Hello to All Members
- Dear Members of group
I had joined to this group to exchange ideas, notes, views for conservation and study of coral reefs. i would really think that this will help us all to save the dying marine ecology around us.
I'm from Jamnagar (GUJARAT, INDIA) situated at The Gulf Of Kutchch, and we have around 42 islands and some of them are with beautiful and facinating coral reefs. but due to pollution and other threats by human activity we are loosing the reefs now. i'm also putting the species of corals found in this area with this e-mail.
The Gulf of Kachchh reefs are the northern most reefs of Indian sub-continent, occurring as fringing reefs around 42 islands on the southern flank of the Gulf. The extents of reef cover and coral diversity (37 species under 22 genera) are low, because of the isolation and extreme environmental conditions. The reefs were healthy about 3 decades back but continued human interference (coral mining, dredging, siltation, pollution) since then has caused a severe loss of coral cover. Estimates of the impact of 1998 bleaching suggest that 50-70% of the corals were affected. The most important anthropogenic threat to Gulf of Kachchh reefs at present is the rapidly expanding industrialization on the coast. The reefs enjoy legal protection as Marine National Park but better enforcement, systematic monitoring and a clear long-term management strategy are urgently reeded.
The Gulf of Kachchh (22º 15' - 23º 40' N and 68º 20' - 70º 40' E) is an indentation in the Saurashtra peninsula of the west coast of India, oriented approximately in the east-west direction occupying an area of about 7350 km2. The width at the mouth of the Gulf is about 75 km2, which narrows down abruptly at 72° 20'E and divides into a number of creek systems. Water depth in the Gulf ranges from 15 to 55 m, the deeper areas (>20 m) occurring along the axial part of the Gulf along which east - west flowing high tidal currents prevail. There are about 42 islands on the southern flank of the Gulf (22º 20' - 22º 40' N and 69º - 70º E), all of them having fringing reefs. These are the northern-most reefs of India. Numerous sandy shoals front the northern shore, with scattered coral colonies (Deshmukhe et al., 2000).
Fringing reefs occur on the wave-cut sandstone banks around the islands. The growth, reef expanse and biodiversity are relatively poor prompting the reefs to be also called as patchy reefs rather than fringing (Pillai et al., 1980). All coral species are of massive form. Branching corals like Acropora, Pocillopora, Stylophora and Seritopora are totally absent.
Despite the industrial development, the rural economy is poor. Fishing is an important source of income. Tourism to reef areas has not been developed at all. Income from reef resources is unimportant to the nation's economy
The Gulf of Kachchh reefs (22 º 15' - 23º 40' N and 68º 20' - 70 º 40' E) are the northern most reefs of India. There are about 42 islands on the southern flank of the Gulf, all of them having fringing reefs.
Reef Structure and Corals:
Fringing reefs occur on the wave-cut sandstone banks aroun the islands. The growth, reef expanse and biodiversity is relatively poor prompting the reefs to be also called as patchy reefs rathern than fringing. All coral species are of the massive form. Branching corals like Acropora, Pocillopora, Stylophora and Seritopora are totally absent.
Noteworthy Fauna and Flora:
Shores other than those formed from coral reefs are composed largely of sand & mud, and have high abundance of invertebrate. Leatherback Dermochelys coriacea, Olive Ridley Lepodochelys olivacea and Green turtle Chelonia mydas are occasionally found.
The area includes the northern-most mangrove forests of the west coast and the only mangrove forests in Gujarat.
Status of Reef & disturbance / deficiencies:
The dredging of sand for the cement industry has caused substantial destruction of the natural habitat. The associated increase in turbidity may be the most important factor in the decline of marine life.
Mangroves are cut intensively for fuel and have been virtually destroyed in some areas.
Another most important threat for this region is growing urbanization and industrialization. This coast is the site for a large number of mega-industries including petroleum refineries.
Despite the industrial development, the rural economy is poor. Fishing is an important source of imcome. Tourism to reef areas has not been developed at all.
Order : Scleractinia
Sub-Order : Astrocoeniina
Family : THAMNASTERIIDAE
Genus : Psammocora Dana
P.digitata Milne Edwards & Haime
Family : ACROPORIDAE
Genus : Acropora Oken
A. humilis (Dana)
A. squarrosa (Ehrenberg)
Genus : Montipora de Blainville
M. explanata Brueggeman
M. turgescens Bernard
M. monastriata (Forskal)
M. venosa (Ehrenberg)
M. hispida (Dana)
M. foliosa (Pallas)
Suborder : Fungiina
Superfamily : Agariciicae
Family : SIDERASTERIDAE
Genus : Siderastera de Blainville
S. savignyana Milne Edwards & Haime
Genus : Pseudosiderastrea Yabe & Sugiyama
P. tayami Yabe and Sugiyama
Genus : Cosctnaraea Milne Edwards & Haime
C. monile (Forskal)
Superfamily : Poriticae
Family : PROTIDAE
Genus : Goniopora de Blainville
G. nigra Pillai
G. minor Crossland
G. planulata (Ehrenberg)
Genus : Porites Link
P. lutea Milne Edwards & Haime
P. lichen Dana
P. compressa Dana
Suborder : Favina
Subfamily : Faviinae
Genus : Piestastrea Milne Edwards &
P. versipora (Lamarck)
Genus : Favia (Oken)
F. stelligera (Dana)
F. speciosa (Dana)
F. flvus (Forskal)
Genus : Favites Link
F. complanta (Ehrenberg)
F. melicerum (Ehrenberg)
Genus : Goniastrea Milne Edwards & Haime
G. pectinata (Ehrenberg)
Genus : Platygyra Ehrenberg
P. sinensis (Milne Edwards and Haime)
Genus : Hydnophora Fischer de Waldheim
Subfamily : Moniastreinae
Genus : Leptastrea Milne Edwards & Haime
L. purpurea (Dana)
Genus : Cyphastrea Milne Edwards & Haime
C. serailia (Forskal)
Family : MUSSIDAE
Genus : Acanthastrea MED & H
A. simplex Crossland
Genus : Symphyllia MED & H
S. radians Milne Edwards & Haime
Family : PECTINUDAE
Genus : Myceditum Oken
M. elephantotus (Pallas)
Suborder : Caryophyllina
Family : CARYOPHYLLIDAE
Genus : Paracyathus MED & H
P. stokesi Milne Edwards and Haime
Genus : Polycyathus Duncan
P. verrilli Duncan
Suborder : Dendrophyllina
Family : DENDROPHYLLIIDAE
Genus : Tubastrea Lesson
T. aurea (Quoy and Gaimard)
Genus : Dendrophyillia de Blainville
D. minuscula Bourne
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