery of numerous swastika drawings in Nizhnekamsk.
3 Popularity of anti-Semitic stereotypes
According to interrogation of Levada-center held on January 21-24, substantial part of population continues apprehending Jews as "enemies of Russia". At the same time, as most of the interrogated do not declare direct anti-Semitism, many adherents of anti-Semitic stereotypes use the euphemisms. 8% of the interrogated named "Zionists" among "enemies of Russia", 20% else called "oligarchs-bankers" similarly (it were Nazis who began to use this term for indication of Jews). For 6% some "Russo-phobes" became "enemies" and for 5% - "democrats-reformers" did (it is a rule in nationalistic environment to consider that the Jews are but again majority of both categories). Totally 39% of the interrogated share the idea of "Jews-enemies", and this puts the Jews upon the third line in the "list of enemies" - right after Chechen militants and USA (48 and 40% of respondents correspondingly).
4 Anti-Semitic publications
On February 10 an article by T. Pavlovskaya was published in Kuban issue of "Rossiyskaya gazeta" devoted to justification of jurist-anti-Semite A. Moszhegorov who was respectfully named "famous human rights activist". Activity of Moszhegorov for dissemination of anti-Semitic literature was presented, according to his words, as dissemination of Orthodox literature.
On March 12 on website of Orthodox fundamentalist M. Nazarov an article was published devoted to centenary of beginning of Beilis case - last trial in Russia on charges of ritual murder against the Jews. The author of the article stood for the version of committing of ritual murder by Jews stating that M. Beilis was not acknowledged guilty exclusively due to "lack of direct evidences". M. Nazarov states the increase of number of ritual murders during the reign of Nicolas II that was a manifestation of war that was allegedly waged by Jews against tsarist Russia, and he also states that they provoked slaughters themselves "for justification of anti-Russian policy of the West".
On March 21-22 on M. Nazarov's website a discussion started between the website's owner and V. Dyomin about the role of Hitler in Russian history. V. Dyomin accused M. Nazarov of the fact that he was "in captivity of anti-fascist mythology created by Bolsheviks and Western democrats" and represented Hitler as "all-European leader who headed a Crusade struggle against star-bearers of the East and the West, against collective anti-Christ". Dyomin represented Nazi Reich as a "prototype of future Holy-Russian tsardom" and reproduced a legend about mass support of Nazis on the part of "Russian patriots" ("every tenth soldier of Wehrmacht was Russian near Stalingrad"). M. Nazarov, on his part, expressed his regret that the Third Reich "discredited the whole European resistance against yid-masonry as racism and Nazism", and stated that Zionists "used Hitler as a useful idiot".
In March in newspaper "Faraway region" published in Kaliningrad anti-Semitic anecdotes were presented in anecdote section representing Jews as cowardly and irresponsible people.
5 Public actions of anti-Semitic orientation
On March 12 representative of Lipetsk branch of "Memory" society Yuri Bernikov stated speaking at the meeting in support of Kvachkov in Yelets city that the arrest of Kvachkov is one of links in the chain of genocide of Russian people arranged by Jews. "Any conflict may be settled but not the religious one. Zionists understand this, and so they fabricate cases against Russian Orthodox patriots", Bernikov stated.
On March 29 deputy head of the World Russian People's Council writer-nationalist Valery Ganichev stated speaking at the meeting of Discussion club on the subject "Russian people and unity of peoples of Russia" that "a calm, balanced view on Russian history" was provided in notorious textbook by Vdovin-Barsenkov that was subject to severe criticism of public for xenophobic (and anti-Semitic) passages. V. Ganichev called the efforts of public for prohibition of the textbook an "Agit-Prop blowing-up".
6 Anti-Semitism and authority representatives
During first quarter of 2011 in Moscow and St. Petersburg actions of authorities for suppression of anti-fascist activity were recorded. Thus, in Moscow a right for holding of anti-fascist demonstration in memory of the lawyer Stanislav Markelov and the journalist Anastasia Baburova was got with great difficulty, and in St. Petersburg the demonstration was banned.
Late in March in St. Petersburg the festival of anti-fascist movies "Open your eyes" was hampered under pressure of authorities: the cinemas refused to provide halls for demonstration of films.
On April 11 it became known that the initiative of Russian Jewish congress concerning introduction of the Day of commemoration in memory of the victims of the Holocaust into the list of official memorial dates was called "unnecessary" in the letter from the Administration of the RF President, under the pretext of availability of the Day of memory and grieve in the calendar (June 22 - day of beginning of the war).
7 Response of authorities to anti-Semitism manifestations
As the authorities do not usually distinguish anti-Semitism among other ethnic phobias, situation in the Baltic countries is the only occasion when the authorities traditionally protest against anti-Semitism manifestations.
On March 17 the official representative of the Ministry of foreign affairs (MID) of RF Alexander Lukashevich stated that Russia considers the procession of Lettish SS legionaries and their followers in the center of Riga to be an attempt of revision of results of Nuremberg tribunal and justification of Nazism. "Such assemblages of Nazi accomplices are the undisguised challenge to international community", he noted. According to the official representative of MID of RF, this procession is "an attempt of revision of results of Nuremberg tribunal, an attempt to justify fascist criminals". At the same time he expressed his hope that "recurrences of aspiration to whitewash Nazism would get a principal assessment on the part of our international partners".
