Loading ...
Sorry, an error occurred while loading the content.

[Fwd: seed saving]

Expand Messages
  • Richard Morris
    I received an interesting article in the email today. What to people make of it? Rich ... Subject: seed saving Date: Sun, 21 Mar 2004 00:17:31 -0800 (PST)
    Message 1 of 1 , Mar 21 2:27 AM
    • 0 Attachment
      I received an interesting article in the email today.

      What to people make of it?

      Rich

      -------- Original Message --------
      Subject: seed saving
      Date: Sun, 21 Mar 2004 00:17:31 -0800 (PST)
      From: Gloria Coleman <gloriacoleman953612000@...>
      To: webmaster@...

      Dear sir,

      I'm enclosing this article and give it freely. You may
      use it in any manner you choose. Please return any
      comments to me and advise me if you choose to use
      anypart of this article.

      How to Rejuvenate Worn-out and Inbred Cropsy
      Using Localized Seed Selection

      By
      Stephen M. Coleman
      You are about to be introduced to a new frontier
      science, a new branch of biology that will forever
      change the way you think about seed production and
      genetics.

      Biology professor Yingqing Zhang at Shandong
      University, in the People’s Republic of China, put
      forth the theory of ECIWO biology, which has
      applications in medicine, genetics, biochemistry,
      agriculture and other sciences. ECIWO (Embryo
      Containing the Information of the Whole Organism)
      biology applications for seed selection are
      revolutionary, simple, and any seed producer can
      quickly come to understand and master.

      Many plants can be propagated asexually through
      cuttings and tissue culture. A somatic cell
      (nonembryonic cell) contains all the genetic
      information to be able to develop into a new complete
      organism. Plants are made of cells, and cells form
      into the various plant parts. These parts are called
      ECIWOs i.e. cells, branches, leaves, flowers etc.
      Every ECIWO has its corresponding relationship to
      every other ECIWO of the same organism. This is
      called the bio-holographic law. In other words, a
      sprout on a branch is a new little plant on the bigger
      plant.

      Let us take the shape of a leaf; if the leaf is
      long and narrow, the entire plant tends to grow long
      and narrow. If a leaf is wide at the bottom and narrow
      at the top, the plant will also, as a whole, be shaped
      similarly. Obovate leaves indicate that the leaves are
      on the ends of the branches. Flower petals indicate
      where they are located on the plant. If the petals are
      wide at the top and narrow at the bottom they tend to
      be born at the top of the plant or end of the
      branches. If the petals are triangular (narrow at the
      top) the flowers tend to be borne at the bottom of the
      branches such as in eggplants. Fruits also often
      indicate their position by their shape. Figs are
      narrow at the top and wide at the end are borne at the
      ends of the branches. Peaches are round and are borne
      more towards the middle of the branches.

      Wheat seed has its greatest genetic potential for
      producing seed at the middle of the spike. Chinese
      agronomists have painstakingly taken the grains from
      each position on the spike from hundreds of wheat
      plants and planted the seed. The differences in yields
      are remarkable. Yields are increased 13. 90% to16.95%
      over using the seed from the whole spike. Starting
      from the bottom, the 4th seed position up to about the
      12th is where the greatest genetic potential exists
      for high grain yields. The awns on the spike are
      modified leaves or ECIWOs, which explains why seed is
      chosen from the middle instead of the top of the
      spike.

      There is also a correlation between seed size and
      its genetic potential position on the wheat spike. The
      biggest seeds grow the most grain. Chinese
      researchers have developed a seed separator that
      separates the small wheat seed from the large seed.
      Yields using this seed are 11.3% higher than seed used
      from the whole spike.


      Since there are more seed with medium or inferior
      genetic potential on a plant than that of superior
      quality, using all the seed will cause the variety to
      degenerate. Studies on 6 wheat varieties show that
      yields decrease 1.54% to 3.49% per year. In a few
      years the variety will be weak and worn out. It can
      take 10 years to develop a new outstanding wheat
      variety. Much time and effort can be saved using
      localized seed selection to improve old varieties and
      develop new varieties, because it is now known where
      the superior seeds are located.

      Sorghum and millet seed for grain production are
      chosen from the top of the seed head. The seed head is
      an ECIWO, like a small plant on the big plant, the top
      corresponds to seed production, the middle to forage
      production and the bottom for root production. Seed
      chosen from the top has 6.4% to 26.3% higher yield of
      grain than seed from the bottom of the ear.

      An ear of corn grows on the middle of the corn
      stalk. Seed chosen from the middle of the ear has the
      greatest genetic potential for seed production.
      Studies have shown seed selected from the middle of
      the ear will yield from 5.9% to 19.9% higher than seed
      from the lower or upper thirds of the ear. Yields as
      high as 35% greater have been recorded.

      In potatoes the lower part of the plant is what
      we want to develop. When selecting seed potatoes, the
      lower half or distal end of the potato is used and
      yields up to 20% more potatoes. The upper half may be
      used for consumption. Also the potatoes can be cut
      vertically and will give greater yields that when
      using mixed top and bottom halves. Top halves yield
      the least. The distal bud on the deepest, largest
      potatoes have the greatest genetic potential for tuber
      production. Viruses don’t exist evenly in the tuber;
      this same distal bud has the least virus. Therefore,
      by growing plants from this distal bud we can get rid
      of viruses.

