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Bulletin 5:10 - Special Issue: MBHR Antisemitism Review '10

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  • Andreas Umland
    THE RUSSIAN NATIONALISM BULLETIN A Biweekly Newsletter of Current Affairs Vol. 5, No. 10(131), 22 March 2011 - Special Issue Anti-Semitism manifestations in
    Message 1 of 1 , Mar 22, 2011
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      A Biweekly Newsletter of Current Affairs
      Vol. 5, No. 10(131), 22 March 2011 - Special Issue
      "Anti-Semitism manifestations in Russia in 2010 (review of the Moscow bureau for human rights)"
      http://antirasizm.ru, 18 March 2011

      C o n t e n t s

      1 Attacks and vandalism motivated by anti-Semitism
      2 Public actions of anti-Semitic orientation
      3 Popularity of anti-Semitic views
      4 Anti-Semitism manifestations on the part of authorities
      5 Use of anti-Semitism in election campaigning
      6 Anti-Semitic books and publications in mass media
      7 Anti-Semitism in religious sphere
      8 Use of pseudo-human rights rhetoric by nationalists
      9 Response of authorities to anti-Semitism manifestations
      10 The public against anti-Semitism
      11 The Russian Orthodox church against anti-Semitism
      12 Law-enforcement practice

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      Anti-Semitism was still a constituent of radical nationalism in 2010.
      Being a complicated historical-social phenomenon, anti-Semitism is a conglomeration of various beliefs that are transformed in the course of historical process and are in permanent dialectical interaction. In modern Russian religious, conspirological, "anti-capitalist", and common everyday constituents of anti-Semitism are still distinctly expressed. At the same time one can speak about practically complete absence of state anti-Semitism - this became possible due to radical changes in social-political and economic life of Russia during recent 20 years as well as due to principled position of highest officials.
      Ideological anti-Semitism is expressed in specific unlawful actions. Though number of attacks on Jews remains minimal and even decreased as compared with 2009, number of vandalism acts towards premises occupied by Jewish organizations is still quite substantial as well as number of cases of dissemination of anti-Semitic leaflets and graffiti.
      Activity of Russian national-radicals is still high. Neo-Nazi groups that are actually active in every Russian megalopolis are structured, ideologically trained, technically equipped and orientate themselves toward most aggressive actions against representatives of ethnic minorities, foreigners and public figures-antifascists. The fact that anti-Semitic constituent occupies considerable place in ideology of radical nationalists, is demonstrated by availability of anti-Semitic slogans at "Russian marches" on November 4 and at Manezhnaya square on December 11, mentioning of "Jewish fascists" in appeal of so-called "Primorye partisans". Interrogations of public opinion show that about a half of country population is infected by anti-Semitic prejudices to various extents.
      Like during previous years, publication of anti-Semitic literature actively develops in Russia and, despite protests of human rights activists, literature of this kind is still sold quite freely at book fairs and in many respectable bookstores. Penetration of anti-Semitic theses into books pretending to be tutorials seems especially dangerous. Only two cases of this kind were recorded in 2010 but one can't be positive that these cases are single. A scandal with the textbook "History of Russia 1917-2009" written by professors of Moscow state university A. Barsenkov and A. Vdovin and containing some anti-Semitic stock phrases was the most notorious event of such kind. At the same time the story with mentioned textbook demonstrated demoralization of scientific community of historians: some of them (including dean of historical faculty of MSU S. Karpov) preferred avoiding to discuss the textbook and some of them, taking refuge in the notion of academic freedom, even spoke in defense of nationalistic textbook that is often based upon forged documents. The textbook was officially condemned just due to tough position of some members of expert commission formed by historical faculty of MSU.
      Law-enforcement practice activates in Russia, the authority and society apprehend the problems of intolerance and hostility more realistically. More and more often representatives of federal and regional authority speak with condemnation of xenophobia and extremism problems. But this criticism is often of gentle or abstract character and does not lead to real actions. Besides, Russian authorities do not usually mark out anti-Semitism among other xenophobia manifestations, and so statements directed right at counteraction to anti-Semitism can be seldom met among tough anti-xenophobic statements regularly pronounced by authority representatives. In rare cases of direct statements connected with anti-Semitism subject, they relate mostly to the sphere of international politics - for example, in connection with attempts to rehabilitate Nazi collaborators in Baltic countries, in Ukraine.
      Suspended sentences are a considerable share of sentences passed in the sphere of law-enforcement practice on charges of xenophobic statements and actions. Like with the practice of inflicting penalties for sale of pro-Nazi and anti-Semitic produce, such sentences practically make no effect upon behavior of delinquents and criminals.
      Some judicial decisions can't be treated but like connivance to radical nationalists. On the other hand, in some cases law-enforcement bodies charge some persons with xenophobia and anti-Semitism without proper grounds.