8 Response of public to anti-Semitism
On March 31 press secretary of the chief rabbi of Russia Anatoly Glotser, in his interview to "Interfax", expressed his anxiety concerning conclusion of office of public prosecutor of Moscow that dissemination of "Protocols of the Elders of Zion" is not a breach of the law. "We are mostly anxious due to conclusions of office of public prosecutor of Moscow. No doubt they don't do a credit to anybody: nether office of public prosecutor nor the expert group that made an assessment of this most dangerous book", he stated. "The root of the problem is in our opinion in the expert corps whose services are used by Moscow office of public prosecutor. And as long as such "experts" are available there while a number of specialists in xenophobia and cases of such character are not admitted to the process of preparation of conclusions, the office of public prosecutor would provide such answers", A. Glotser stressed.
Late in April the Patriarch of Moscow and Whole Rus Cyril sent a letter to the Jewish community of Russia in response to appeal of FEOR that concerned two anti-Semitic letters signed by clergymen and laymen of the Russian Orthodox church. "I give evidence that the Russian Orthodox church always stood against any manifestations of hostility and hatred motivated by ethnicity, be it anti-Semitism, Russo-phobia, or insults to natives of Caucasia or Middle Asia. This all provokes conflicts that are most dangerous for peaceful course of life in our country", the Patriarch wrote dissociating himself from anti-Semitic messages. Besides, the Patriarch Cyril called one of messages a fraud.
9 Law-enforcement practice
During the period from January till April 2011 nine persons were convicted for crimes and delinquencies motivated by anti-Semitism. Suspended sentences became the most widespread punishment (4 persons) as well as penalties (2 persons). One person was sent to compulsory treatment, one - got suspended sentence and one else person was sentenced to imprisonment. The verdict upon one else convict is unknown.
On January 13 it became known that magistrate's court of Railway district of Krasnoyarsk sentenced an owner of antique shop where 28 objects with images of Nazi symbols were confiscated - copies of awards, decorations, military uniform etc of Nazi Germany of the times of the World War II, to the penalty of 2000 rubles.
On February 3 25-year-old resident of Kursk Vladimir Smorodsky was found guilty of placement of xenophobic and anti-Semitic audio and video materials on the Internet by court and sentenced to the penalty of 40 thousand rubles.
On February 8 the sentence was passed upon the resident of Vyazma city Vladislav Strokalov who placed anti-Christian and anti-Semitic materials on the Internet. He got suspended sentence.
On March 15 the court verdict against 60-year-old Valery Gabrusenko became effective; he disseminated brochures written by himself "Where fascists should be searched in Russia!" and "Globalization in Russia". He got suspended sentence. Besides, he was released from punishment under clause 282 due to expiration of statute of limitation.
On March 29 the court of Ulan-Ude passed a guilty verdict on 32-year-old citizen of Kirghizia Samagan Aldakulov who was found guilty of incitement of religious dissension and dissemination of ideas of extremist Islamic doctrine "Tabligi Djamaat". He got suspended sentence of 10 months of imprisonment with probationary period of one year.
On April 5 the court verdict on 26-year-old resident of Maikop Alexander Arteyev became effective; he was convicted for preparation and writing of several articles containing appeals to execution of extremist activity and justifying terrorism. In 2009-2010 the convict sent the articles for dissemination to website of one of international terrorist organizations. The court verdict prescribed punishment of 3,5 years of imprisonment for Arteyev with serving of punishment in colony-settlement.
On April 6 Moscow regional court answered the claim of office of public prosecutor concerning prohibition of extremist activity of public association "Spiritual-tribal power Rus".
On April 7 the Supreme court of Bashkiria found a radical Islamist, 18-year-old resident of Oktyabsky town, insane; in November 2010 he attacked two militia employees with a knife. According to the court decision he will get compulsory treatment in psychiatric hospital of specialized type.
On April 15 it became known that in Chelyabinsk the office of public prosecutor made an owner of trade kiosk remove pictures of Nazi symbols from the kiosk wall. In Chebarkul city the city authorities had to be involved into the same situation.
On April 15 a verdict was passed on 23-year-old Konstantin Permyakov who stuck RNE leaflets in Blagoveshchensk city. He got suspended sentence of 6-month punishment according to the court verdict.
On April 18 Moscow city court found the nationalistic Movement against illegal immigration (DPNI) extremist; its leaders actively used anti-Semitic rhetoric too.
On April 18 Rostov regional court supported the position of office of public prosecutor of Rostov-on-Don concerning acknowledgement of anti-Semitic article "The own among the aliens, the alien among the owns" extremist material; it was published in the newspaper "Azov region".
On April 28 the verdict of Tashtagol city court on a local resident became effective; he kindled a fire on May 9, 2010 in the forest in a form of swastika.
Activity of law-enforcement bodies in restriction of access to anti-Semitic literature placed on the Internet should be noted.
