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[PrimeNumbers] Twin primes Criteria (Correction)

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  • Alan Powell
    Hi Flavio As Paul Jobling pointed out, your conjecture is equivalent to the criteria (2) and (3) below. A more thorough investigation shows that both these
    Message 1 of 1 , Mar 29, 2001
      Hi Flavio

      As Paul Jobling pointed out, your conjecture is equivalent to
      the criteria (2) and (3) below. A more thorough investigation
      shows that both these equivalent versions are indeed correct.

      Mike Oakes appears to be mistaken or I am missing something?

      I base this on the following Mathematica snippet:

      Do[p=Prime[i];
      If[Mod[p,4]==1, r=-1, r=+1];
      If[PrimeQ[p]&&PrimeQ[p+2],
      m=Mod[2((p-1)/2)!^2 - r(5*p+2),p(p+2)];
      If[m!=0,Print["False"];
      ];
      ];
      ,{i,2,PrimePi[10^4]}];

      In 1949 using Wilson's Theorem* P. A. Clement published
      a proof that p and p+2 are both prime ("twin primes")
      if and only if the following congruence holds:

      (1) 4((p-1)! + 1) + p = 0 [mod p(p+2)]

      Furthermore in 1995 Joseph B. Dence & Thomas P. Dence
      reduced the Clement criterion to the following two criteria:

      (2) 2((((p-1)/2)!)^2 + 1) + 5p = 0 [mod p(p+2)]
      if and only if p and p+2 are primes and p=4k+1

      (3) 2((((p-1)/2)!)^2 - 1) - 5p = 0 [mod p(p+2)]
      if and only if p and p+2 are primes and p=4k-1

      A similar criterion exists for the primality of p and p+d:

      If p>1 and d>1 are both integers, then p and p+d are both
      prime if and only if:

      ( 1 ((-1)^d)d! ) 1 1
      (4) (p-1)! ( - + ---------- ) + - + --- is an integer
      ( p p+d ) p p+d

      In addition P. A. Clement's paper proves similar necessary and
      sufficient criteria for prime triples p, p+2 and p+6 as well
      as prime quadruplets p, p+2, p+6, p+8. If these are of general
      interest I can post them to the list.

      Regards

      Alan Powell

      * Wilson's Theorem:
      An integer p>1 is prime if and only if (p-1)! + 1 = 0 [mod p]


      At 09:06 AM 3/27/01, torasso.flavio@... wrote:

      > I found the following rule concerning twin primes:
      > n and n+2 are both prime iff
      > 2 [(n-1)/2]!^2 = \pm (5n+2) mod n(n+2)
      > the sign being "+" when n=4k-1, "-" when n=4k+1.
      >
      > Is it an interesting or trivial result?
      > Are there similar congruences for other prime pairs?
      >
      > Thanks for any comments
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