      1 Attacks and vandalism motivated by anti-Semitism

      Number of attacks on Jews (or persons who were considered to be Jews by the assailants) was minimal in 2010: just 2 cases of this kind were recorded (as against 8 in 2009). This is the evidence, on one hand, of decline in level of anti-Semitism (total number of attacks motivated by xenophobia reduced approximately by 10% and number of the dead reduced almost two times), and on the other hand, of the fact that Jews, if they are not distinguished by clothes characteristic for believers, remain hard to be identified by most nationalists.
      Number of desecrations of Jewish graves is also minimal as compared with recent years - just one case was recorded. However number of vandalism manifestations motivated by xenophobia at the cemeteries generally reduced abruptly - MBHR monitoring recorded just five such cases. Probably the circumstance that the guilty are sentenced to real terms of imprisonment now also played its role.
      Number of cases of attacks on premises occupied by Jewish organizations (or vandalism manifestations towards these premises) still remains considerable: 13 attacks (29%) that had anti-Semitic motives were recorded from among total number of 45 attacks.
      Like during previous years, numerous cases of dissemination of anti-Semitic leaflets and graffiti were recorded in 2010. Their specific weight in total number of recorded incidents of this kind is very high - 49 cases of 109 (45%), and this is the evidence of notable place of anti-Semitism in ideology of nationalists. Anti-Semites started using new methods - like for example threat to explode a theatre where the opera "Hebrewess" had to be on.
      On January 9, 24 and 27 and on February 1, 3 and 16 anti-Semitic graffiti were recorded in Ulyanovsk.
      On January 24 in St. Petersburg two persons were detained who drew swastika and made inscription "We are back!".
      On January 26 and 27 threatening phone calls to Yekaterinburg synagogue took place and on February 1 anti-Semitic graffiti were discovered near the synagogue.
      On February 4 and 16 anti-Semitic graffiti were discovered in Tomsk.
      On February 9 attack on a religious Jew was committed in Ulyanovsk.
      On February 18 in Mikhailovsky theatre of St. Petersburg premiere of opera "Hebrewess" was postponed due to a threat of explosion: before the premiere unknown person phoned to the theatre and stated that "the theatre would explode before beginning of performance"
      On February 26 it became known that in Naro-Fominsk town (Moscow region) unknown persons drew symbols similar to Nazi attributes.
      In February-March 2010 in Khabarovsk drawing of xenophobic (anti-Semitic and anti-Caucasian) graffiti was recorded.
      On March 12 it became known about drawing of swastika on the walls of several houses in Petrozavodsk.
      On March 12 anti-Semitic graffiti were discovered on the wall of house in Izhevsk where "Community center of Jewish culture of Udmurt Republic" is located.
      On March 15 an inscription of extremist contents was made and swastika was drawn with a marker on the door of central entrance into financial-economical college of Yuryev-Polsky town (Vladimir region).
      On March 17 anti-Semitic posters appeared in the streets of Tver where the following was written under a portrait of Chief rabbi of Russia Berl Lazar: "Remember that your main enemy is JEW! As soon as you see him - BEAT him at once!".
      On March 21 in Nizhnedonskoy settlement (Rostov region) a monument to Lenin was spilled with paint and swastika was drawn on it.
      On March 29 an imitation of bomb with swastika was found in St. Petersburg underground.
      On April 20 in Petrozavodsk three students of local college and lyceum made nationalistic inscriptions in honor of Hitler's birthday on the walls of accommodation houses.
      On April 20 in Ulyanovsk an inscription "Death to Jews" with drawing of swastika appeared in several city districts.
      On April 21 in Shadrinsk town (Kurgan region) anti-Semitic graffiti were discovered on faзade of office building under construction.
      In the evening of April 22 a group of persons made inscriptions and drawings with fascist symbols on the territory of Pavlovsk park (Leningrad region) with paint. Also inscriptions and drawings with fascist symbols were discovered on the structures of a bridge near Northern building of palace, on the walls of pavilion Cold bath, on uprights of gates with vases and at the slope to the bridge of Centaurs.
      In April three drawings of swastika at least were discovered in Moscow.
      In April in Mikhailovsk (Stavropol region) anti-Semitic inscriptions were made on a monument to Lenin.
      On April 26 and June 12 in Tyumen a word "terrorist" and the Star of David were drawn on a monument to Lenin.
      On May 5 it became known about discovering of swastika in Ulan-Ude, not far from the monument "Hospital Buryatia".
      On May 9 and 10 two attacks on the synagogue in Ulyanovsk were committed.
      On May 20 in Rostov-on-Don fans of "Zenith" who shouted anti-Semitic slogans had beaten an employee of TV channel "Russia Today" Roman Kosarev.
      On May 28 visitors of Moscow superstores found stickers with drawing of swastika on cheeses and cottage cheese from Lithuania.
      In June Ufa Jewish community center was desecrated.
      On June 12 Nazi graffiti were discovered in Yaroslavl.
      On June 17 criminal proceedings were instituted concerning the fact of drawing of fascist symbols in the form of swastika and Nazi slogans in Tosno town (Leningrad region) on the faзade of a house near "Samson" shop.
      On the night of June 21 homemade explosive device went off in Tver near synagogue building. As a result of explosion, entrance to the synagogue premises was partially destroyed.
      On June 24 a synagogue in Krasnoyarsk was subject to an attack; as a result of attack, one of windows was broken.
      On July 15 it became known that in Znamensk (Astrakhan region) a wall of building of kindergarten No 5 was covered with black paint with drawing of Nazi symbols in the form of swastika.
      Early in August in St. Petersburg cafй "Call of Ilyich" Nazi swastika and inscriptions "Thief", "Killer", "Obscurant" were drawn on enormous advertising portraits of Lenin.
      Early in August anti-Semitic graffiti were discovered near one of railway branch lines in Moscow.
      On August 11 it became known about discovering of anti-Semitic graffiti in St. Petersburg.
      On August 25 it became known that inscriptions and drawings of fascist symbols were discovered on the walls of one of shops and coach station of Malaya Purga village (Udmurtia).
      On August 27 it became known that a monument to heroes-disaster fighters of disaster at Chernobyl NPP was desecrated with a drawing of swastika in Ryazan.
      On August 29 it became known about discovering of Nazi graffiti drawn on children's sandpit in St. Petersburg in one of yards in the city outskirts. Graffiti were drawn two weeks earlier at least.
      On August 30 in Kaliningrad unknown persons spilled a bronze bust of Karl Marx with paint and drew swastika and inscription "We are back" on pedestal.
      On the night of August 30 unknown persons pelted the Sohnut building in Khabarovsk with stones. As a result, several windows were broken.
      Late in August unknown persons drew fascist swastika with a subscription "We are back" a little below on a well-seen part of fence near an entrance to restaurant "Akyar" that is famous in Salavat (Bashkiria).
      On September 19 an inscription "Power to Russians!" appeared across the street of building of Perm Legislative Assembly and red and white swastikas - right below it.
      On September 27 in St. Petersburg at Nevsky avenue a resident of Moscow was detained who drew swastikas.
      Late in September windows were broken in a house in Barnaul where rabbi Kamenetsky lives.
      On October 5 it became known that swastika appeared on a garage belonging to a war veteran in Dimitrovgrad (Ulyanovsk region).
      In the morning of November 7 anti-Jewish inscriptions and drawings including drawing of crossed-out Star of David and inscriptions: "Death to yids!", "Holocaust is a tall tale", "Adolf was right!" were discovered on the wall near an entrance to synagogue located in the center of Barnaul. And an inscription "Take a long switch and turn the yid out to Palestine!" was made near an entrance to neighboring alcohol produce shop. On October 12 anti-Semitic graffiti appeared on Barnaul synagogue again.
      Early in October in Naberezhniye Chelny anti-Semitic leaflets were stuck.
      On the night of October 18 in Kaliningrad unknown persons wrote anti-Semitic slogans all around the city center.
      On October 26 it became known that in the center of Yekaterinburg dozens of trees in "Green grove" beloved by Yekaterinburg residents were covered with drawings of swastika and Nazi slogans.
      Late in October a splash of xenophobic and anti-Semitic graffiti was recorded in Rybinsk.
      On October 31 in St. Petersburg an inscription "Russia is for the tsar" and fascist swastika made with paint appeared on the wall of Alexandrinsky theatre.
      On November 7 in the center of Khomutovo settlement (Orel region), near district administration, unknown persons desecrated a memorial and a military burial place with inscriptions of fascist orientation. Fascist swastika was drawn on a pedestal of monument to V.I. Lenin.
      In mid-November an inscription "Holocaust - this is fun" appeared on a faзade of one of Nizhny Novgorod houses. Figures 14/88 - a code slogan of white nationalists - were placed side by side with the inscription.

