Re: Rev. date
- Dear Mark,
<<<If you could show that Revelation was quoted by New
Testament authors, that would really make your case for
Revelation being written even earlier, such as in 62 A.D. as you
This is precisely so. If Paul and Peter assuming we accept
their authorship of the letters in their names died in 64 as per
tradition, then for them to have quoted the Revelation means that
it must have preceded that date.
<<< John A.T. Robinson discusses some of these parallel
themes in his book. (1) He cites many similar themes in Jude,
2nd Peter, and Revelation.>>>
While Robinson argued for the completion of the NT before AD
70, if I remember rightly, he still places the Revelation last. The
similar themes he notes do indicate that the books were written
around the same time, but nothing more for certain. I believe the
evidence is that many books indicate a familiarity with the
Revelation. If I may, I will repeat my previous post but indicate
some of the passages that show this familiarity.
[[[I have argued that 1 Peter, 1 John and Ephesians were the
immediate responses of Peter, John and Paul, respectively, to
the Revelation to encourage the believers in the face of the
I believe that John sought the opinion / verification / support of
Paul and Peter and the three agreed to write (circular) letters to
encourage the church in the face of what was expected, i.e. the
tribulation preceding the return of Christ. Their letters were likely
to have been distributed together, particularly around Asia.
1 PETER known by some as an epistle of suffering was
addressed to Asia (and other places) and warns of a short
period of suffering expected of the brotherhood throughout the
world (5:9-10, c.f. 1:6; 4:12). The end of all things was at hand
(4:7) thought Peter and the time of suffering would be terminated
with their restoration to `eternal glory in Christ' (5:10). Peter wrote
from Babylon (5:13). Babylon is used in an allegorical sense
seven times in the NT, here and six times in the Revelation. In
the context of the Revelation, Peter knew where he was when he
wrote (i.e. Rome).
1 JOHN John knew they were living not in the last days but `the
last hour' (1:18) and goes on there to speak of the antichrist and
the many antichrists, the presence of the latter being a portend of
the coming of the former. This was a time of great deception
EPHESIANS Historically known to have been addressed to
both Ephesus and Laodicea, both churches of the Revelation
(Rev 2-3) and probably to other places, it is most notable here in
6:10ff, "For we are not contending against flesh and blood "
All three letters provide great exhortations in the major themes of
the gospel, which must have been their primary intention.
Interestingly, and some commentators mention this, there is a
strong connection between Ephesians and 1 Peter. There are
similar terms (e.g. the greeting of 1:3 in both; `before the
foundation of the world' Eph 1:4; 1 Pet 1;20; c.f. Rev 13:8; 17:8)
and, especially in the first two chapters, structural similarities.
The reason for this, I believe, is that Paul sent Peter a draft if
not the full text of Ephesians to help him in the writing of his
letter. Silvanus (Paul's co-worker) would have taken it to Peter
with that apostle's copy of the Revelation (1 Pet 5:12).
[[[They were followed by James (James - in Jerusalem - largely
used 1 Peter and no later than September 62 he was killed by
the end of that month). ]]]
I suspect that copies of the three letters already mentioned were
sent to Jerusalem with a copy of the Revelation. Given Peter's
recognition as Apostle to the Jews it is not surprising to find that
James borrowed heavily from his letter. The date of James'
death is very significant.
JAMES Begins with the issue of suffering (1:2-4 and its value).
He makes an interesting reference to the `crown of life' (1:12). It
is mentioned elsewhere only in Rev 2:10. James understood
that the coming of the Lord was at hand (5:7-8) and that the
Judge was standing at the door (5:10; c.f. Rev 3:20 `Behold I
stand at the door and knock')
[[[Accompanying Ephesians and dealing with similar issues was
COLOSSIANS The content here is very similar to Ephesians, it
almost certainly went out with the same courier (Tychicus Eph
6:21; Col 4:7) and was to be shared with Laodicea (4:16) just as
they were to read the letter to Laodicea (probably the letter we
know as Ephesians).
The rest of my previous post follows, but I will not add comments
to it unless you want them. What I have given above is only a
brief account of the relationship between the letters themselves
and the Revelation. I have addressed this more thoroughly in a
lecture series which I hope, one day, to put together as a booklet.
[[[In 63 1 Timothy and Titus were written as Paul prepared the
churches around the Aegean Sea and, in 64, 2 Timothy, 2 Peter
and the Gospel of Mark, the latter two accompanying one
another. Jude was written as a local (probably Jerusalem)
response to 2 Peter just as James had used 1 Peter.
Nero's persecutions probably began at the end (November /
December) of 64.]]]
As you suggested, this is significant for the dating of the
- This article Thomas B. SLATER Biblica 84 (2003) 252-258 may be of interest
to the list
+ + + Victoria, B.C., Canada + + +
Catch the foxes for us,
the little foxes that make havoc of the vineyards,
for our vineyards are in flower. (Song 2.15)