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Reagan, the South and Civil Rights

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  • Ram Lau
    Reagan, the South and Civil Rights By Juan Williams http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=1953700&columnId=1929301 NPR.org, June 10, 2004 ·
    Message 1 of 7 , Jan 17, 2007
    • 0 Attachment
      Reagan, the South and Civil Rights
      By Juan Williams
      http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=1953700&columnId=1929301

      NPR.org, June 10, 2004 · Forty years after the passage of 1964 Civil
      Rights Act, history and politics are celebrating a strange
      convergence: It was the passage of the Civil Rights Act that launched
      the rise of the president who died last week, Ronald Reagan.

      The Civil Rights Act, signed July 2, 1964, by President Lyndon
      Johnson, ended legal discrimination against blacks at hotels,
      restaurants and department stores. It also made discrimination illegal
      in hiring. Barry Goldwater, the Republican presidential nominee that
      year, decided to make himself a voice for opponents of the Act.

      Goldwater said he supported the white Southern position on civil
      rights, which was that each and every state had a sovereign right to
      control its laws. The Arizona Republican argued that each American has
      the right to decide whom to hire, whom to do business with and whom to
      welcome in his or her restaurant. The senator was right at home with
      Southern politicians who called the Civil Rights Act an attack on "the
      Southern way of life."

      To overcome the forces arrayed against the bill, Johnson needed every
      bit of his political skill and every bit of emotional aftermath from
      the previous November's assassination of President John F. Kennedy.
      But once the bill had passed, Johnson told confidants that Democrats
      might have lost the South to Republicans for years to come. He was
      exactly right.

      Today the South is solidly Republican. In every presidential election
      since 1964 -- save the election of Jimmy Carter in 1976 -- Dixie has
      been the heart of GOP presidential politics. The white Southern vote
      was key to the Republican takeover of Congress in 1994, and President
      George W. Bush was elected in 2000 because he carried every Southern
      state.

      Ronald Reagan was key to the South's transition to Republican
      politics. Goldwater got the ball rolling, but Reagan was at his side
      from the very beginning. During the 1964 campaign, Reagan gave
      speeches in support of Goldwater and spoke out for what he called
      individual rights -- read that also as states' rights. Reagan also and
      portrayed any opposition as support for totalitarianism -- read that
      as communism.

      In 1976, Reagan sought the Republican nomination against the incumbent
      President Gerald Ford. Reagan's campaign was on the ropes until the
      primaries hit the Southern states, where he won his first key victory
      in North Carolina. Throughout the South that spring and summer, Reagan
      portrayed himself as Goldwater's heir while criticizing Ford as a
      captive of Eastern establishment Republicans fixated on forced
      integration.

      Reagan lost the nomination to Ford in 1976. But when the former
      California governor ran for the presidency again in 1980, he began his
      campaign with a controversial appearance in Philadelphia, Miss., where
      three civil rights workers had been brutally killed. It was at that
      sore spot on the racial map that Reagan revived talk about states'
      rights and curbing the power of the federal government.

      To many it sounded like code for announcing himself as the candidate
      for white segregationists. After he defeated President Carter, a
      native Southerner, Reagan led an administration that seemed to cater
      to Southerners still angry over the passage of the Civil Rights Act
      after 16 years. The Reagan team condemned busing for school
      integration, opposed affirmative action and even threatened to veto a
      proposed extension of the Voting Rights Act (the sequel to the 1964
      Civil Rights Act passed a year later and focused on election
      participation). President Reagan also tried to allow Bob Jones
      University, a segregated Southern school, to reclaim federal tax
      credits that had long been denied to racially discriminatory institutions.

      The genial Californian Republican denied there was any racism implicit
      in those policies. Even when he was characterizing poor women as
      welfare queens driving around in pink Cadillacs, he said it was a
      merely matter of encouraging people to pull themselves up by the
      bootstraps. The America he seemed to envision had no need to deal with
      racial divisions, and he said his only desire was to encourage
      self-sufficiency for all Americans and to reduce all Americans'
      dependence on government programs.

      Today it is hard to believe that Reagan had such success using the
      Civil Rights Act as a whipping boy. The Civil Rights Act is now so
      widely accepted that it doesn't attract controversy in any region of
      the country -- including the South. There is no debate about the right
      of black people, Hispanics or Asians to stay in a hotel, shop in a
      store or to apply for a job without fear of racial discrimination.

      In 2004, minorities are one-third of the national population and it is
      hard to understand how anyone could have ever argued in favor of
      allowing states to practice racial discrimination. It is even harder
      to remember that in June of 1963 President Kennedy -- with race riots
      threatening to erupt nationwide -- had to go on national TV to say
      that arguments over whether blacks could eat at a lunch counter were
      creating a moral crisis for a nation.

      After Kennedy's death, Johnson was able to accelerate what Dr. Martin
      Luther King had called "a horse and buggy pace" on civil rights
      legislation. To lessen Southern opposition, the former senator from
      Texas stripped voting rights out of the bill and made it clear that
      the act did not require racial quotas for hiring employees.

      Johnson's maneuvers won him support from moderate Republicans as well
      as from Democrats in the North, Midwest and West. But the South was
      not won over. And as Johnson predicted, his victory had a bitter after
      taste. It sent the likes of Sen. Strom Thurmond of South Carolina and
      eventually other leading Southern politicians into the embrace of the
      Republican Party. And there they found themselves in the company of
      another former Democrat, Ronald Reagan.

      Now the nation celebrates the life and legacy of Reagan with a state
      funeral just days before celebrations are scheduled to begin for the
      40th anniversary of the Civil Rights Act. Reagan's funeral, no doubt,
      will get far more attention.