      2 Public actions of anti-Semitic orientation

      On February 28 in Samara members of local Union of Russian People took part in meeting against growth of housing tariffs, duties and taxes. Chairman of URP branch stated in his speech that the events happening today - this is the "result of terrorist coup in 1917 when Zionists, Bolsheviks headed by Lenin-Blank, Leiba Bronshtein (Trotsky), Kaganovich and those of their ilk caught power in our country. Their name is Legion. This gang of killers overthrew legal authority that was given by God, killed the Tsar Nicolas II and his family ritually". This was followed by statements that those who are discontented with what's happening in Russia today are convicted under clause 282 of CC, and number of such convicts already reached several thousand; after that a demand of restoration of autocracy and "ethnically-thinking Russian authority" was advanced.
      On April 25 in Moscow a meeting of nationalists for revocation of clause 282 of the Criminal code took place. Its organizers were: Party "Motherland-Common sense" (M. Delyagin), "Russian Public Movement", "People's Council", "Russian civil society", "Russian verdict", "Union of Russian People" (B. Mironov), "Resistance". The meeting manifesto written by T. Mironova (B. Mironov's wife) reproduced a myth that A. Koptsev who arranged a slaughter in synagogue at Bronnaya in 2006 "allegedly inflicted some scratches on two Hebrews in synagogue under very strange circumstances".
      Anti-Semitic slogans were recorded at the meeting: nationalist V. Kralin noted in his blog that the meeting participants were "obsessed with speculative "yid-freemason-Zionist" as an "establishing Other".
      On May 5 in Revda town (Sverdlovsk region) local resident being drunk swung a flag with Nazi symbols at his balcony.
      In July St. Petersburg nationalists from DPNI wanted to place banners on buses telling about defeat of Khazarian khaganate by Kiev prince Svyatoslav - this is interpreted by nationalists as a victory over Jewry. But advertising agency at the transport rejected their placing of corresponding poster "due to possible ambiguous public response to this layout".
      On July 19 during the festival of pagans "Ethnofest" at the river Sok (Samara region) campfires in the form of swastika were made. After protests of participants, organizers decided to smooth out angles of swastika.
      On November 4 colonel V. Kvachkov stated in his speech at Moscow "Russian march": "398th anniversary of victory over Yid-Polish-Swedish yoke is celebrated today. We drove Swedes and Poles away from Kremlin. Who stayed there?" - "Yids!", the crowd responded. The slogans screamed out by the march participants included also "Death to yids!".
      Frankly anti-Semitic slogans were heard also at "Russian march" in St. Petersburg: "Tolerance is a weapon of world Zionism", "No to new Khazaria".
      On November 7 quite a few anti-Semitic slogans were recorded at the meeting of veterans of airborne troops at Poklonnaya hill: "Khazarian khaganate would not succeed", "Jewish fascism! There is nothing more terrible today!".
      On December 11 at Manezhnaya square anti-Semitic slogans were also recorded. Those assembled chanted: "Down with Jewish authority!" and an inscription "Beat the yids!" appeared on the wall of entrance lobby of trade complex "Okhotny ryad".

      3 Popularity of anti-Semitic views

      According to the data of interrogation conducted by research agency "Bashkirova and partners" and published on May 13, 2010, 25% of Russians do not agree to live side by side with Jews. However there are also more undesirable neighbors than Jews (these are homosexuals (66%), Gypsies (60%) and labor migrants (40%)). On the other hand, 40% did not desire to have left and right radicals as their neighbors.
      According to VTsIOM interrogation the data of which were published on August 27, 2010, 46% of Russians showed dislike of the idea that their relatives would marry Jews answering a question about interethnic marriages. Though the idea of a Jew-spouse causes less dislike than a prospect of marrying Chechens (65%), Arabs (63%), natives of Central Asia (60%), such a high index is an evidence of wide-spread popularity of anti-Semitic phobias in the society.

      4 Anti-Semitism manifestations on the part of authorities

      Anti-Semitic statements were mostly committed by KPRF representatives.
      On April 17 deputy of the State Duma from KPRF Alexey Bagaryakov placed an article devoted to a "Jewish problem" on official KPRF website. He noted that "due to their nature, the Jews have high intellect and inventiveness. But is not just for to this reason that they achieve big successes in business and public service: a feature characteristic for the Jews plays considerable role here - mutual support in career promotion". Then the parliamentarian lamented that "the Jews are about 2% of total population size of Russia but at the same time they occupy key positions in the state, business and creative sphere". "The rest of population, its biggest part, and first of all a native nation - Russians - can't but feel alerted by this", A. Bagaryakov stated. The article caused such a celebrated scandal that it was removed from website soon.
      On June 4 KPRF leader G. Zyuganov sent a telegram to the Chairman of St. Petersburg court V. Yepifanova in support of convict nationalist K. Dushenov trying to press upon the court on the eve of examination of Dushenov's cassational appeal.

      5 Use of anti-Semitism in election campaigning

      Opponents of the famous nationalist V. Alxnis who ran for a position of the head of Tuchkovo settlement near Moscow in March 2010 played the card of anti-Semitism. He was called both Jew-Hassid and Lett fascist and Lett Gauleiter, they wrote that hatred towards Russians is implanted tight in genes of Letts. The slogan "Stand for protection of Tuchkovo from aliens and heterodoxies" was one of the most wide-spread at these posters. However this propaganda did not prevent Alxnis from winning the election.

