[Fwd: seed saving]
- I received an interesting article in the email today.
What to people make of it?
-------- Original Message --------
Subject: seed saving
Date: Sun, 21 Mar 2004 00:17:31 -0800 (PST)
From: Gloria Coleman <gloriacoleman953612000@...>
I'm enclosing this article and give it freely. You may
use it in any manner you choose. Please return any
comments to me and advise me if you choose to use
anypart of this article.
How to Rejuvenate Worn-out and Inbred Cropsy
Using Localized Seed Selection
Stephen M. Coleman
You are about to be introduced to a new frontier
science, a new branch of biology that will forever
change the way you think about seed production and
Biology professor Yingqing Zhang at Shandong
University, in the People’s Republic of China, put
forth the theory of ECIWO biology, which has
applications in medicine, genetics, biochemistry,
agriculture and other sciences. ECIWO (Embryo
Containing the Information of the Whole Organism)
biology applications for seed selection are
revolutionary, simple, and any seed producer can
quickly come to understand and master.
Many plants can be propagated asexually through
cuttings and tissue culture. A somatic cell
(nonembryonic cell) contains all the genetic
information to be able to develop into a new complete
organism. Plants are made of cells, and cells form
into the various plant parts. These parts are called
ECIWOs i.e. cells, branches, leaves, flowers etc.
Every ECIWO has its corresponding relationship to
every other ECIWO of the same organism. This is
called the bio-holographic law. In other words, a
sprout on a branch is a new little plant on the bigger
Let us take the shape of a leaf; if the leaf is
long and narrow, the entire plant tends to grow long
and narrow. If a leaf is wide at the bottom and narrow
at the top, the plant will also, as a whole, be shaped
similarly. Obovate leaves indicate that the leaves are
on the ends of the branches. Flower petals indicate
where they are located on the plant. If the petals are
wide at the top and narrow at the bottom they tend to
be born at the top of the plant or end of the
branches. If the petals are triangular (narrow at the
top) the flowers tend to be borne at the bottom of the
branches such as in eggplants. Fruits also often
indicate their position by their shape. Figs are
narrow at the top and wide at the end are borne at the
ends of the branches. Peaches are round and are borne
more towards the middle of the branches.
Wheat seed has its greatest genetic potential for
producing seed at the middle of the spike. Chinese
agronomists have painstakingly taken the grains from
each position on the spike from hundreds of wheat
plants and planted the seed. The differences in yields
are remarkable. Yields are increased 13. 90% to16.95%
over using the seed from the whole spike. Starting
from the bottom, the 4th seed position up to about the
12th is where the greatest genetic potential exists
for high grain yields. The awns on the spike are
modified leaves or ECIWOs, which explains why seed is
chosen from the middle instead of the top of the
There is also a correlation between seed size and
its genetic potential position on the wheat spike. The
biggest seeds grow the most grain. Chinese
researchers have developed a seed separator that
separates the small wheat seed from the large seed.
Yields using this seed are 11.3% higher than seed used
from the whole spike.
Since there are more seed with medium or inferior
genetic potential on a plant than that of superior
quality, using all the seed will cause the variety to
degenerate. Studies on 6 wheat varieties show that
yields decrease 1.54% to 3.49% per year. In a few
years the variety will be weak and worn out. It can
take 10 years to develop a new outstanding wheat
variety. Much time and effort can be saved using
localized seed selection to improve old varieties and
develop new varieties, because it is now known where
the superior seeds are located.
Sorghum and millet seed for grain production are
chosen from the top of the seed head. The seed head is
an ECIWO, like a small plant on the big plant, the top
corresponds to seed production, the middle to forage
production and the bottom for root production. Seed
chosen from the top has 6.4% to 26.3% higher yield of
grain than seed from the bottom of the ear.
An ear of corn grows on the middle of the corn
stalk. Seed chosen from the middle of the ear has the
greatest genetic potential for seed production.
Studies have shown seed selected from the middle of
the ear will yield from 5.9% to 19.9% higher than seed
from the lower or upper thirds of the ear. Yields as
high as 35% greater have been recorded.
In potatoes the lower part of the plant is what
we want to develop. When selecting seed potatoes, the
lower half or distal end of the potato is used and
yields up to 20% more potatoes. The upper half may be
used for consumption. Also the potatoes can be cut
vertically and will give greater yields that when
using mixed top and bottom halves. Top halves yield
the least. The distal bud on the deepest, largest
potatoes have the greatest genetic potential for tuber
production. Viruses don’t exist evenly in the tuber;
this same distal bud has the least virus. Therefore,
by growing plants from this distal bud we can get rid
Rice grain is born on the top of the plant and
seed is selected from the upper 1/3 of the panicles.