      But every day America is a celebration of the change created by the
      1964 Civil Rights Act. That ongoing celebration of racial equality and
      racial justice has outlived President Reagan. But the racial
      polarization that characterized his presidency lives on as well.
    • THOMAS JOHNSON
      Great post, Ram.. Incidentally, can anyone think of a more important American historical figure in the 20th century than MLK? Tom ...
      Message 2 of 7 , Jan 17, 2007
      • 0 Attachment
        Great post, Ram.. Incidentally, can anyone think of a
        more important American historical figure in the 20th
        century than MLK?

        Tom




        --- Ram Lau <ramlau@...> wrote:

        > Reagan, the South and Civil Rights
        > By Juan Williams
        >
        http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=1953700&columnId=1929301
        >
        > NPR.org, June 10, 2004 · Forty years after the
        > passage of 1964 Civil
        > Rights Act, history and politics are celebrating a
        > strange
        > convergence: It was the passage of the Civil Rights
        > Act that launched
        > the rise of the president who died last week, Ronald
        > Reagan.
        >
        > The Civil Rights Act, signed July 2, 1964, by
        > President Lyndon
        > Johnson, ended legal discrimination against blacks
        > at hotels,
        > restaurants and department stores. It also made
        > discrimination illegal
        > in hiring. Barry Goldwater, the Republican
        > presidential nominee that
        > year, decided to make himself a voice for opponents
        > of the Act.
        >
        > Goldwater said he supported the white Southern
        > position on civil
        > rights, which was that each and every state had a
        > sovereign right to
        > control its laws. The Arizona Republican argued that
        > each American has
        > the right to decide whom to hire, whom to do
        > business with and whom to
        > welcome in his or her restaurant. The senator was
        > right at home with
        > Southern politicians who called the Civil Rights Act
        > an attack on "the
        > Southern way of life."
        >
        > To overcome the forces arrayed against the bill,
        > Johnson needed every
        > bit of his political skill and every bit of
        > emotional aftermath from
        > the previous November's assassination of President
        > John F. Kennedy.
        > But once the bill had passed, Johnson told
        > confidants that Democrats
        > might have lost the South to Republicans for years
        > to come. He was
        > exactly right.
        >
        > Today the South is solidly Republican. In every
        > presidential election
        > since 1964 -- save the election of Jimmy Carter in
        > 1976 -- Dixie has
        > been the heart of GOP presidential politics. The
        > white Southern vote
        > was key to the Republican takeover of Congress in
        > 1994, and President
        > George W. Bush was elected in 2000 because he
        > carried every Southern
        > state.
        >
        > Ronald Reagan was key to the South's transition to
        > Republican
        > politics. Goldwater got the ball rolling, but Reagan
        > was at his side
        > from the very beginning. During the 1964 campaign,
        > Reagan gave
        > speeches in support of Goldwater and spoke out for
        > what he called
        > individual rights -- read that also as states'
        > rights. Reagan also and
        > portrayed any opposition as support for
        > totalitarianism -- read that
        > as communism.
        >
        > In 1976, Reagan sought the Republican nomination
        > against the incumbent
        > President Gerald Ford. Reagan's campaign was on the
        > ropes until the
        > primaries hit the Southern states, where he won his
        > first key victory
        > in North Carolina. Throughout the South that spring
        > and summer, Reagan
        > portrayed himself as Goldwater's heir while
        > criticizing Ford as a
        > captive of Eastern establishment Republicans fixated
        > on forced
        > integration.
        >
        > Reagan lost the nomination to Ford in 1976. But when
        > the former
        > California governor ran for the presidency again in
        > 1980, he began his
        > campaign with a controversial appearance in
        > Philadelphia, Miss., where
        > three civil rights workers had been brutally killed.
        > It was at that
        > sore spot on the racial map that Reagan revived talk
        > about states'
        > rights and curbing the power of the federal
        > government.
        >
        > To many it sounded like code for announcing himself
        > as the candidate
        > for white segregationists. After he defeated
        > President Carter, a
        > native Southerner, Reagan led an administration that
        > seemed to cater
        > to Southerners still angry over the passage of the
        > Civil Rights Act
        > after 16 years. The Reagan team condemned busing for
        > school
        > integration, opposed affirmative action and even
        > threatened to veto a
        > proposed extension of the Voting Rights Act (the
        > sequel to the 1964
        > Civil Rights Act passed a year later and focused on
        > election
        > participation). President Reagan also tried to allow
        > Bob Jones
        > University, a segregated Southern school, to reclaim
        > federal tax
        > credits that had long been denied to racially
        > discriminatory institutions.
        >
        > The genial Californian Republican denied there was
        > any racism implicit
        > in those policies. Even when he was characterizing
        > poor women as
        > welfare queens driving around in pink Cadillacs, he
        > said it was a
        > merely matter of encouraging people to pull
        > themselves up by the
        > bootstraps. The America he seemed to envision had no
        > need to deal with
        > racial divisions, and he said his only desire was to
        > encourage
        > self-sufficiency for all Americans and to reduce all
        > Americans'
        > dependence on government programs.
        >
        > Today it is hard to believe that Reagan had such
        > success using the
        > Civil Rights Act as a whipping boy. The Civil Rights
        > Act is now so
        > widely accepted that it doesn't attract controversy
        > in any region of
        > the country -- including the South. There is no
        > debate about the right
        > of black people, Hispanics or Asians to stay in a
        > hotel, shop in a
        > store or to apply for a job without fear of racial
        > discrimination.
        >
        > In 2004, minorities are one-third of the national
        > population and it is
        > hard to understand how anyone could have ever argued
        > in favor of
        > allowing states to practice racial discrimination.
        > It is even harder
        > to remember that in June of 1963 President Kennedy
        > -- with race riots
        > threatening to erupt nationwide -- had to go on
        > national TV to say
        > that arguments over whether blacks could eat at a
        > lunch counter were
        > creating a moral crisis for a nation.
        >
        > After Kennedy's death, Johnson was able to
        > accelerate what Dr. Martin
        > Luther King had called "a horse and buggy pace" on
        > civil rights
        > legislation. To lessen Southern opposition, the
        > former senator from
        > Texas stripped voting rights out of the bill and
        > made it clear that
        > the act did not require racial quotas for hiring
        > employees.
        >
        > Johnson's maneuvers won him support from moderate
        > Republicans as well
        > as from Democrats in the North, Midwest and West.
        > But the South was
        > not won over. And as Johnson predicted, his victory
        > had a bitter after
        > taste. It sent the likes of Sen. Strom Thurmond of
        > South Carolina and
        > eventually other leading Southern politicians into
        > the embrace of the
        > Republican Party. And there they found themselves in
        > the company of
        > another former Democrat, Ronald Reagan.
        >
        > Now the nation celebrates the life and legacy of
        > Reagan with a state
        > funeral just days before celebrations are scheduled
        > to begin for the
        > 40th anniversary of the Civil Rights Act. Reagan's
        > funeral, no doubt,
        > will get far more attention.
        >
        === message truncated ===
      • richard kelly
        Tom: Actually there are several more important American figures, for starters, Theodore and Franklin D. Roosevelt, Ike, Harry Truman, and Woodrow Wilson.
        Message 3 of 7 , Jan 17, 2007
        • 0 Attachment
          Tom:

          Actually there are several more important American
          figures, for starters, Theodore and Franklin D.
          Roosevelt, Ike, Harry Truman, and Woodrow Wilson.


          Richard Kelly


          --- THOMAS JOHNSON <AVRCRDNG@...> wrote:

          > Great post, Ram.. Incidentally, can anyone think of
          > a
          > more important American historical figure in the
          > 20th
          > century than MLK?
          >
          > Tom
          >
          >
          >
          >
          > --- Ram Lau <ramlau@...> wrote:
          >
          > > Reagan, the South and Civil Rights
          > > By Juan Williams
          > >
          >
          http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=1953700&columnId=1929301
          > >
          > > NPR.org, June 10, 2004 · Forty years after the
          > > passage of 1964 Civil
          > > Rights Act, history and politics are celebrating a
          > > strange
          > > convergence: It was the passage of the Civil
          > Rights
          > > Act that launched
          > > the rise of the president who died last week,
          > Ronald
          > > Reagan.
          > >
          > > The Civil Rights Act, signed July 2, 1964, by
          > > President Lyndon
          > > Johnson, ended legal discrimination against blacks
          > > at hotels,
          > > restaurants and department stores. It also made
          > > discrimination illegal
          > > in hiring. Barry Goldwater, the Republican
          > > presidential nominee that
          > > year, decided to make himself a voice for
          > opponents
          > > of the Act.
          > >
          > > Goldwater said he supported the white Southern
          > > position on civil
          > > rights, which was that each and every state had a
          > > sovereign right to
          > > control its laws. The Arizona Republican argued
          > that
          > > each American has
          > > the right to decide whom to hire, whom to do
          > > business with and whom to
          > > welcome in his or her restaurant. The senator was
          > > right at home with
          > > Southern politicians who called the Civil Rights
          > Act
          > > an attack on "the
          > > Southern way of life."
          > >
          > > To overcome the forces arrayed against the bill,
          > > Johnson needed every
          > > bit of his political skill and every bit of
          > > emotional aftermath from
          > > the previous November's assassination of President
          > > John F. Kennedy.
          > > But once the bill had passed, Johnson told
          > > confidants that Democrats
          > > might have lost the South to Republicans for years
          > > to come. He was
          > > exactly right.
          > >
          > > Today the South is solidly Republican. In every
          > > presidential election
          > > since 1964 -- save the election of Jimmy Carter in
          > > 1976 -- Dixie has
          > > been the heart of GOP presidential politics. The
          > > white Southern vote
          > > was key to the Republican takeover of Congress in
          > > 1994, and President
          > > George W. Bush was elected in 2000 because he
          > > carried every Southern
          > > state.
          > >
          > > Ronald Reagan was key to the South's transition to
          > > Republican
          > > politics. Goldwater got the ball rolling, but
          > Reagan
          > > was at his side
          > > from the very beginning. During the 1964 campaign,
          > > Reagan gave
          > > speeches in support of Goldwater and spoke out for
          > > what he called
          > > individual rights -- read that also as states'
          > > rights. Reagan also and
          > > portrayed any opposition as support for
          > > totalitarianism -- read that
          > > as communism.
          > >
          > > In 1976, Reagan sought the Republican nomination
          > > against the incumbent
          > > President Gerald Ford. Reagan's campaign was on
          > the
          > > ropes until the
          > > primaries hit the Southern states, where he won
          > his
          > > first key victory
          > > in North Carolina. Throughout the South that
          > spring
          > > and summer, Reagan
          > > portrayed himself as Goldwater's heir while
          > > criticizing Ford as a
          > > captive of Eastern establishment Republicans
          > fixated
          > > on forced
          > > integration.
          > >
          > > Reagan lost the nomination to Ford in 1976. But
          > when
          > > the former
          > > California governor ran for the presidency again
          > in
          > > 1980, he began his
          > > campaign with a controversial appearance in
          > > Philadelphia, Miss., where
          > > three civil rights workers had been brutally
          > killed.
          > > It was at that
          > > sore spot on the racial map that Reagan revived
          > talk
          > > about states'
          > > rights and curbing the power of the federal
          > > government.
          > >
          > > To many it sounded like code for announcing
          > himself
          > > as the candidate
          > > for white segregationists. After he defeated
          > > President Carter, a
          > > native Southerner, Reagan led an administration
          > that
          > > seemed to cater
          > > to Southerners still angry over the passage of the
          > > Civil Rights Act
          > > after 16 years. The Reagan team condemned busing
          > for
          > > school
          > > integration, opposed affirmative action and even
          > > threatened to veto a
          > > proposed extension of the Voting Rights Act (the
          > > sequel to the 1964
          > > Civil Rights Act passed a year later and focused
          > on
          > > election
          > > participation). President Reagan also tried to
          > allow
          > > Bob Jones
          > > University, a segregated Southern school, to
          > reclaim
          > > federal tax
          > > credits that had long been denied to racially
          > > discriminatory institutions.
          > >
          > > The genial Californian Republican denied there was
          > > any racism implicit
          > > in those policies. Even when he was characterizing
          > > poor women as
          > > welfare queens driving around in pink Cadillacs,
          > he
          > > said it was a
          > > merely matter of encouraging people to pull
          > > themselves up by the
          > > bootstraps. The America he seemed to envision had
          > no
          > > need to deal with
          > > racial divisions, and he said his only desire was
          > to
          > > encourage
          > > self-sufficiency for all Americans and to reduce
          > all
          > > Americans'
          > > dependence on government programs.
          > >
          > > Today it is hard to believe that Reagan had such
          > > success using the
          > > Civil Rights Act as a whipping boy. The Civil
          > Rights
          > > Act is now so
          > > widely accepted that it doesn't attract
          > controversy
          > > in any region of
          > > the country -- including the South. There is no
          > > debate about the right
          > > of black people, Hispanics or Asians to stay in a
          > > hotel, shop in a
          > > store or to apply for a job without fear of racial
          > > discrimination.
          > >
          > > In 2004, minorities are one-third of the national
          > > population and it is
          > > hard to understand how anyone could have ever
          > argued
          > > in favor of
          > > allowing states to practice racial discrimination.
          >
          === message truncated ===