      6 Anti-Semitic books and publications in mass media

      On January 27 on website "Russian line" an interview of the Jew-anti-Semite I. Shamir appeared who announced that the Holocaust allegedly turned into some "secular religion" and became "a part of total victory of absolutely new ultra-liberal paradigm based upon denial of rights of majority to please rights of minorities".
      "I don't see a connection of holocaust with any real events of time of the Second World War but I see that the holocaust is connected with ideological turnabout nowadays", I. Shamir stated. On January 28 the interview was reproduced by website "IslamNews".
      Early in February 2009 so-called "Russian informational center" headed by famous racist A. Savelyev issued its next annual report "Russo-phobia in Russia. 2009". Anti-Semitic propaganda became an element of A. Savelyev's report: allegedly Judaism leads to abyss for an Orthodox Christian person - not just to "destructive state" but to destruction of everything that is holy in the man, to destruction of soul. Absolutely unreliable data about service of "up to 150 thousand" Jews in Wehrmacht were presented in the report as well as a fraud that was disclosed long ago about 10 thousand Jews that were taken prisoners by the Soviet army during the Great Patriotic war (it fact these were members of so-called "workers' battalions" of Hungarian army who mostly went over to the Soviet army themselves).
      On February 1 in "Komsomolskaya pravda" an interview was published taken by journalist D. Steshin from the head of European Jewish congress Vyacheslav Kantor. In this interview Steshin tried to impress on the reader that international Jewish organizations do not speak with condemnation of patronage of former Nazis on the part of Baltic countries. In the record in his blog that was made on the same day Steshin stated that theft of signboard from gates of concentration camp Auschwitz was a "PR-campaign that was cunningly started on the eve of liberation of Oswiencim".
      On March 31 on forum of Orthodox fundamentalists "rusidea.org" one of its participants accused the "world qahal" that arranged "ritual slaughter", of arrangement of terrorist acts in underground on March 29.
      On April 8 writer-nationalist Alexander Prokhanov, speaking on the radio "Echo of Moscow", reproduced calumnious anti-Semitic stock phrase that using Holocaust "pressure, exploitation and control of the whole continents" take place: at the same time A. Prokhanov underestimated number of victims of the Holocaust two times.
      On April 18 Orthodox fundamentalist M. Nazarov saw a "Jewish hand" in death of the President of Poland L. Kaczynski on April 9 with the grounds that a delegation of rabbis had to fly together with Kaczynski, and they refused to fly on the last moment. On April 24 he also accused the "world coulisse" inspired by anti-Christian ideas, of genocide of Armenians.
      On June 8 an appeal to colonel Kvachkov on behalf of so-called "Primorye partisans" appeared on the Internet. This appeal - Kvachkov hastily dissociated himself from it - stated: "We are dying to suffer from outrage of the world coulisse that does terror on our land. … We, special mission units of airborne troops, rose for armed struggle against occupants of our country. We already carry on armed struggle against them KILLING THESE CORRUPT LOUSES … We rose against Jewish fascism like our glorious grandfathers and fathers rose in 1941 against German occupants …". This document seemingly devoted to the problems that are far from Jewry demonstrates visually the extent of integration of anti-Semitism into nationalists' outlook.
      On August 19 M. Nazarov placed an article on his website devoted to anniversary of Antonov's uprising in Tambov province where he stated: peasants' uprisings during the Civil war were of anti-Semitic character as "the Jews often headed food detachments and anti-church commissions". A little below M. Nazarov writes about commissars «that were trained on Talmud and "Shulchan Aruch"», "yids-commissars" and "Russian Holocaust" arranged by Jews.
      Early in July on some nationalistic websites and blogs publications appeared devoted to supposed anniversary of defeat (on July 3, 964) of Khazarian khaganate by Kiev prince Svyatoslav (946-972) that is interpreted by nationalists as victory over Jewry. "Judaic" and allegedly "parasitic" character of Khazaria and its orientation on selling Slavic slaves were stressed. Thus the readers' impression was created that Jews were set against Russians with enmity long since. "On this day, from now on and forever, we - Russians - would celebrate the Victory day over Judaic Khazaria. This Victory made possible further existence itself and physical survival of Russian people", one of articles stated.
      On July 5 and 6 in two articles that were published on website of prohibited organization "Slavic union" an accent was also made upon parasitic character of Khazaria and Judaism of its rulers. Proscription of Jews from some countries was called a "fair ethnic policy of reasonable rulers".
      On September 16 a scandal broke out in Perm when it turned out that stickers with Hitler's saying "We would conquer Russia when Ukrainians and Byelorussians believe they are not Russians" were stuck in public transport within the project "Wisdom of the world" implemented with support of city culture committee. However the authorities removed stickers from transport operatively and confiscated the rest of copies from the campaign organizers.
      Penetration of anti-Semitism into books pretending to a title of educational literature can be noted. Early in the year a scandal broke out around two-volume edition "History of Russia. 20th century" published being edited by professor of Moscow institute of foreign relations A. Zubov. The textbook uses various myths, historical and pseudo-historical patterns created within the White movement and Russian emigrants including frankly anti-Semitic ones. The textbook section titled "Jews in Civil war" begins from the words: "Considerable part of commissars and chekists who conducted the red terror were Jews". Reservation that most of Russian Jewry were as far from Communists as most of other peoples of Russia is actually leveled by the following passages that actually repeat White Guardists' anti-Semitic propaganda: "But under conditions of civil war in Russia, especially in its Southern regions, in Ukraine, at Don and in Bessarabia where traditions of anti-Semitism were quite strong, it was the very participation of Jews in the red terror that caused special hatred of population. And the Bolsheviks that paid no attention to such "trifles" as nationality of their commissars just poured oil on the flame. For example, in Kiev extraordinary commission that was notorious due to its sadistic mass cruelties, Bolsheviks-Jews made up three quarters of "personnel". Being alienated from Jewish community, these people however tried to spare their congeners due to numerous ties of relationship, and this could not but increase anti-Semitism of Ukrainians. Commissars Kogan and Rutgaizer were appointed even to positions connected with control over the church in Kiev, and it was prohibited to baptize, marry and bury according to Orthodox ritual without their permission". For justification of participation of soldiers of the White army in pogroms, it is diffidently noted in the book that far from all the soldiers and officers of White armies could "distinguish criminals-commissars from Jewry innocent of any crime" and a mellow picture of combat of white command against pogroms in the South is drawn (then the question remains undecided - how numerous pogroms committed by the White army could take place?). At the same time number of victims of pogroms is underestimated by the textbook authors four times at least (it should be noted that this tutorial is already used in two seminaries of Russian Orthodox church).
      A. Zubov, in his controversy with A. Krasilshchikov who collected memoirs about Jewish pogroms arranged by Cossacks from Mamontov's corps during their raid along the rears of the Red army in 1919, stated that idea of "general extermination of Jews in the zone of actions of general Mamontov's corps is a doubtless and very big exaggeration". He reproduced an anti-Semitic myth presented in the textbook that "some Soviets, punitive squads and extraordinary commission departments in Ukraine, at Don and in Crimea were Jewish up to three quarters-four fifths" though he admitted that overwhelming majority of Jews of Russia were not with Bolsheviks.
      On February 18 it turned out that St. Petersburg state university of communication lines included a work by nationalist Yu. Mukhin "Harassment: who doesn't like patriots" (M.: 2009) into the book list when purchasing books for scientific-technical library.
      On March 10-15 at VVTs in Moscow an exhibition-fair "Books of Russia" took place. Despite special statement of organizing committee of the exhibition that appealed "to show respectful attitude towards ethnic and religious feelings of colleagues and visitors allowing no exposition and sale of books propagating ethnic and religious intolerance", long-term regretful tradition of use of book fairs for propaganda of xenophobia was continued. The fair participants included publishing house "Russian truth" that suggested anti-Semitic and racist literature for sale. At the stand of another publishing house, "Algorithm", books by radical nationalist B. Mironov convicted for incitement of ethnic dissension several years ago, by publicist O. Platonov who is "denouncing" allegedly existing "Jewish conspiracy" for many years, Holocaust denier Yu. Graf, anti-Semite I. Shamir were sold.
      On April 1 it became known that the book by Hitler "Mein Kampf" was included into section "Necessary materials for student" on website of historical faculty of Omsk state university. Going along the provided link, one can easily download full text of the book without any comments and restrictions.
      Early in July a scandal broke out around the textbook "History of Russia 1917-2009" by A. Barsenkov and A. Vdovin containing a number of anti-Semitic stock phrases about "Jewish domination" in the USSR, about deportation of Crimean Tatars in 1944 for clearing place for planned Jewish republic etc.. A. Vdovin himself hurried to state that the textbook includes "just reliable facts and figures" and that he "treated the Jewish problem very carefully". However the scandal went on in autumn and finished with a decision of Academic Council of MSU about withdrawal of the textbook (see below).
      On September 1-6, at Moscow international book exhibition-fair that took place, xenophobic literature was broadly presented. It was sold at stands of publishing houses "Alva First", "Algorithm", "White alvas", "Book world", "Russian truth", "Encyclopedia of Russian civilization". The "novelties" included a book by Black-Hundreder P. Bulatsel "Combat for truth", book by ex-leader of DPNI A. Belov (Potkin) "Kondopoga forever", issue 2 of journal "Problems of nationalism". Management of Moscow international book exhibition-fair traditionally took no steps able to protect the international book fair from turning into a center of propaganda of hatred.