      Rice grain is born on the top of the plant and
      seed is selected from the upper 1/3 of the panicles.
      Yield increases up to 17% higher than when the whole
      panicle is used for seed. For even greater efficiency
      the lower grains can be cut off while developing,
      putting all the plant’s energy into the upper 1/3
      forming seeds.

      For Chinese cabbage, seed is selected from the
      lower middle near the main stem. Yields increase
      11-18.5%.

      Seed for turnips are collected from the lower
      middle region of the first lateral branches. Yields
      increase 14-23%.

      Cucumber seed is harvested from the second or
      third fruit near the middle lower section of the
      plant. Yield increase is 10%.

      Pole bean seed is selected in the lower regions
      and bush beans are chosen at the middle region.
      General yield increase: 5- 10%.

      Choose the lower sprouts of sweet potatoes for
      transplanting, studies show yield increases of 13.2%
      to over 30%.

      By choosing flower seeds for floral culture from
      only the top, flowers will have a greater uniformity
      in flowering time and a larger percentage of
      marketable flowers. If seeds were saved only from the
      second from the top flowers, blooming time will be 5
      to 7 days later. Seed from the 3rd flowers will be
      even later to bloom and will have smaller inferior
      flowers.

      Choosing seed from only from the side branches
      can increase the sugar content of beets. Sugar content
      increases 6% to 6.9% by using cuttings from the side
      buds of the root. However, the plants grow slower with
      smaller roots. The most vigorous plants come from seed
      produced from the lower seeds from the middle of the
      seed stalk. Plant breeders can cross high sugar
      cultivars with vigorous growing beets to produce
      improved varieties.

      ECIWO theory explains why carrots can inbreed or
      degenerate in just 2 generations. I have been
      frustrated growing carrot seed; after 2 generations
      the carrots grow as big as my thumb and have a greater
      tendency to bolt. Naturally, I have been selecting
      seed from the big beautiful umbel on top, thus I was
      selecting for top growth instead of large roots.

      These principles may have been known long ago,
      ECIWO theory can easily explain how Beta vulgaris
      could be developed into garden and sugar beets,
      mangels and Swiss chard; or how Brassica oleracea
      could have been developed into cabbage, broccoli,
      cauliflower, kale, kohlrabi, Brussels sprouts or
      collards.

      Localized selected seed is now used in China on
      many thousands of hectares providing increased yields
      and economic returns. ECIWO theory explains why
      varieties degenerate and the genetic variation at the
      different seed production locations on plants. Thus,
      through a simple technique that any backyard gardener
      can understand, old worn-out varieties can be
      rejuvenated using localized seed selection.

      This is a new field of study that is wide open
      for new discoveries, and there is much research that
      is needed for many different crops, ranging from field
      and vegetable crops to pomology and viticulture. I
      also believe that even new crops can be developed from
      wild plants using these principles.



      References:
      Zhang Yingqing, ECIWO biology and medicine, Neimengga
      People’s Press. 1987

      Zhang, Yingqing,. The 1985 Publication of an Outline
      of ECIWO biology, 1990 English translation by Y. Wang
      and Z.Y. Hu, from
      Holographic Biology Research 1985, Shandong University
      Press, Pp, 1-21.

      Progress in ECIWO Biology and its Applications to
      Medicine and Agronomy: Proceedings of the First
      International Congress of ECIWO Biology (Singapore),
      edited by T.T. Ang and Y.G. Shi. Beijing: Higher
      Education Press, Pp. 52-81.

      Fu Zhaolin, A study of Wheat ECIWO Localized Seed
      Selection, Proceedings of the 3rd International
      Congress of ECIWO Biology. 1996

      Bi Yihua, A Summary of the Tests of Wheat ECIWO
      Localized Seed Selection, Ibid.

      Shi Zhenyun, Researches into ECIWO Localized Seed
      Selection (LSS) in Increasing Stem Tuber Yield, Ibid.

      Xing Zuofu, Li Jingyang, Mao Guiying, Shen Cuizhen,
      Shen Lizhi, Zhang Yuguang, Cui Xuemei, Achievements in
      the Application Research of ECIWO Localized Seed
      Selection, Ibid.

      Shixian Zhang, A Summary of the Test on Rice ECIWO
      Localized Seed Selection, Ibid.

      Wang Ruiku, Liu Xidong, Du Jingsheng, ECIWO Biological
      Researches into Potatoes Multi-Level and
      Multi-Orientation ECIWO Localized Seed Selection,
      Ibid.

      Lu Shide, Guo Shucai, Sun Honglai, Sun Wenjun, Liu
      Juntian and Cheng Xiatiang, A Summary of the
      Bio-Holographic Localized Seed Selection Experiment on
      Sorghum. (Seed Supply Center of Yishui County,
      Shandong, P.R. China).

      Wei Sanli, An Application of ECIWO Biology in
      Horticulture, Biology College, Beijing Agriculture
      University, P.R. China.

      © Stephen M. Coleman 2004


      --
      Plants for a Future: 7000 useful plants
      Web: http://www.pfaf.org/ same as http://www.comp.leeds.ac.uk/pfaf/
      Post: 1 Lerryn View, Lerryn, Lostwithiel, Cornwall, PL22 0QJ
      Tel: 01208 872 963 / 0845 458 4719
      Email: webmaster@...
      PFAF electronic mailing list http://groups.yahoo.com/group/pfaf
    Your message has been successfully submitted and would be delivered to recipients shortly.