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my HUUUUGE problem with S L U G S. Help!!!

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  • Juliano
    HI, This is my very first post here. I am TRYING to get as much inspiration as possible to try and create a permaculture garden where I live. It is a small
    Message 1 of 28 , Dec 1, 2007
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      HI,

      This is my very first post here.

      I am TRYING to get as much inspiration as possible to try and create a
      permaculture garden where I live.
      It is a small garden and quite odd. But before I go off on a tangent, in
      order for me to even BEGIN the design--as it were--i need to know what
      to do about the slug problem we have here in Northwest UK, or at least I have.
      Manchester---well hwere I am anyway.

      I cannot tell you the amount of plants we have bought--not
      vegetables--that have simply become slug food. I have kept the garden
      organic, but in doing so kind of gave in to the slug problem by just
      keeping the plants they dont seem to eat!

      But...if I want to create an edible garden, I really need help with this
      first(?) MAJOR problem.

      I bought Michael Guerra's book Edible Container Garden, and before
      emailing you, I tried to find if he has a contact address (?) but cannot
      find one. because this is a question I would ask him.

      So I am looking for an idea or _IDEAS_ how to tackle this problem of slugs.



      [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
    • Griselda Mussett
      Hi I had/have an identical problem - had to use different methods all the time. Went out at night slug hunting and collected them and took them in a bucket to
      Message 2 of 28 , Dec 1, 2007
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        Hi
        I had/have an identical problem - had to use different methods all the
        time.
        Went out at night slug hunting and collected them and took them in a
        bucket to the park at the end of the road.
        Installed a small pond with frogs in it (sadly cannot have fish at the
        same time in such a small pond).
        Used copper wire round the rims of tubs and planters.
        Planted rocket and also radishes in thinnish but densely-sown circles
        round lettuces - the slugs don't like these and these fiery-leaves
        plants acted as human-edible hedges for the succulent ones inside.
        Encourage birds into the garden with nut-feeders, and discouraged cats
        by shouting at them....birds helped by eating slugs (I hope).
        One terrible day I did kill some of the slugs when there were just
        hundreds of them.....put them in the bucket with oatmeal which dried
        them out v fast and they died. I still feel guilty about this but at
        least it added no poisons to the garden.
        Also read up about slugs on the net to find out more about them, and
        came to understand and like them better.
        Don't lose heart.
        Good luck.
        Griselda
        (in Kent, SE UK)




        On 1 Dec 2007, at 08:49, Juliano wrote:

        > HI,
        >
        > This is my very first post here.
        >
        > I am TRYING to get as much inspiration as possible to try and create a
        > permaculture garden where I live.
        > It is a small garden and quite odd. But before I go off on a tangent,
        > in
        > order for me to even BEGIN the design--as it were--i need to know what
        > to do about the slug problem we have here in Northwest UK, or at
        > least I have.
        > Manchester---well hwere I am anyway.
        >
        > I cannot tell you the amount of plants we have bought--not
        > vegetables--that have simply become slug food. I have kept the garden
        > organic, but in doing so kind of gave in to the slug problem by just
        > keeping the plants they dont seem to eat!
        >
        > But...if I want to create an edible garden, I really need help with
        > this
        > first(?) MAJOR problem.
        >
        > I bought Michael Guerra's book Edible Container Garden, and before
        > emailing you, I tried to find if he has a contact address (?) but
        > cannot
        > find one. because this is a question I would ask him.
        >
        > So I am looking for an idea or _IDEAS_ how to tackle this problem of
        > slugs.
        >
        >
        > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
        >
        >
        >

        [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
      • Michael Muggridge
        Hello Juliano Have you never heard of Nematodes? You can buy them in a dried condition, mix them with water and water onto your garden. These little darlings
        Message 3 of 28 , Dec 1, 2007
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          Hello Juliano
          Have you never heard of Nematodes? You can buy them in a dried condition, mix them with water and water onto your garden. These little darlings then penetrate the body of the slugs and KILL them. I'm not sure where you live but they are very easy to obtain in England, by mail order. Try doing a search for 'biological control of slugs.'