      7 Anti-Semitism in religious sphere

      Consistently anti-Semitic position is occupied by bishop of Syktyvkar and Vorkuta Pitirim who obviously aspires to occupy a position of leader of radical wing in Russian Orthodox church (ROC).
      On January 26 bishop Pitirim stated that he did not agree with warning of office of public prosecutor to the newspaper "Eparchial bulletin" about inadmissibility of extremist activity for anti-sectarian publication. The bishop stated: "We will take a firm stand, we will go to death but we would not reject the Holy tradition. And it's a fun that trials are arranged against us following such warnings. So we do not agree. Or let them remove Korans and Talmuds then".
      On August 28, speaking at eparchial conference "God and the world evil in aspects of world globalization", the bishop made an example of participation of a member of "yid-freemasonic lodge" Andrey Bogdanov in presidential election in Russia for confirmation of a thesis of "activation of dark forces of the world coulisse". And discussing the relations of the Orthodox with the non-Orthodox the bishop, quoting St. John Chrysostom, called for resisting the evil by force and, meeting "yid or heretic", for "sanctifying your hand with a wound" and beating him "into his lips or into his cheek".
      However bishop Pitirim is not alone in his statements. After the anti-Semitic almanac "Third Rome" published by the organization RONS was acknowledged an extremist material, press secretary of Vladimir-Suzdal eparchy archimandrite Innocentius (Yakovlev) stood up for it.
      In March-April in Yekaterinburg confrontation started concerning restoration of St. Catherine temple at Labor square. On March 31 deputy of Yekaterinburg city Duma Kabanov cited in the news of TV agency of Ural (TAU) his conversation with organizer of protests against construction of the church L. Volkov: "… do you imagine what people would say about you - that ones, an international gang of Russians and Jews and impossible to understand who else, came, destroyed the temple and killed the priest. I asked him what was his nationality - Jew - and do you imagine that people would say then that another Jew came and did not let build - would this be normal for you?".
      On May 9 archbishop of Russian Orthodox church (one of churches being alternative to ROC) Viktor (Pivovarov) stated in his sermon: "Is it a holiday for us Russian people - May 9? This day is a tragedy … For the sake of what did the war begin? Because Stalin was preparing to attack Germany. It was already Trotsky who made an attack on Poland. He wanted to occupy Warsaw, Berlin and make an axis of the "great revolution". And he received a good beating there, and there was silence then. But they were preparing to occupy Berlin anyway. And this was the very reason for starting of war. And as for Hitler … these are two rabid dogs - Nazism and Bolshevism - that came to blows, and the whole world was dipped into grieve, and blood, and tears. And so what is this "victory"? Even if Hitler would win, it would be better. We would not bear him for a long time - a foreigner. What kind of "freedom" we have? No freedom, the same crucifiers are a burden to Russian people, they just had changed color, and that's all". Speaking about "crucifiers" V. Pivovarov evidently meant Jews.

      8 Use of pseudo-human rights rhetoric by nationalists

      Examination of the tutorial by professors of MSU A. Barsenkov and A. Vdovin initiated by the Public chamber became the main object of pseudo-human rights rhetoric on the part of nationalists and their situational allies from among Communists.
      As the protectors of the textbook could not refute eloquent citations from it, they preferred another way: to create a picture of "defamation of Russian scientists" being false but attractive for some part of public, to force panic with their statements about total restriction of freedom of speech and possible danger for A. Vdovin's life, to draw parallels between actions of totalitarian regimes and activity of PC of RF, they tried to create a negative portrait of Nikolay Svanidze heading the Commission of the Public chamber. Anti-Semitic notes also slipped out in this campaign though they were quite subdued as its organizers tried to look respectably and gain public support.
      On September 7 Ye. Kholmogorov stated in his comment for nationalistic web-portal APN about revival of some "dual ethnocracy" in connection with "case of Barsenkov-Vdovin (it became clear from further words of Mr. Kholmogorov that speaking about "ethnocracy" he meant Jews and Chechens who allegedly control Russian authority), and this "ethocracy" allegedly "acted quite effectively against Russia and Russians in 1995-1999".
      On September 8 nationalist K. Krylov ascribed a confession to the lawyer M. Musayev (who won excuses due to anti-Chechen passages in their book from Vdovin and Barsenkov) that Chechens are allegedly «used against us by "the nation that is greatest in the world"» (i.e. by Jews).
      On September 13, at open public hearings "Russian history of 20th century - freedom of research or freedom of persecution?", editor of journal "Problems of nationalism" Sergey Sergeyev stated that Vdovin was attacked as a "Russian historian" and that support of Vdovin is an "ethnic matter". He accused representatives of "two corporations - Jewish and Chechen that united here" of attack and added: "Combat of ethnic corporations (mafias) against Russian culture is on" .
      "Union of Russian People", after passing sentence on K. Dushenov, published a statement where Dushenov's actions were interpreted as "resistance to the evil". Statement authors demanded "to stop issuing warnings and instituting criminal proceedings under clause 282 for expression of Orthodox doctrine" (i.e. for anti-Semitic statements covered up by words about Orthodoxy), and to include Judaic literature into Federal list of extremist materials as they consider it to be misanthropic. They also demanded to include URP member V. Osipov in Expert council under Ministry of justice of RF for conduction of the state expert examination based upon religious studies.