Yield increases up to 17% higher than when the whole
panicle is used for seed. For even greater efficiency
the lower grains can be cut off while developing,
putting all the plant’s energy into the upper 1/3
For Chinese cabbage, seed is selected from the
lower middle near the main stem. Yields increase
Seed for turnips are collected from the lower
middle region of the first lateral branches. Yields
Cucumber seed is harvested from the second or
third fruit near the middle lower section of the
plant. Yield increase is 10%.
Pole bean seed is selected in the lower regions
and bush beans are chosen at the middle region.
General yield increase: 5- 10%.
Choose the lower sprouts of sweet potatoes for
transplanting, studies show yield increases of 13.2%
to over 30%.
By choosing flower seeds for floral culture from
only the top, flowers will have a greater uniformity
in flowering time and a larger percentage of
marketable flowers. If seeds were saved only from the
second from the top flowers, blooming time will be 5
to 7 days later. Seed from the 3rd flowers will be
even later to bloom and will have smaller inferior
Choosing seed from only from the side branches
can increase the sugar content of beets. Sugar content
increases 6% to 6.9% by using cuttings from the side
buds of the root. However, the plants grow slower with
smaller roots. The most vigorous plants come from seed
produced from the lower seeds from the middle of the
seed stalk. Plant breeders can cross high sugar
cultivars with vigorous growing beets to produce
ECIWO theory explains why carrots can inbreed or
degenerate in just 2 generations. I have been
frustrated growing carrot seed; after 2 generations
the carrots grow as big as my thumb and have a greater
tendency to bolt. Naturally, I have been selecting
seed from the big beautiful umbel on top, thus I was
selecting for top growth instead of large roots.
These principles may have been known long ago,
ECIWO theory can easily explain how Beta vulgaris
could be developed into garden and sugar beets,
mangels and Swiss chard; or how Brassica oleracea
could have been developed into cabbage, broccoli,
cauliflower, kale, kohlrabi, Brussels sprouts or
Localized selected seed is now used in China on
many thousands of hectares providing increased yields
and economic returns. ECIWO theory explains why
varieties degenerate and the genetic variation at the
different seed production locations on plants. Thus,
through a simple technique that any backyard gardener
can understand, old worn-out varieties can be
rejuvenated using localized seed selection.
This is a new field of study that is wide open
for new discoveries, and there is much research that
is needed for many different crops, ranging from field
and vegetable crops to pomology and viticulture. I
also believe that even new crops can be developed from
wild plants using these principles.
Zhang Yingqing, ECIWO biology and medicine, Neimengga
People’s Press. 1987
Zhang, Yingqing,. The 1985 Publication of an Outline
of ECIWO biology, 1990 English translation by Y. Wang
and Z.Y. Hu, from
Holographic Biology Research 1985, Shandong University
Press, Pp, 1-21.
Progress in ECIWO Biology and its Applications to
Medicine and Agronomy: Proceedings of the First
International Congress of ECIWO Biology (Singapore),
edited by T.T. Ang and Y.G. Shi. Beijing: Higher
Education Press, Pp. 52-81.
Fu Zhaolin, A study of Wheat ECIWO Localized Seed
Selection, Proceedings of the 3rd International
Congress of ECIWO Biology. 1996
Bi Yihua, A Summary of the Tests of Wheat ECIWO
Localized Seed Selection, Ibid.
Shi Zhenyun, Researches into ECIWO Localized Seed
Selection (LSS) in Increasing Stem Tuber Yield, Ibid.
Xing Zuofu, Li Jingyang, Mao Guiying, Shen Cuizhen,
Shen Lizhi, Zhang Yuguang, Cui Xuemei, Achievements in
the Application Research of ECIWO Localized Seed
Shixian Zhang, A Summary of the Test on Rice ECIWO
Localized Seed Selection, Ibid.
Wang Ruiku, Liu Xidong, Du Jingsheng, ECIWO Biological
Researches into Potatoes Multi-Level and
Multi-Orientation ECIWO Localized Seed Selection,
Lu Shide, Guo Shucai, Sun Honglai, Sun Wenjun, Liu
Juntian and Cheng Xiatiang, A Summary of the
Bio-Holographic Localized Seed Selection Experiment on
Sorghum. (Seed Supply Center of Yishui County,
Shandong, P.R. China).
Wei Sanli, An Application of ECIWO Biology in
Horticulture, Biology College, Beijing Agriculture
University, P.R. China.
© Stephen M. Coleman 2004
Plants for a Future: 7000 useful plants
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