Re: The hidden manna and the white stone (Rev 2)
- Lund suggests (and I concur) that the letters chiastically correspond with
a second set of seven angels:
The First Angel (17:1-18)
The Second Angel (18:1-20)
The Third Angel (18:21-24)
A Heavenly Scene (19:1-10)
The Fourth Angel's Place: Jesus (19:11-16)
The Fifth Angel (19:17-21)
The Sixth Angel (20:1-15)
A Heavenly Scene (21:1-8)
The Seventh Angel (21:9-22:5)
Don't expect Revelation's chiasm and parallels to be obviously
regular. The author frequently jumps among many structural forms. At the
highest level he uses a 3-1-3 setup that puts Jesus in the center of the
action as follows:
Three letters <----> Three angels
One Letter (Jesus in Intro and Promise, Rod of Iron) <--
--> Jesus in Angel's Place (Rod of Iron)
Three letters <----> Three angels
Other parallels from the seven letters are scattered among the seven
angels. I would not be surprised to find a regular pattern, but I haven't
seen it yet.
I haven't pushed much harder than that on lower level parallels (yet), but
the conceptual similarities in the two sections abound. For instance,
stones and food feature prominently in the first three angels. Also look
at 19:12 for the name "that no man knew, but he himself."
You may want to check out:
Wong, Daniel K. K. "The Hidden Manna and the White Stone in Revelation
2:17." BSac 155, no. 619 (1998): 346-54.
as well as
Wilson, Mark Wayne. "A Pie in a Very Bleak Sky? Analysis and
Appropriation of the Promise Sayings in the Seven Letters to the
Churches in Revelation 2--3." Doctor of Literature and
Philosophy-dissertation, University of South Africa, 1996.
Wilson's thesis is a very comprehensive survey and analysis of both
intratextual and historical connections. You will no doubt find it
useful. I don't think it has been published (yet), but perhaps he will
send you an electronic copy? I think he may even be on this list. If
not, perhaps you can find him via Regent College or University in
Vancouver. I know that he was teaching there some time ago. If any of
you list members know where he is currently teaching, please, let us
I may have some thoughts on the issue of the hidden manna and the white
stone, but, unfortunately, I am too busy right now.
Georg S. Adamsen
Ass. Prof. of NT, LSTA
From: Greg Clarke [mailto:gregjclarke@...]
Sent: Sunday, December 16, 2001 7:55 AM
Subject: [revelation-list] The hidden manna and the white stone (Rev 2)
- firstname.lastname@example.org writes:
>I may have some thoughts on the issue of the hidden manna and the email@example.com writes:
>stone, but, unfortunately, I am too busy right now.
>Georg S. Adamsen
>Ass. Prof. of NT, LSTA
>what views do people have on the sources for the hidden manna and whiteThanks, Greg and Georg. A related excursion might explore the works of
>Ädoes anyone have a view on how or whether the promise of 2:17 might be
>fulfilled in the narrative?
>Thank you very much
Peder Borgen and myself on the homiletical developments of manna rhetoric
in Philo, the midrashim, and the Gospel of John. Borgen's main source is
his monograph, _Bread from Heaven_ (Brill), and mine is _The Christology
of the Fourth Gospel; Its Unity and Disunity in the Light of John 6_
A related essay of mine ("The Sitz im Leben of the Johannine Bread of Life
Discourse and its Evolving Context" in _Critical Readings of John 6_, ed.
by Alan Culpepper, E. J. Brill, 1997, pp.1-59) considers four ways in
which death-producing food (typified by the miscomprehensions of Jesus'
discussants) is contrasted to the life-producing food which Jesus gives
and is. Coincitendally, these four types of inauthentic food (note
parallels between John 6:27 and the way of death / way of life of the
Didache) match a scenario of Johannine Christianity's history involving
four crises also implied in the Johannine Apocalypse (in addition to the
Roman crisis in the background, not these four sequential-but-overlapping
crises: Synoptic-type thaumaturgy versus revelational semeiology, the
"bread" of the Torah versus the eschatologically present workings of God,
the "nourishment" of Jesus' obedience and the way of the cross versus
docetizing assimilation with Rome, and attentiveness to Jesus who holds
the keys to life and death versus structuralistic approaches to church
order -- see Tables 20 and 21 in my book).
The Revelation reference to hidden manna relates, I believe, to the
nourishment that sustains one existentially despite outward hardship
endured because of one's faithfulness to the way of God as one understood
it. The hiddenness relates to the paradoxcial character of suffering
endured for one's faithulness in the light of Roman pressures toward
imperial assimilation. I'll let someone else comment on the white stone.
Paul N. Anderson