      9 Response of authorities to anti-Semitism manifestations

      Russian authorities usually do not distinguish anti-Semitism among other xenophobia manifestations so statements aimed right at counteraction to anti-Semitism almost can't be met among regular pronounced tough anti-xenophobic statements of authority representatives. In rare cases of direct statements connected with anti-Semitism subject they relate predominantly to the sphere of international politics - for example, in connection with attempts of rehabilitation of Nazi collaborators in Baltic countries, in Ukraine.
      On January 26 member of the Federation Council Vladimir Slutsker informed that a detailed diary of Oswiencim prisoner Zalman Gradovsky who worked in sonderkommand that burned corpses of prisoners, was prepared for publication on the occasion of 65th anniversary of liberation of concentration camp by Soviet troops. The senator took part in international conference that took place in Polish Krakow with participation of deputies of national parliaments. Main subject of the conference is non-admission of revision of history and revival of fascism on the European continent.
      "A decision was made at the conference that united more than 150 parliamentarians from 30 European countries that Gradovsky's diary would be translated into other European languages and published in several countries of Europe", Slutsker stated. It is noted in the conference resolution that "Gradovsky's records are a shocking truth told by eye-witness of tragedy about daily practice and monstrous technology of genocide arranged by Nazis". The diary of Oswiencim prisoner can be ranked among most important documentary evidences of the Holocaust, the senator noted. The book was prepared for publication in Russian by historians within the project of international parliamentary organization uniting deputies of national parliaments of European countries responsible for bilateral ties with Israel.
      On January 27, on the International day of commemoration in memory of the victims of the Holocaust, the President of RF Dmitry Medvedev sent a message to participants of memorial activities devoted to 65th anniversary of liberation of concentration camp "Auschwitz-Birkenau" ("Oswiencim"). It was told in the message of the President of Russia: "Generations that did not see horrors of war must know about them. And we must all understand what exorbitant price the mankind paid for connivance to xenophobia and chauvinism. To remember that six million people were killed due to their nationality - just due to the fact that they were Jews. According to the plan of fascists, their fate had to be repeated by one third of population of occupied territories at least.
      Already 65 years passed since the time when fascism was defeated but the voices of those who try to justify crimes of Nazis, rank victims with butchers, liberators with occupants are still heard. And some countries go even further - they make heroes of Nazi accomplices. Such attempts of revision of history are inadmissible, and we must unite our efforts in combat with them.
      We must know resolutely that indifference, nonchalance, the same like oblivion of lessons of the history, finally lead to tragedies and crimes. And trust and mutual assistance permit withstanding the most dangerous threats … Tragedy of the World War II remains a bitter warning today. Protection of peace and freedom on our planet is in our hands. And we are all responsible together for this in front of current and future generations".
      On the same day the governor of Bryansk region Nikolay Denin met the head of Bryansk regional Jewish community-charitable center "Hesed Tikva" Irina Chernyak. "I present my frank condolences. We will always hold sacred the memory of those who died during the years of the World War II. We will do our best to make anti-Semitism, falsification of history go to the past forever", N. Denin stated. Strengthening of inter-religious relations, assistance of local authorities to the Hebrew community of the city, contribution of "Hesed Tikva" center into development of social sphere and culture were discussed during the meeting.
      On February 10 the President of RF D. Medvedev sent his congratulation to employees and veterans of Ministry of foreign affairs of RF on the occasion of the Day of diplomatic employee giving diplomats the tasks to assist in modernization of the country and counteract attempts of falsification of history. In the opinion of D. Medvedev, it is necessary to determine the position of Russia on this problem more toughly and talk with the partners directly "on the problems connected with rehabilitation and glorification of people who are criminals in fact". In his opinion, the dialogue with the countries that rehabilitate and glorify fascism should be maintained without punctual diplomatic formulas.
      On March 9 press secretary of permanent representation of RF under UN Ruslan Bakhtin stated that Russia considers any attempts of making heroes of accomplices of Nazism, including former legionaries of "Waffen SS", inadmissible.
      "For any state devoted to ideals of democracy and humanism, the attempts of making heroes of accomplices of fascism should be inadmissible - be it former legionaries of organization "Waffen SS" or other collaborators who exterminated hundreds thousands peaceful civilians, prisoners of war and prisoners of death camps", the Russian diplomat said at the presentation of encyclopedia "Holocaust on the territory of the USSR" in UN headquarters.
      On April 5 mayor of Chita Anatoly Mikhalyov during his press conference condemned cases of appearing of drawn swastikas in the streets of the city: "I would like very much that a person who drew this sign, not all the people but this person alone, would live through what our fathers and grandfathers lived through: would go through Buchenwald, starve, see how fascists execute old folk and children … Then he would never take a brush again". "If this is a boyish folly and hooliganism - this is one side, the head of the city noted concerning appearing of graphic drawings of swastikas on buildings and historical monuments. But if this is done by anybody consciously and deliberately then this is pure vandalism. If children draw these signs then it means we work insufficiently in upbringing. Despite just half page is devoted to events of the Great Patriotic war in today's textbooks, we should bring this understanding to young generation ourselves", A. Mikhalyov stated.
      On April 8 employees of Directorate of Federal service of bailiffs for Ryazan region, on the initiative of leaders, painted over drawings of swastikas that were discovered not far from the building.
      On May 7 the President of RF D. Medvedev stated in his interview to "Izvestia" newspaper: "In Europe, in many countries, rehabilitation of fascists takes place. Some monsters are even found in our country trying to use Nazi symbols and hold various assemblages under such slogans".

