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Article: Fetal yawning - a behavior's birth with 4D UltraSound revealed

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  • Robert Karl Stonjek
    mise à jour du 22 avril 2007 Bâillement foetal Bâillement et développement comportemental chez le prématuré autres photos de bâillements foetaux Fetal
    Message 1 of 1 , Jan 1, 2008
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      mise à jour du
      22 avril 2007
      baby yawn
      Bâillement foetal
      Bâillement et
      développement comportemental
      chez le prématuré
      autres photos de bâillements foetaux

      fetal yawn

      Fetal yawning : a behavior's birth with 4D US revealed
      Bâillements du foetus: la naissance d'un comportement révélée par l'échographie 4D
      Abstract : The capacity of four-dimensional sonography to evaluate complex facial expressions allows recognition of a common behavior, yawning. Although there has been remarkably little interest in yawning in research and medical practice, even though it is an everyday phenomenon, we submit an original interpretation on the basis of knowledge derived from phylogeny and ontogeny. As a flip-flop switch, the reciprocal interactions between sleep- and wake-promoting brain regions allow the emergence of distinct states of arousal.
      By its ontogenical links with REM sleep, yawning appears as a behavior which procures an arousal reinforcement through the powerful stretch and the neuromuscular rewiring induced. Yawning indicates a harmonious progress in the development of both the brainstem and the peripheral neuromuscular function, testifying to the induction of an ultradian rhythm of vigilance. The lack of fetal yawn, frequently associated with lack of swallowing, associated or not with retrognathia, may be a key to predict a brainstem's dysfunction after birth. (en français) JIOG 2007

      Yawning and behavioral states in premature infants
      Giganti, F., M. J. Hayes, et al Dev Psychobiol 2002; 41(3); 289-96
      In human adults, yawning bas been related to a change in activity or arousal state and is, therefore, tied to CNS arousal modulation. Yawning is a precocious behavior that is observed sporadically in fetuses as early as 12 to 14 weeks of gestational age. No changes in the incidence of yawns between 20 and 36 weeks of gestational age have been observed in the fetus. In full-term infants, yawns were reported on the first day of life. In the only study to describe neonatal yawning in some detail, Wolff (The development of behavioral states and the expression of emotions in early infancy ; 1987; University Chicago press) observed that infant yawns occur mainly near, or possibly anticipating, the onset of sleep. State II sleep follows yawning with a mean latency of 7 min. The present study examined yawning during very early postnatal development in relation to contextual behaviors and spontaneous alterations in behavioral state of premature infants borned between 30 et 35 weeks post-conceptual age.
      Chez l'homme adulte, le bâillement apparait lors des changements d'activités et de niveaux de vigilance. C'est un comportement précoce qu'il est possible de distinguer dès 12 à 14 semaines de vie foetale. Aucune variation de fréquence des bâillements n'est notée entre 20 et 36 semaines de grossesse. Des bâillements sont notés chez les nouveaux-nés à terme au cours du premier jour de vie. Dans la seule étude publiée, Wolff (The development of behavioral states and the expression of emotions in early infancy ; 1987; University Chicago press) note que les bâillements de nouveau-nés à terme apparaissent essentiellement à l'approche de l'endormissement. Le sommeil de stade II suit les bâillements avec une latence de 7 mn. Le travail présenté ici étudie les bâillements et les comportements associés avec d'éventuels troubles de la vigilance, pendant les premiers jours de vie chez des prématurés nés entre 30 et 35 semaines.  

      Development of behaviors in preterm infants:

      relation to sleeping and waking
      Although both nurse, clinicians and researchers use infant behaviors to indicate the responses of preterm infant to stimulation, little is known about how the biological factors of development, sleeping and waking states, infant characteristics, and infant illness severity affect preterm infant behaviors.
      The study of Diane Holditch-Davis examined the development of eight infant behaviors (yawn, sigh, negative facial expression, startle/jerk, jitter, large body movement, mouth movements, hiccup, sleeping and waking states) over the preterm period and determined the relation of these behaviors to sleeping and waking and to infant characteristics and illness severity. Seventy-one preterm infants were observed from 7 to 11 pm weekly from the time they were no longer critical until term or discharge. The occurrence of four sleep-wake states and eight behaviors were recorded every 10-seconds during the observations.
      Negative facial expressions increased over the preterm period and sighs, startle/jerks, jitters, and the likelihood of having hiccups decreased. Infant characteristics had only minor effects: boys had more negative facial expressions, and longer mechanical ventilation was associated with more sighs and jitters. All behaviors showed state-related differences in frequency. In addition, only startle/jerks and jitters showed the same developmental patterns within each state.
      Significant development of infant behaviors occurs over the preterm period but involves changes not only in the absolute percentage of each behavior but also in the percentages within each sleeping and waking state. Thus, preterm infant behaviors can not be used clinically for assessment without consideration of the state in which they occur.
      Source: baillement.com (N°65)
      How many times did you yawn on your way down this page to my comment?
      Copy/paste+formatting was good for two yawns...
      Posted by
      Robert Karl Stonjek (Thanks Dr.O Walunsinski)
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