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        • THOMAS JOHNSON
          I would repectfully disagree with that, Richard. With exception oF Wilson, I m a fan of all those guys, but I m not sure any of them had the long term impact
          Message 4 of 7 , Jan 17, 2007
          • 0 Attachment
            I would repectfully disagree with that, Richard. With
            exception oF Wilson, I'm a fan of all those guys, but
            I'm not sure any of them had the long term impact of
            MLK. It's a fun discussion and I appreciate your
            opinion.

            Tom


            --- richard kelly <richwkelly@...> wrote:

            > Tom:
            >
            > Actually there are several more important American
            > figures, for starters, Theodore and Franklin D.
            > Roosevelt, Ike, Harry Truman, and Woodrow Wilson.
            >
            >
            > Richard Kelly
            >
            >
            > --- THOMAS JOHNSON <AVRCRDNG@...> wrote:
            >
            > > Great post, Ram.. Incidentally, can anyone think
            > of
            > > a
            > > more important American historical figure in the
            > > 20th
            > > century than MLK?
            > >
            > > Tom
            > >
            > >
            > >
            > >
            > > --- Ram Lau <ramlau@...> wrote:
            > >
            > > > Reagan, the South and Civil Rights
            > > > By Juan Williams
            > > >
            > >
            >
            http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=1953700&columnId=1929301
            > > >
            > > > NPR.org, June 10, 2004 · Forty years after the
            > > > passage of 1964 Civil
            > > > Rights Act, history and politics are celebrating
            > a
            > > > strange
            > > > convergence: It was the passage of the Civil
            > > Rights
            > > > Act that launched
            > > > the rise of the president who died last week,
            > > Ronald
            > > > Reagan.
            > > >
            > > > The Civil Rights Act, signed July 2, 1964, by
            > > > President Lyndon
            > > > Johnson, ended legal discrimination against
            > blacks
            > > > at hotels,
            > > > restaurants and department stores. It also made
            > > > discrimination illegal
            > > > in hiring. Barry Goldwater, the Republican
            > > > presidential nominee that
            > > > year, decided to make himself a voice for
            > > opponents
            > > > of the Act.
            > > >
            > > > Goldwater said he supported the white Southern
            > > > position on civil
            > > > rights, which was that each and every state had
            > a
            > > > sovereign right to
            > > > control its laws. The Arizona Republican argued
            > > that
            > > > each American has
            > > > the right to decide whom to hire, whom to do
            > > > business with and whom to
            > > > welcome in his or her restaurant. The senator
            > was
            > > > right at home with
            > > > Southern politicians who called the Civil Rights
            > > Act
            > > > an attack on "the
            > > > Southern way of life."
            > > >
            > > > To overcome the forces arrayed against the bill,
            > > > Johnson needed every
            > > > bit of his political skill and every bit of
            > > > emotional aftermath from
            > > > the previous November's assassination of
            > President
            > > > John F. Kennedy.
            > > > But once the bill had passed, Johnson told
            > > > confidants that Democrats
            > > > might have lost the South to Republicans for
            > years
            > > > to come. He was
            > > > exactly right.
            > > >
            > > > Today the South is solidly Republican. In every
            > > > presidential election
            > > > since 1964 -- save the election of Jimmy Carter
            > in
            > > > 1976 -- Dixie has
            > > > been the heart of GOP presidential politics. The
            > > > white Southern vote
            > > > was key to the Republican takeover of Congress
            > in
            > > > 1994, and President
            > > > George W. Bush was elected in 2000 because he
            > > > carried every Southern
            > > > state.
            > > >
            > > > Ronald Reagan was key to the South's transition
            > to
            > > > Republican
            > > > politics. Goldwater got the ball rolling, but
            > > Reagan
            > > > was at his side
            > > > from the very beginning. During the 1964
            > campaign,
            > > > Reagan gave
            > > > speeches in support of Goldwater and spoke out
            > for
            > > > what he called
            > > > individual rights -- read that also as states'
            > > > rights. Reagan also and
            > > > portrayed any opposition as support for
            > > > totalitarianism -- read that
            > > > as communism.
            > > >
            > > > In 1976, Reagan sought the Republican nomination
            > > > against the incumbent
            > > > President Gerald Ford. Reagan's campaign was on
            > > the
            > > > ropes until the
            > > > primaries hit the Southern states, where he won
            > > his
            > > > first key victory
            > > > in North Carolina. Throughout the South that
            > > spring
            > > > and summer, Reagan
            > > > portrayed himself as Goldwater's heir while
            > > > criticizing Ford as a
            > > > captive of Eastern establishment Republicans
            > > fixated
            > > > on forced
            > > > integration.
            > > >
            > > > Reagan lost the nomination to Ford in 1976. But
            > > when
            > > > the former
            > > > California governor ran for the presidency again
            > > in
            > > > 1980, he began his
            > > > campaign with a controversial appearance in
            > > > Philadelphia, Miss., where
            > > > three civil rights workers had been brutally
            > > killed.
            > > > It was at that
            > > > sore spot on the racial map that Reagan revived
            > > talk
            > > > about states'
            > > > rights and curbing the power of the federal
            > > > government.
            > > >
            > > > To many it sounded like code for announcing
            > > himself
            > > > as the candidate
            > > > for white segregationists. After he defeated
            > > > President Carter, a
            > > > native Southerner, Reagan led an administration
            > > that
            > > > seemed to cater
            > > > to Southerners still angry over the passage of
            > the
            > > > Civil Rights Act
            > > > after 16 years. The Reagan team condemned busing
            > > for
            > > > school
            > > > integration, opposed affirmative action and even
            > > > threatened to veto a
            > > > proposed extension of the Voting Rights Act (the
            > > > sequel to the 1964
            > > > Civil Rights Act passed a year later and focused
            > > on
            > > > election
            > > > participation). President Reagan also tried to
            > > allow
            > > > Bob Jones
            > > > University, a segregated Southern school, to
            > > reclaim
            > > > federal tax
            > > > credits that had long been denied to racially
            > > > discriminatory institutions.
            > > >
            > > > The genial Californian Republican denied there
            > was
            > > > any racism implicit
            > > > in those policies. Even when he was
            > characterizing
            > > > poor women as
            > > > welfare queens driving around in pink Cadillacs,
            > > he
            > > > said it was a
            > > > merely matter of encouraging people to pull
            > > > themselves up by the
            > > > bootstraps. The America he seemed to envision
            > had
            > > no
            > > > need to deal with
            >
            === message truncated ===
          • richard kelly
            Tom: You could be right. The latest issue of Atlantic Monthly has a good article on the 100 most influential Americans and Dr. King is listed as number 8 or 9,
            Message 5 of 7 , Jan 17, 2007
            • 0 Attachment
              Tom:

              You could be right. The latest issue of Atlantic
              Monthly has a good article on the 100 most influential
              Americans and Dr. King is listed as number 8 or 9, up
              there with the likes of Thomas Jefferson, George
              Washington, Alexander Hamilton, Abraham Lincoln, Ben
              Franklin and Franklin D. Roosevelt.

              Richard Kelly

              --- THOMAS JOHNSON <AVRCRDNG@...> wrote:

              > I would repectfully disagree with that, Richard.
              > With
              > exception oF Wilson, I'm a fan of all those guys,
              > but
              > I'm not sure any of them had the long term impact of
              > MLK. It's a fun discussion and I appreciate your
              > opinion.
              >
              > Tom
              >
              >
              > --- richard kelly <richwkelly@...> wrote:
              >
              > > Tom:
              > >
              > > Actually there are several more important American
              > > figures, for starters, Theodore and Franklin D.
              > > Roosevelt, Ike, Harry Truman, and Woodrow Wilson.
              > >
              > >
              > > Richard Kelly
              > >
              > >
              > > --- THOMAS JOHNSON <AVRCRDNG@...> wrote:
              > >
              > > > Great post, Ram.. Incidentally, can anyone think
              > > of
              > > > a
              > > > more important American historical figure in the
              > > > 20th
              > > > century than MLK?
              > > >
              > > > Tom
              > > >
              > > >
              > > >
              > > >
              > > > --- Ram Lau <ramlau@...> wrote:
              > > >
              > > > > Reagan, the South and Civil Rights
              > > > > By Juan Williams
              > > > >
              > > >
              > >
              >
              http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=1953700&columnId=1929301
              > > > >
              > > > > NPR.org, June 10, 2004 · Forty years after the
              > > > > passage of 1964 Civil
              > > > > Rights Act, history and politics are
              > celebrating
              > > a
              > > > > strange
              > > > > convergence: It was the passage of the Civil
              > > > Rights
              > > > > Act that launched
              > > > > the rise of the president who died last week,
              > > > Ronald
              > > > > Reagan.
              > > > >
              > > > > The Civil Rights Act, signed July 2, 1964, by
              > > > > President Lyndon
              > > > > Johnson, ended legal discrimination against
              > > blacks
              > > > > at hotels,
              > > > > restaurants and department stores. It also
              > made
              > > > > discrimination illegal
              > > > > in hiring. Barry Goldwater, the Republican
              > > > > presidential nominee that
              > > > > year, decided to make himself a voice for
              > > > opponents
              > > > > of the Act.
              > > > >
              > > > > Goldwater said he supported the white Southern
              > > > > position on civil
              > > > > rights, which was that each and every state
              > had
              > > a
              > > > > sovereign right to
              > > > > control its laws. The Arizona Republican
              > argued
              > > > that
              > > > > each American has
              > > > > the right to decide whom to hire, whom to do
              > > > > business with and whom to
              > > > > welcome in his or her restaurant. The senator
              > > was
              > > > > right at home with
              > > > > Southern politicians who called the Civil
              > Rights
              > > > Act
              > > > > an attack on "the
              > > > > Southern way of life."
              > > > >
              > > > > To overcome the forces arrayed against the
              > bill,
              > > > > Johnson needed every
              > > > > bit of his political skill and every bit of
              > > > > emotional aftermath from
              > > > > the previous November's assassination of
              > > President
              > > > > John F. Kennedy.
              > > > > But once the bill had passed, Johnson told
              > > > > confidants that Democrats
              > > > > might have lost the South to Republicans for
              > > years
              > > > > to come. He was
              > > > > exactly right.
              > > > >
              > > > > Today the South is solidly Republican. In
              > every
              > > > > presidential election
              > > > > since 1964 -- save the election of Jimmy
              > Carter
              > > in
              > > > > 1976 -- Dixie has
              > > > > been the heart of GOP presidential politics.
              > The
              > > > > white Southern vote
              > > > > was key to the Republican takeover of Congress
              > > in
              > > > > 1994, and President
              > > > > George W. Bush was elected in 2000 because he
              > > > > carried every Southern
              > > > > state.
              > > > >
              > > > > Ronald Reagan was key to the South's
              > transition
              > > to
              > > > > Republican
              > > > > politics. Goldwater got the ball rolling, but
              > > > Reagan
              > > > > was at his side
              > > > > from the very beginning. During the 1964
              > > campaign,
              > > > > Reagan gave
              > > > > speeches in support of Goldwater and spoke out
              > > for
              > > > > what he called
              > > > > individual rights -- read that also as states'
              > > > > rights. Reagan also and
              > > > > portrayed any opposition as support for
              > > > > totalitarianism -- read that
              > > > > as communism.
              > > > >
              > > > > In 1976, Reagan sought the Republican
              > nomination
              > > > > against the incumbent
              > > > > President Gerald Ford. Reagan's campaign was
              > on
              > > > the
              > > > > ropes until the
              > > > > primaries hit the Southern states, where he
              > won
              > > > his
              > > > > first key victory
              > > > > in North Carolina. Throughout the South that
              > > > spring
              > > > > and summer, Reagan
              > > > > portrayed himself as Goldwater's heir while
              > > > > criticizing Ford as a
              > > > > captive of Eastern establishment Republicans
              > > > fixated
              > > > > on forced
              > > > > integration.
              > > > >
              > > > > Reagan lost the nomination to Ford in 1976.
              > But
              > > > when
              > > > > the former
              > > > > California governor ran for the presidency
              > again
              > > > in
              > > > > 1980, he began his
              > > > > campaign with a controversial appearance in
              > > > > Philadelphia, Miss., where
              > > > > three civil rights workers had been brutally
              > > > killed.
              > > > > It was at that
              > > > > sore spot on the racial map that Reagan
              > revived
              > > > talk
              > > > > about states'
              > > > > rights and curbing the power of the federal
              > > > > government.
              > > > >
              > > > > To many it sounded like code for announcing
              > > > himself
              > > > > as the candidate
              > > > > for white segregationists. After he defeated
              > > > > President Carter, a
              > > > > native Southerner, Reagan led an
              > administration
              > > > that
              > > > > seemed to cater
              > > > > to Southerners still angry over the passage of
              > > the
              > > > > Civil Rights Act
              > > > > after 16 years. The Reagan team condemned
              > busing
              > > > for
              >
              === message truncated ===




