--- In email@example.com
, "thomasruhm" <thomas@...> wrote:
> Hello Ben,
> the Parra flag looks similar to the Mars flag.
Which Mars flag is that? I'm sure there have been many over the years.
> I did not read your whole post yet. The Crimea mostly interesting for me because of Crimean Gothic.
The Parra lexicon has a few words I took from "Gothic," more accurately from Proto-Germanic checked against the few online sources I have for Crimean Gothic, then adapted into Parra. (Any help toward other sources would be appreciated.) The words include esmit (smith), groba (tomb), lant (land), and sutup (dust).
* * *
Here are the next two sections on the grammar. I appreciate constructive criticism here, as this is a first attempt that I have already revised several times.
- Personal Pronouns -
Largely inherited from old Lingua Franca:
1st = mi
2nd = tu
3rd = il (M), ila (F)
1st = nos
2nd = vos
3rd = lis
- Possessive pronouns -
Possessives are placed after noun possessed. They originated as prepositional phrases.
1st = demi
2nd = deti
3rd = dil (M), dila (F)
1st = denes
2nd = deves
3rd = deles
- Reflexive pronoun -
esi = oneself, oneselves, each other
Inherent reflexive actions were largely lost in LF. Esi comes from özü, a Crimean Tatar pronoun that serves as an all-purpose reflexive in Parra. Under Russian influence the use of reflexives has expanded, namely for reciprocal actions and for anticausative physical actions; but _inherent_ reflexives per se have not come back.
Constantin para esi = Constantine is talking to himself.
Oso dila ropato esi = Her bone broke (itself).
Lis ama esi = They love each other.
- Indefinite pronouns -
uno = somebody/something
Uno can be paired with omo or cosa when needed to specify "somebody" or "something," but this is not needed. Plural is unu.
Coprato uno ce ne volato = I bought something I didn't want.
Tu vola piju unu saba? = Do you want a few more?
Parra's "normal" demonstrative pronouns are:
ves = this
vel = that (near listener)
o = that (over there)
vesi = these
veli = those (near listener)
oju = those (over there)
Only the singular forms are used proclitically (before nouns). So:
Veli baca = Look at those.
Vel omu baca = Look at those people.
The direction words for here and there (and "over there") can be used before nouns in exactly the same way as demonstratives. In fact, the direction words are more common than the "regular" demonstratives in the proclitic position. Note that the two Romance-derived words are mandatory reduplicated forms (see also "Vocabulary," below).
viví = here.
Tuto viví çocucu sabu nagino = All these children know how to read.
lalá = there.
Vanto pecem lalá videjo-discu? = How much for those video disks (near you)?
ojer = there.
Ci vive a ojer ca? = Who lives in that house (over there)?