Radoshkovich: Christian history of
- RADOSHKOVICH: a Christian history, from:
MATERIAL ABOUT THE HISTORY AND GEOGRAPHY OF
DISNA AND VILEIKA DISTRICT VILNA PROVINCE
Izdanie A. Sapunova and Prince V. Drutskoy-Lubyetskoy
Vitebsk Typo-Lithography of Province1896
translated from Russian to English courtesy of Jerome Ruderman
The great Lithuanian prince, Alexander, "gave Radoshkovich to Prince Vasily
Michailovich Vereyski." His daughter, Princess Sofia, married Albrecht
Gashtold, Voevoda of Vilno Province to whom went Radoshkovich. In 1525 "the
Veovoda of Vilno, Kanzler Olbracht Martinovich Kgashtolt, bought from Jan and
Matias Khryshanovichov, noblemen from the Vilno District, their father's
estate. It was near property of his Grace, Radoshkovichov."
According to a survey in 1569, Radoshkovich was listed as the King's estate
with a castle and adjacent land.
"Before the Luvliny Union (1569), the king, Sigismund-August, gave the town
of Radoshkovich to Kalenizky-Tyshkevich for a known amount of cash for
From 1576-79, the elderman of the town of Radoshkovich was Jan Janovich
Glebovich, in 1594 - Jan Glebovich, in 1609 Nicolay Janovich Glebovich; at
the end of the XVIII century, until 1762, the town elderman was Prince Antony
Oginsky. From 1762 - Michael Massalsky; on March 1, 1768 the privilege of
being an elderman was given to Stanislav and Feofila Brostovsky. On Sept. 20,
1774, consent was given by the king to replace Feofila Brostovsky with Prince
Nikolay Radivil, and consequently on Oct. 12, 1774, Feofila Brotovsky
conceded the estate of Radoshkovichi to Nikolay Radivil.
Quarterly payment was 3,199 zloty, 28 grosh, and giberny, 1,382 zloty.
Within its walls Radoshkovich had seen many regal guests; beneath the castle
walls were many bloody skirmishes.
In 1519 Russians were fighting here.
In 1568 the King Sigismund-August mobilized approximately 100,000 warriors to
fight with Ivan IV, the Terrible. Because of "a disagreement among the
shljachta and the indecision of the king," loud preparations ended with
nothing; the war was mockingly called was called a "cockfight."
During the reign of Alexy Michailovich Romanov (1645-76) Radoshkovich was
occupied by Russians. On Sept. 20, 1655 Tzar Alexy Michhailovich, himself,
was in Radoshkovich
In 1708 Karl XII lived in Radoshkovich for eleven days; Stanislav
Leshinsky was also here; Karl bid him farewell on June 13.
In 1709 a Swedish detachment was conquered here by Poles under the
guidance of Prince Grigory Oginsky.
During the reign of King Sigismund-August, Radoshkovich was included on a
list of fortified castles. Gvagnin also noted, "Radoshkovich [was a] castle
with a town."
By the middle of the XVI century Radoshkovich was already a town. Legend
held that at an earlier time the town was 5 miles in circumference. The
Magdenburg Law was received by the town only on Feb. 23, 1792.
Radoskovich, as stated in reference to the Magdeburg Law, is a free town and
all its inhabitants including people already living here, and any future
inhabitants not under serfdom and subject to the town's rules are considered
free people, and land within the city limits belonging to them, their houses,
villages and other lands, which belong to this town, we recognize as their
hereditary property. And because of the new laws for towns Radoshkovich is
free from all jurisdictions - zemskoy, voevodskoy, starostinskoy, zamkovoy .
Therefore none of the inhabitants of this town will be obligated to go to a
law-court, be it castle or elderman, but only, in accordance with today's
laws for towns, in a town's court, which was elected by the people now living
in this town. And if someone thinks the decision of the town's court too
burdensome, he has the right to appeal to appellate court, which was
legalized for the towns of Minsk province, or for us to appeal to Zadvorny
Accessory Court of the Great Lithuanian Principality, depending on the kind
of a business, as prescribed by the law.
The town was allowed to build a town-hall for gatherings and court's
functions and also to build in decent places meat and fish stalls, stores for
the benefit of the townsfolk, and a communal brick factory for the town.
[We] Grant him the Coat of Arms: the picture of St. Stefan, the Great Martyr;
this Coat of Arms is allowed to be used on town's seals and other stamps.
After annexation by Russia, the governor of Minsk, Tutolmin ordered that
Radoshkovich's city hall must use the Town Law which was issued by Empress
Catharine the Great in 1795. Radoshkovich remained a town till the 30's
Radoshkovich is the birthplace of the writer, Julian Horain.
The local church named "Protection of Mother of God" was built on an elevated
spot. It is obvious from the inventory that the church was already here in
1678. The present wooden Orthodox church, built with government money, was
blessed on Aug. 15, 1852; the former church in the name of St. Ilia, the
Prophet, was standing on Ilyinskoy Mound. Nowadays it is a cemetery.
At the time of the union this church had Iconostas. On the bell tower
there was one bell from 1754, another - 1755. On one of them is a sign:
A Roman-Catholic church was built for the first time in 1447 by Peter
Gedygoldovich and his wife Bogumila. In 1503 King Alexander [of Poland]
confirmed the old rules.
On Oct. 26, 1554 King Sigismund-August confirmed the privilege of using
four pustovshins of land.
In 1627 Stanislav Shvansky assigned 20 gold Polish coins and barrels of
wheat for the "glory of God" and for this alter, which was built in
In 1734 in place of an ancient and decrepit koszül, a new one was built,
also of wood; and when this one burned down, in 1855 the foundation of a
spacious stone koszül was laid. It was built with people's donations and
blessed in 1859. In the koszül there are highly revered statues of Jesus
Christ and St. Antony. The renowned [literary] critic, Alexander Tyshinsky,
once a professor at one of Warsaw's principal schools, is buried in the local
The formerly important provincial town of Radoshkovich is situated where
the river Guya, or Guyka, flows into the Vyasynka, by a post-road from Vilno
to Minsk, 52 versta from Vileika, and 140 versta from Vilno, at 54º10' north
latitude and 44º55' east longitude.
In 1793 Radoshkovich was in Minsk voevodstvo; after 1842 it was in Vilno
Legend has it that a castle once stood on the spot where the Volostnoye
administration building and a school [or college] now stand, supposedly of a
Queen Bona. Previously, bricks and human bones were found here.
Around the town there are 920 desiatin of land called "Krulevshina." In the
village of Tanelevo, a church was built in 1783 named for St. Nicholas. It is
now a cemetery church; previously, it was a parish church.