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            • THOMAS JOHNSON
              And you could well be right, Richard, especially in the cases of the Roosevelts.. Teddy for his hand into turning the US into a dominant world power and FDR
              Message 6 of 7 , Jan 17, 2007
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                And you could well be right, Richard, especially in
                the cases of the Roosevelts.. Teddy for his hand into
                turning the US into a dominant world power and FDR for
                changing the way that people looked to the US govt.
                It's a fun topic to bat around.

                Tom


                --- richard kelly <richwkelly@...> wrote:

                > Tom:
                >
                > You could be right. The latest issue of Atlantic
                > Monthly has a good article on the 100 most
                > influential
                > Americans and Dr. King is listed as number 8 or 9,
                > up
                > there with the likes of Thomas Jefferson, George
                > Washington, Alexander Hamilton, Abraham Lincoln, Ben
                > Franklin and Franklin D. Roosevelt.
                >
                > Richard Kelly
                >
                > --- THOMAS JOHNSON <AVRCRDNG@...> wrote:
                >
                > > I would repectfully disagree with that, Richard.
                > > With
                > > exception oF Wilson, I'm a fan of all those guys,
                > > but
                > > I'm not sure any of them had the long term impact
                > of
                > > MLK. It's a fun discussion and I appreciate your
                > > opinion.
                > >
                > > Tom
                > >
                > >
                > > --- richard kelly <richwkelly@...> wrote:
                > >
                > > > Tom:
                > > >
                > > > Actually there are several more important
                > American
                > > > figures, for starters, Theodore and Franklin D.
                > > > Roosevelt, Ike, Harry Truman, and Woodrow
                > Wilson.
                > > >
                > > >
                > > > Richard Kelly
                > > >
                > > >
                > > > --- THOMAS JOHNSON <AVRCRDNG@...> wrote:
                > > >
                > > > > Great post, Ram.. Incidentally, can anyone
                > think
                > > > of
                > > > > a
                > > > > more important American historical figure in
                > the
                > > > > 20th
                > > > > century than MLK?
                > > > >
                > > > > Tom
                > > > >
                > > > >
                > > > >
                > > > >
                > > > > --- Ram Lau <ramlau@...> wrote:
                > > > >
                > > > > > Reagan, the South and Civil Rights
                > > > > > By Juan Williams
                > > > > >
                > > > >
                > > >
                > >
                >
                http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=1953700&columnId=1929301
                > > > > >
                > > > > > NPR.org, June 10, 2004 · Forty years after
                > the
                > > > > > passage of 1964 Civil
                > > > > > Rights Act, history and politics are
                > > celebrating
                > > > a
                > > > > > strange
                > > > > > convergence: It was the passage of the Civil
                > > > > Rights
                > > > > > Act that launched
                > > > > > the rise of the president who died last
                > week,
                > > > > Ronald
                > > > > > Reagan.
                > > > > >
                > > > > > The Civil Rights Act, signed July 2, 1964,
                > by
                > > > > > President Lyndon
                > > > > > Johnson, ended legal discrimination against
                > > > blacks
                > > > > > at hotels,
                > > > > > restaurants and department stores. It also
                > > made
                > > > > > discrimination illegal
                > > > > > in hiring. Barry Goldwater, the Republican
                > > > > > presidential nominee that
                > > > > > year, decided to make himself a voice for
                > > > > opponents
                > > > > > of the Act.
                > > > > >
                > > > > > Goldwater said he supported the white
                > Southern
                > > > > > position on civil
                > > > > > rights, which was that each and every state
                > > had
                > > > a
                > > > > > sovereign right to
                > > > > > control its laws. The Arizona Republican
                > > argued
                > > > > that
                > > > > > each American has
                > > > > > the right to decide whom to hire, whom to do
                > > > > > business with and whom to
                > > > > > welcome in his or her restaurant. The
                > senator
                > > > was
                > > > > > right at home with
                > > > > > Southern politicians who called the Civil
                > > Rights
                > > > > Act
                > > > > > an attack on "the
                > > > > > Southern way of life."
                > > > > >
                > > > > > To overcome the forces arrayed against the
                > > bill,
                > > > > > Johnson needed every
                > > > > > bit of his political skill and every bit of
                > > > > > emotional aftermath from
                > > > > > the previous November's assassination of
                > > > President
                > > > > > John F. Kennedy.
                > > > > > But once the bill had passed, Johnson told
                > > > > > confidants that Democrats
                > > > > > might have lost the South to Republicans for
                > > > years
                > > > > > to come. He was
                > > > > > exactly right.
                > > > > >
                > > > > > Today the South is solidly Republican. In
                > > every
                > > > > > presidential election
                > > > > > since 1964 -- save the election of Jimmy
                > > Carter
                > > > in
                > > > > > 1976 -- Dixie has
                > > > > > been the heart of GOP presidential politics.
                > > The
                > > > > > white Southern vote
                > > > > > was key to the Republican takeover of
                > Congress
                > > > in
                > > > > > 1994, and President
                > > > > > George W. Bush was elected in 2000 because
                > he
                > > > > > carried every Southern
                > > > > > state.
                > > > > >
                > > > > > Ronald Reagan was key to the South's
                > > transition
                > > > to
                > > > > > Republican
                > > > > > politics. Goldwater got the ball rolling,
                > but
                > > > > Reagan
                > > > > > was at his side
                > > > > > from the very beginning. During the 1964
                > > > campaign,
                > > > > > Reagan gave
                > > > > > speeches in support of Goldwater and spoke
                > out
                > > > for
                > > > > > what he called
                > > > > > individual rights -- read that also as
                > states'
                > > > > > rights. Reagan also and
                > > > > > portrayed any opposition as support for
                > > > > > totalitarianism -- read that
                > > > > > as communism.
                > > > > >
                > > > > > In 1976, Reagan sought the Republican
                > > nomination
                > > > > > against the incumbent
                > > > > > President Gerald Ford. Reagan's campaign was
                > > on
                > > > > the
                > > > > > ropes until the
                > > > > > primaries hit the Southern states, where he
                > > won
                > > > > his
                > > > > > first key victory
                > > > > > in North Carolina. Throughout the South that
                > > > > spring
                > > > > > and summer, Reagan
                > > > > > portrayed himself as Goldwater's heir while
                > > > > > criticizing Ford as a
                > > > > > captive of Eastern establishment Republicans
                > > > > fixated
                > > > > > on forced
                > > > > > integration.
                > > > > >
                > > > > > Reagan lost the nomination to Ford in 1976.
                > > But
                > > > > when
                > > > > > the former
                >
                === message truncated ===
              • Ram Lau
                I was in DC during the MLK weekend, and saw all the museums and memorials. The good stuff. Enjoyed it all. There were quite a few important 20th century
                Message 7 of 7 , Jan 18, 2007
                • 0 Attachment
                  I was in DC during the MLK weekend, and saw all the museums and
                  memorials. The good stuff. Enjoyed it all.

                  There were quite a few "important" 20th century people on my list. I
                  agree with those that you all have already mentioned, but I'd add
                  Eleanor Roosevelt, Earl Warren, Thurgood Marshall, Albert Einstein,
                  Lyndon Johnson (as a Senator and a President), and Hubert Humphrey.
                  Note that Johnson and Humphrey were the only Americans who have served
                  as the Vice President to lie in state at the Capitol besides Henry
                  Wilson, who died in his Senate office in 1875.

                  I'm glad that nobody has brought up the Kennedys and Reagan yet.