      10 The public against anti-Semitism

      The highest activity in withstanding anti-Semitism among public organizations is shown by Jewish community itself.
      On January 26 the chief rabbi of Russia Berl Lazar stressed at the meeting with the Prime-minister Vladimir Putin: "In general we think this is a very big business now when we are on the threshold of January 27. We Jews would never forget what the Soviet army did for us during the World War II. We must stress this distinctly and tell what happened in reality. Because unfortunately what we see and what happened in Ukraine during recent days - this is horrible. This is really inadmissible for us. And we will help to explain these matters so that it would be clear what happened then … Nazism - this is bad not just because they killed people but because they killed and justified their actions. Those who helped them - what really happened in Baltic region, what happened in Ukraine - local population took part in extermination of Jews. That was not that Nazis came and people resisted. There were people there who really did a lot but it was the state that helped in general. So when today they try to speak again that they have their own history - this is horrible".
      On January 27 Federation of Jewish communities of Russia published a statement on the occasion of International day of commemoration in memory of the victims of the Holocaust:
      "On the day of liberation of concentration camp Oswiencim by the Soviet army, on the threshold of 65th anniversary of Victory in the Great Patriotic war the words of representatives of Baltic region countries, Ukraine and other European countries that Hitler's Nazi regime was identical to the political system that existed in the Soviet Union when Stalin was in power, sound especially blasphemously. The Jewish community considers this tendency to be a serious threat for preservation of memory about the Holocaust as equalization of Nazis' crimes and crimes of Stalin's regime obviously has the purpose to release the countries the population of which actively participated in extermination of their own Jewish minority, from liability. We think that such policy is a part of efforts for creation of historical and intellectual infrastructure aimed at undermining and finally canceling the existing view of uniqueness of the Holocaust in history of mankind as genocide, marginalizing this unique historical event. This phenomenon is especially notable in Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia for obvious reasons as residents of these countries cooperated especially strongly with Germans during the World War II. This campaign uniting victims of the Holocaust and Communism is an obvious attempt to put a shadow upon complicated history of murders of their own Jewish population and is used by them as a trick for washing out a stain of mass collaborationism … One can dispute much about negative consequences of the Victory for Baltic region countries and some part of eastern Europe but one can't deny that actions of SS troops and their accomplices on the territories occupied by Nazis were criminal. It's obvious that even partial rehabilitation of Nazism would become the recognition of admissibility of existence and implementation of any extremist, terrorist ideology. The fact that authorities of some former USSR republics and political figures of these states consider it admissible to support openly the processions of SS veterans, placing of monuments to Nazis or revival of frankly fascist organizations - in our opinion this is equal to greeting of activity of modern extremist and terroristic groups the ideas and methods of which are as inhuman, and this is as big threat for the world as Nazism was at that time. Attempts to revise the results of the World War II and history of Catastrophe of European Jewry still continue - on the part of such states as Ukraine, Baltic countries. Iran continues the odious course of its president Mahmud Ahmadinejad.
      We call upon the governments of Baltic countries, Ukraine and all those countries that try to falsify the results of the World War II, to giving independent estimation of facts of extermination of peaceful civilians of their countries by German-fascist troops and of collaborationism during the war. The Jewish community of Russia calls upon the world community to formulating its opinion distinctly and to condemning revision of history of the World War II within UN by a special resolution against collaborationism and Nazi regimes. It would be expedient to do this also on the level of heads of governments of some world powers. In our opinion the UN resolution should not just condemn fascism but make all the political figures rehabilitating it entirely or partially, personas non grata", the statement said.
      On the same day, January 27, mourning meeting took place in Birobidjan devoted to International day of commemoration in memory of the victims of the Holocaust. The meeting was participated by chairman of Council of Jewish communities of Far East Valery Gurevich, officials, members of club of former minor prisoners of ghetto, pedagogical public, schoolchildren, students, and synagogue congregation.
      "We must not forget about this tragedy, only memory can save us from similar horrors in future, Valery Gurevich said. We have no right to rewrite history to please timeserving interests of some political groups that want to make liberators from enemies of the mankind. This is a blasphemy when homage is rendered to former SS members, when national heroes are made of traitors of their people".
      "The Holocaust reminds us not just about tragedy of Jewish people, director of regional institute of advanced pedagogical studies Tatyana Fain stated. There is nothing more terrible than policy of state anti-Semitism, raising of some race, ethnos or nationality. The World War II proved this. Not just Jews but also Slavs, Gypsies and other peoples were subject to extermination. And we mustn't forget for a minute about this understanding well that just in atmosphere of tolerance, openness and respect to all the cultures we would secure ourselves from such terrible phenomena as anti-Semitism and nationalism".
      Each of those present put a stone of grieve to the obelisk in the yard of community center in commemoration of people who died in fascist concentration camps.
      On January 27 in district library of Priargunsk town (Chita region) opening of exposition "Great Patriotic war with the eyes of children-prisoners of fascist camps" took place. The exposition worked for a whole year. And on Victory day it was presented to all the residents of Priargunsk at one of mass activities.
      On February 1 it became known that the work of "hot line" on anti-Semitism recommenced under Jewish community of Nizhny Novgorod synagogue.
      On February 11 in Syktyvkar, in the premises of Jewish ethnic-cultural autonomy of Komi, a film about neo-Nazis "Russia 88" was shown.
      On March 4 the chief rabbi of Russia Berl Lazar, during the meeting with the minister of regional development Viktor Basargin, spoke with an idea to approve the day of liberation of Oswiencim, January 27, as a nationwide memorial date. "When we would mark the anniversary of liberation of Oswiencim officially, on the state level, this would be both a reminder about feat of Russia in destruction of Nazism and at the same time an efficient weapon in combat with xenophobia that is really one of main threats for Russian society", the rabbi stated. During the meeting of the rabbi and the minister the problems of support of legal bureaus of Jewish community of Russia involved into monitoring of nationalism and xenophobia, by the Ministry of regional development were also discussed. An agreement was reached that the Jewish community of Russia would present its suggestions on combat against xenophobia to the ministry.
      On March 9 the Federation of Jewish communities of Russia made a statement concerning unprecedented number of cases of rehabilitation of Nazism and Nazi criminals in the European countries. The FEOR statement said in particular: "Our concern is caused by decision of government of Moldavia to equate Soviet soldiers-liberators and supporters of marshal Antonescu who fought on the side of Hitler's Germany and to arrange celebrations in honor of them equally (the authorities incline to award both veterans of the Great Patriotic war and persons who fought within occupational Romanian army with jubilee medals) … March processions of veterans of Waffen SS legion in Latvia became regular. Processions of former legionaries of Lettish Waffen SS legion are held in Latvia since 1994 … At the same time court of Latvia acquits one of leaders of local neo-Nazis Andris Jordans who was sentenced in 2008 to 2-year imprisonment for incitement of ethnic dissension". "We call again upon the leaders of European Union and UN to assessing adequately this "silent indifference" on the part of such European countries as Latvia, Moldavia, Estonia and Ukraine", the statement summarized.
      On March 16 more than 300 activists of youth movements "The ours" and "The locals" held a picket near the building of embassy of Latvia in Moscow opposing holding of march of veterans of "Waffen SS" legion in Riga and appeals of neo-Nazis to deport Russian-speaking population of the republic. The picket participants dressed in uniform of Soviet soldiers brought the photos of those who perished from Nazis during the World War II, to the embassy. After the meeting activists of movement "The ours" went to representation of the European Union in Moscow and passed a letter with request to pay attention to fascism manifestations in Latvia to its employees.
      On March 24 representatives of "Young Guard" of United Russia" in Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk painted over swastikas at bus stops.