On March 9 it became known that office of public prosecutor of Volzhsk city demanded to oblige local Internet providers to restrict access to the pages of four website from which the book by Hitler "Mein Kampf" could be downloaded.
On March 11 Central district court of Tyumen city answered the claims of office of public prosecutor of Central district of Tyumen against SC "Uralsvyazinform" and SC "Ural-TransTeleCom" concerning restriction of access to an Internet resource that propagated ideology of organization "Hizb-ut Tahrir al-Islami".
On March 22 it became known that office of public prosecutor of Kirov city addressed to Leninsky district court with application about restriction of access of subscribers of SC "Mobile TeleSystems" to prohibited Internet resources included into the federal list of extremist materials. The court answered the application of office of public prosecutor of Kirov city and obliged the branch of SC "Mobile TeleSystems" to restrict access to these informational resources. The court decision was fulfilled by SC "MTS" voluntarily.
On March 31 it became known that office of public prosecutor of Kromsky district of Orel region demanded from companies "Yandex" and "Mail" to replace all the video files with extremist film by Fritz Hippler "Wandering Jew" from websites yandex.ru and mail.ru.
Up to April 30 the Federal list of extremist materials grew up to 851 items. Songs of groups "Kolovrat" and "Cyclone-B", video film "Russia with a knife in its back 2", issue of newspaper "Russian Transbaikalia", materials originating from among pseudo-Orthodox activists, anti-Semitic book by pseudo-academician N. Levashov and Islamist literature were included into the list.
But the cases of illegitimate application of anti-extremist legislation were also recorded. Diaries of J. Gebbels and book by H. Himmler "SS member and problem of blood" were included into the Federal list of extremist materials - though they were already included into it anyway - as works of leaders of Nazi party (according to the law on counteraction to extremism).
On February 10 Vyborgsky district court of St. Petersburg convicted four anti-fascists under clause 282 of the CC of RF for attack on neo-Nazis. The convicts got suspended sentences of punishment from six months to two years, with probationary period of 2 years.
In April there was an attempt in Perm to take R. Khozeyev to court - as long ago as in 2005 he quoted Hitler's book "Mein Kampf" during the dispute on Perm Internet forum. But on April 14 the justice of the peace of Ordjonikidzevsky district of Perm enacted to stop the conduct of the case due to lack of corpus delicti. On April 26 the office of public prosecutor of Perm region appealed against the decision of justice of the peace who did not find a delinquency in the actions of Roman Khozeyev.
At the same time the law-enforcement bodies committed actions that can be treated as connivance or at the minimum unwillingness to counteract to dissemination of anti-Semitism.
On February 9 panel of judges on criminal cases of Krasnodar regional court annulled the guilty sentence on jurist-anti-Semite A. Moszhegorov who was accused of dissemination of anti-Semitic literature.
On March 10 it became known that public prosecutor of Northern administrative district of Moscow Konstantin Kremnev, in response to appeal of movement "For human rights" and of member of the Public chamber Alla Gerber due to dissemination of anti-Semitic fraud "Protocols of the Elders of Zion" in Russia, stated that according to results of expert examination it was found that the protocols have "critical historical-educational and political-educational orientation" and "information inducing to the actions against other nationalities, social and religious groups or separate persons as their representatives, misses in the book" and so disseminators of this book are not subject to criminal persecution.
On March 27 already public prosecutor of Moscow Yu. Syomin confirmed responding to request of movement "For human rights" that dissemination of "Protocols of the Elders of Zion" in Russia is not a breach of law. He cited the results of expert examination of Institute of psychology of RAS dated July 27, 2009; its authors came to conclusion that "information inducing to actions against other (non-Russian) nationalities, social and religious groups or separate persons as their representatives miss in the book "Protocols of Zion". Such statements of representatives of office of public prosecutor are mostly a consequence of low-quality expert examination of materials studied concerning their belonging to extremist ones.
Durability of prejudices and popularity of myths of anti-Semitic orientation require much more active response from authorities and law-enforcement bodies.
Practically no attention is paid to mass media produce and corresponding printed editions, and this is inadmissible. Repeated appeals of Moscow bureau for human rights and other human rights organizations in connection with this dangerous phenomenon get no response.
The keenest attention should be paid to formation of highly skilled expert examination on the problems of interethnic and inter-religious relations that would serve as the reliable guarantee of exposure of truly anti-Semitic and chauvinist materials and would not admit the use of clauses of anti-extremist legislation with political or other purposes.
Finally, it seems necessary to toughen punishment for any crimes connected with incitement of interethnic and inter-religious dissension including anti-Semitism. Impunity of crimes motivated by ethnicity and religion and lenient terms and conditions of punishment just enable further strengthening of xenophobia and anti-Semitism.
Certainly the punitive measures should be combined with broadest complex of educational, cultural initiatives when increase of general culture and tolerance among the population and especially young people, is their purpose.
DISCLAIMER: The composition of RNB's issues does not necessarily express the compilers' views. All topical English-language texts that come to the attention of the compilers, and are related to Russian nationalism are, as far as that is technically feasible, included.