                  Ram


                  --- In prezveepsenator@yahoogroups.com, THOMAS JOHNSON <AVRCRDNG@...>
                  wrote:
                  >
                  > And you could well be right, Richard, especially in
                  > the cases of the Roosevelts.. Teddy for his hand into
                  > turning the US into a dominant world power and FDR for
                  > changing the way that people looked to the US govt.
                  > It's a fun topic to bat around.
                  >
                  > Tom
                  >
                  >
                  > --- richard kelly <richwkelly@...> wrote:
                  >
                  > > Tom:
                  > >
                  > > You could be right. The latest issue of Atlantic
                  > > Monthly has a good article on the 100 most
                  > > influential
                  > > Americans and Dr. King is listed as number 8 or 9,
                  > > up
                  > > there with the likes of Thomas Jefferson, George
                  > > Washington, Alexander Hamilton, Abraham Lincoln, Ben
                  > > Franklin and Franklin D. Roosevelt.
                  > >
                  > > Richard Kelly
                  > >
                  > > --- THOMAS JOHNSON <AVRCRDNG@...> wrote:
                  > >
                  > > > I would repectfully disagree with that, Richard.
                  > > > With
                  > > > exception oF Wilson, I'm a fan of all those guys,
                  > > > but
                  > > > I'm not sure any of them had the long term impact
                  > > of
                  > > > MLK. It's a fun discussion and I appreciate your
                  > > > opinion.
                  > > >
                  > > > Tom
                  > > >
                  > > >
                  > > > --- richard kelly <richwkelly@...> wrote:
                  > > >
                  > > > > Tom:
                  > > > >
                  > > > > Actually there are several more important
                  > > American
                  > > > > figures, for starters, Theodore and Franklin D.
                  > > > > Roosevelt, Ike, Harry Truman, and Woodrow
                  > > Wilson.
                  > > > >
                  > > > >
                  > > > > Richard Kelly
                  > > > >
                  > > > >
                  > > > > --- THOMAS JOHNSON <AVRCRDNG@...> wrote:
                  > > > >
                  > > > > > Great post, Ram.. Incidentally, can anyone
                  > > think
                  > > > > of
                  > > > > > a
                  > > > > > more important American historical figure in
                  > > the
                  > > > > > 20th
                  > > > > > century than MLK?
                  > > > > >
                  > > > > > Tom
                  > > > > >
                  > > > > >
                  > > > > >
                  > > > > >
                  > > > > > --- Ram Lau <ramlau@...> wrote:
                  > > > > >
                  > > > > > > Reagan, the South and Civil Rights
                  > > > > > > By Juan Williams
                  > > > > > >
                  > > > > >
                  > > > >
                  > > >
                  > >
                  >
                  http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=1953700&columnId=1929301
                  > > > > > >
                  > > > > > > NPR.org, June 10, 2004 · Forty years after
                  > > the
                  > > > > > > passage of 1964 Civil
                  > > > > > > Rights Act, history and politics are
                  > > > celebrating
                  > > > > a
                  > > > > > > strange
                  > > > > > > convergence: It was the passage of the Civil
                  > > > > > Rights
                  > > > > > > Act that launched
                  > > > > > > the rise of the president who died last
                  > > week,
                  > > > > > Ronald
                  > > > > > > Reagan.
                  > > > > > >
                  > > > > > > The Civil Rights Act, signed July 2, 1964,
                  > > by
                  > > > > > > President Lyndon
                  > > > > > > Johnson, ended legal discrimination against
                  > > > > blacks
                  > > > > > > at hotels,
                  > > > > > > restaurants and department stores. It also
                  > > > made
                  > > > > > > discrimination illegal
                  > > > > > > in hiring. Barry Goldwater, the Republican
                  > > > > > > presidential nominee that
                  > > > > > > year, decided to make himself a voice for
                  > > > > > opponents
                  > > > > > > of the Act.
                  > > > > > >
                  > > > > > > Goldwater said he supported the white
                  > > Southern