      On March 25 it became known about creation of free telephone advice bureau for victims of ethnic discrimination and anti-Semitism by Federal Jewish ethnic-cultural autonomy (FENKA) with support of the Public chamber of RF in Moscow.
      On April 2 on website of Chita forum "Drom.ru" a photo of monument located at the drive to Chita was placed - unknown persons desecrated it with a drawing of swastika and inscription "Shulds", "88". Forum activists put the monument in order.
      On April 20 youth movement "The ours" arranged anti-fascist patrols in Moscow. The Jewish center at Savyolovskaya and central synagogue of Moscow "Beis Menahem" became the objects of patrolling.
      On April 21 the head of Ryazan Jewish community Lyudmila Zakharova, on the invitation of city library named after Yesenin, took part in activity for junior school teachers "Upbringing of tolerance of junior schoolchildren". L. Zakharova told the pedagogues who were present about work of ethnic communities including the Jewish one with schools and teachers, about recent activity "Day of commemoration of concentration camp prisoners" and showing of film "Kiselyov's list" for children of 7-8th classes, about interethnic concerts and football and a great deal else. She said in particular: "Future of our country, life of our children and grandchildren depend on you and on quality of your work. Ethnic communities are ready to work with you over upbringing of good and respect to representatives of other peoples in young generation".
      On April 23 in exhibition hall "Manezh" of Kazan Kremlin a ceremony of opening of republican pedagogical workshop "Lessons of the Holocaust - a way to tolerance" took place. Workshops of this kind take place all around Russian within the target program of fund "Holocaust" with support of grant of the President of RF Dmitry Medvedev. The objective of forum is the acquaintance of school pedagogues with methods of teaching of the Holocaust subject as well as with necessity of its teaching within studying of the Great Patriotic war.
      On June 22 in Ulyanovsk supporters of party "United Russia" held an action "AntiFa" - they painted over drawings of Nazi symbols. St. George bands were drawn on the places of fascist symbols.
      On June 23 the "Day of memory and grieve" of Stavropol Jewish community took place in the forest where the Jews were executed in August 1942.
      On September 6 in the Public chamber of Russia a meeting of Commission on interethnic relations and freedom of conscience took place presided by Nikolay Svanidze. The meeting was devoted to textbook by A. Barsenkov and A. Vdovin "History of Russia. 1917-2009" containing direct anti-Semitic passages. At the same time the textbook was approved by educational-methodic association of Ministry of education and received a classification "recommended".
      Expert of Moscow anti-fascist center and Moscow bureau for human rights Viktor Dashevsky noted that the tutorial had "three and a half" editions (first edition, 2002, covered the period of 1938-2001) and "spread broadly". "It is popular, school teachers read it", Dashevsky stressed. The expert also stressed that the book is partially based upon forged documents including notorious "Dulles Plan" allegedly developed in 1945.
      Summarizing the meeting, Nikolay Svanidze thanked all those who spoke and noted that the final document of hearings would be sent to the Ministry of education, Office of general public prosecutor, and Presidential Commission of counteraction to attempts of falsification of history.
      On September 15 the Academic council of historical faculty of MSU named after M.V. Lomonosov published its decision concerning the situation with the tutorial by A. Barsenkov and A. Vdovin. "The authors' tutorial … does not reflect the position of the Academic council concerning some facts and assessments contained in the edition. The tutorial text contains facts causing doubt of their reliability", the document stressed. At the same time the Academic council "expressed the concern" that "the discussion of authors' tutorial by professors A.S. Barsenkov and A.I. Vdovin exceeded the bounds of a scientific discussion and takes place with politicized, politically commented assessments and in some cases became a tool of PR-campaigns. In our opinion, the discussion should be held first of all within a skilled scientific expert examination". According to decision of the Council, expert commission was created presided by academician of RAS, professor Yu.S. Kukushkin.
      On September 17 appeal of some human rights activists and cultural figures appeared in support of N. Svanidze. The statement titled "Textbooks should not sow hatred" noted that recently "a real campaign started for harassment" of Nikolay Svanidze. The meeting of the Public chamber on September 6 and suggestion to appeal to the office of public prosecutor concerning signs of incitement of interethnic hostility and dissension in the textbook by A. Barsenkov and A. Vdovin arranged by N. Svanidze became a cause for harassment. "In fact the campaign is based upon the strongest irritation about consistent anti-totalitarian and anti-chauvinist position of historian and journalist Svanidze … Even brief acquaintance with this "tutorial" shows that in some moments it is biased, extremely prejudiced, and it does not suit to be a tutorial already from this point of view. But it is also most questionable and dangerous, would it be even a usual historiosophic work of some quality … Policy that had led to crimes against humanity, to repressions, to ethnic, religious or social discrimination can't be approved in textbooks anyway. But these are such attacks on some ethnoses, almost open substantiation of ethnic discrimination and political repressions that are contained in some ways in the scandalous tutorial … So this textbook should be a subject of not a scientific discussion but of a studying from the point of view of availability of propaganda of hatred … Unfortunately pseudo-scientific works saturated with xenophobia are broadly published in Russia for already 20 years, and this played some role in considerable popularity of fascist moods, in committing of big number of murders and other crimes motivated by ethnic and ideological hatred. We are positive that there shouldn't be any protection of misanthropic policy in textbooks. We also think that prevention of publication of works of this kind breaking the Constitution of RF is a very important task of civil society today", the appeal summarized. It was signed by writer B. Strugatsky, Ye. Bonner, human rights activists L. Alexeyeva, S. Gannushkina, L. Ponomaryov, S. Kovalyov, V. Borshchov, writers and journalists L. Grafova, N. Katerli etc.
      On September 20 the President of Federation of Jewish communities of Russia A.M. Boroda sent a letter addressed to the rector of MSU V.A. Sadovnichy in connection with publication of tutorial by A.S. Barsenkov and A.I. Vdovin "History of Russia. 1917-2009". The letter stated: "Jewish community of Russia watches the teaching activity of professors of MSU A.S. Barsenkov and A.I. Vdovin with concern for already long time. Nationalistic and biased position of above-mentioned lecturers in assessment of modern history of Russia caused our concern and perplexity. The tutorial by A.S. Barsenkov and A.I. Vdovin "History of Russia. 1917-2009" (M.: ASPECT-PRESS, 2010) became the most recent and probably most scandalous. Position of Federation of Jewish communities of Russia is completely united with the opinion of public which called this textbook extremist literature creating conditions for incitement of interethnic hatred in our multi-ethnic state.
      FEOR requests from you, esteemed Viktor Antonovich, to hold an internal investigation of this fact and take necessary measures as far as possible for suppression of anti-Semitic and other xenophobic propaganda in your educational institution, to give an assessment of activity of professors A.S. Barsenkov and A.I. Vdovin and solve a problem of their professional suitability.
      Our organization would not like to bring the case to trial and investigatory examination but the extent of public discussion around the tutorial makes us think about such possibility seriously", A. Boroda summarized.
      Early in October suggestions of recommendation character were published on website of the Public chamber basing upon results of meeting of Commission of the Public chamber of RF on interethnic relations and freedom of conscience devoted to discussion of contents of textbook by A. Barsenkov and A. Vdovin. The recommendations stated in particular: "Acquaintance with this textbook brings to conclusion that it contains biased views and interpretation of history in the vein of radical nationalism and that its considerable part contradicts historical facts, ignores conclusions of modern scholars and contradicts the provisions of the Constitution of Russian Federation … Assessing the recent edition of tutorial "History of Russia. 1917-2009", the participants of hearing recommend:
      1) to the Ministry of education and science of RF, Union of rectors of Russia - to increase efficiency and responsibility of scientific-methodic structures operating in the system of higher humanitarian education - such as meetings of departments, faculty Academic Councils, Education-methodic councils (UMS) and Educational-methodic association (UMO) on classical university education.
      2) to appeal to the Ministry of education and science of RF with suggestion to hold hearings with attraction of scientists and public devoted to the problems of holding of expert examination of educational literature with the purpose of detection of xenophobic and nationalistic elements in it".
      In mid-November the expert commission created by the Academic Council of historical faculty of MSU published its resolution concerning the textbook by A. Vdovin and A. Barsenkov. On one hand, <br/><br/>(Message over 64 KB, truncated)
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