                  > > > > > > position on civil
                  > > > > > > rights, which was that each and every state
                  > > > had
                  > > > > a
                  > > > > > > sovereign right to
                  > > > > > > control its laws. The Arizona Republican
                  > > > argued
                  > > > > > that
                  > > > > > > each American has
                  > > > > > > the right to decide whom to hire, whom to do
                  > > > > > > business with and whom to
                  > > > > > > welcome in his or her restaurant. The
                  > > senator
                  > > > > was
                  > > > > > > right at home with
                  > > > > > > Southern politicians who called the Civil
                  > > > Rights
                  > > > > > Act
                  > > > > > > an attack on "the
                  > > > > > > Southern way of life."
                  > > > > > >
                  > > > > > > To overcome the forces arrayed against the
                  > > > bill,
                  > > > > > > Johnson needed every
                  > > > > > > bit of his political skill and every bit of
                  > > > > > > emotional aftermath from
                  > > > > > > the previous November's assassination of
                  > > > > President
                  > > > > > > John F. Kennedy.
                  > > > > > > But once the bill had passed, Johnson told
                  > > > > > > confidants that Democrats
                  > > > > > > might have lost the South to Republicans for
                  > > > > years
                  > > > > > > to come. He was
                  > > > > > > exactly right.
                  > > > > > >
                  > > > > > > Today the South is solidly Republican. In
                  > > > every
                  > > > > > > presidential election
                  > > > > > > since 1964 -- save the election of Jimmy
                  > > > Carter
                  > > > > in
                  > > > > > > 1976 -- Dixie has
                  > > > > > > been the heart of GOP presidential politics.
                  > > > The
                  > > > > > > white Southern vote
                  > > > > > > was key to the Republican takeover of
                  > > Congress
                  > > > > in
                  > > > > > > 1994, and President
                  > > > > > > George W. Bush was elected in 2000 because
                  > > he
                  > > > > > > carried every Southern
                  > > > > > > state.
                  > > > > > >
                  > > > > > > Ronald Reagan was key to the South's
                  > > > transition
                  > > > > to
                  > > > > > > Republican
                  > > > > > > politics. Goldwater got the ball rolling,
                  > > but
                  > > > > > Reagan
                  > > > > > > was at his side
                  > > > > > > from the very beginning. During the 1964
                  > > > > campaign,
                  > > > > > > Reagan gave
                  > > > > > > speeches in support of Goldwater and spoke
                  > > out
                  > > > > for
                  > > > > > > what he called
                  > > > > > > individual rights -- read that also as
                  > > states'
                  > > > > > > rights. Reagan also and
                  > > > > > > portrayed any opposition as support for
                  > > > > > > totalitarianism -- read that
                  > > > > > > as communism.
                  > > > > > >
                  > > > > > > In 1976, Reagan sought the Republican
                  > > > nomination
                  > > > > > > against the incumbent
                  > > > > > > President Gerald Ford. Reagan's campaign was
                  > > > on
                  > > > > > the
                  > > > > > > ropes until the
                  > > > > > > primaries hit the Southern states, where he
                  > > > won
                  > > > > > his
                  > > > > > > first key victory
                  > > > > > > in North Carolina. Throughout the South that
                  > > > > > spring
                  > > > > > > and summer, Reagan
                  > > > > > > portrayed himself as Goldwater's heir while
                  > > > > > > criticizing Ford as a
                  > > > > > > captive of Eastern establishment Republicans
                  > > > > > fixated
                  > > > > > > on forced
                  > > > > > > integration.
                  > > > > > >
                  > > > > > > Reagan lost the nomination to Ford in 1976.
                  > > > But
                  > > > > > when
                  > > > > > > the former
                  > >
                  > === message truncated ===
                  >
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