          Good Luck and get the buggers.
          Mike
          ----- Original Message -----
          From: Juliano
          To: pfaf@yahoogroups.com
          Sent: Saturday, December 01, 2007 8:49 AM
          Subject: [pfaf] my HUUUUGE problem with S L U G S. Help!!!


          HI,

          This is my very first post here.

          I am TRYING to get as much inspiration as possible to try and create a
          permaculture garden where I live.
          It is a small garden and quite odd. But before I go off on a tangent, in
          order for me to even BEGIN the design--as it were--i need to know what
          to do about the slug problem we have here in Northwest UK, or at least I have.
          Manchester---well hwere I am anyway.

          I cannot tell you the amount of plants we have bought--not
          vegetables--that have simply become slug food. I have kept the garden
          organic, but in doing so kind of gave in to the slug problem by just
          keeping the plants they dont seem to eat!

          But...if I want to create an edible garden, I really need help with this
          first(?) MAJOR problem.

          I bought Michael Guerra's book Edible Container Garden, and before
          emailing you, I tried to find if he has a contact address (?) but cannot
          find one. because this is a question I would ask him.

          So I am looking for an idea or _IDEAS_ how to tackle this problem of slugs.


          [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]





          [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
        • Michael Porter
          I completely solved my slug and snail problem by using Rosy Predator Snail, if it is OK to use them where you are I would try them, --[but they can make native
          Message 4 of 28 , Dec 1, 2007
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            I completely solved my slug and snail problem by using Rosy Predator Snail, if it is OK to use them where you are I would try them, --[but they can make native types of snails extinct] --but they are slug eating machines--Michael

            Juliano <juliano8@...> wrote: HI,

            This is my very first post here.

            I am TRYING to get as much inspiration as possible to try and create a
            permaculture garden where I live.
            It is a small garden and quite odd. But before I go off on a tangent, in
            order for me to even BEGIN the design--as it were--i need to know what
            to do about the slug problem we have here in Northwest UK, or at least I have.
            Manchester---well hwere I am anyway.

            I cannot tell you the amount of plants we have bought--not
            vegetables--that have simply become slug food. I have kept the garden
            organic, but in doing so kind of gave in to the slug problem by just
            keeping the plants they dont seem to eat!

            But...if I want to create an edible garden, I really need help with this
            first(?) MAJOR problem.

            I bought Michael Guerra's book Edible Container Garden, and before
            emailing you, I tried to find if he has a contact address (?) but cannot
            find one. because this is a question I would ask him.

            So I am looking for an idea or _IDEAS_ how to tackle this problem of slugs.


            [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]






            [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
          • Infowolf1@aol.com
            In a message dated 12/1/2007 3:51:15 A.M. Pacific Standard Time, biker_muggridge@yahoo.co.uk writes: Hello Juliano Have you never heard of Nematodes? You can
            Message 5 of 28 , Dec 1, 2007
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              In a message dated 12/1/2007 3:51:15 A.M. Pacific Standard Time,
              biker_muggridge@... writes:

              Hello Juliano
              Have you never heard of Nematodes? You can buy them in a dried condition,
              mix them with water and water onto your garden. These little darlings then
              penetrate the body of the slugs and KILL them. I'm not sure where you live but
              they are very easy to obtain in England, by mail order. Try doing a search for
              'biological control of slugs.'




              What else do they kill?



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              products.
              (http://money.aol.com/special/hot-products-2007?NCID=aoltop00030000000001)


              [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
            • Geir Flatabø
              Where did you get them ?? I have also heard Boa slugs are snail eaters, ( as the Iberia slugs ), mostly eating the eggs. Geir Flatabø
              Message 6 of 28 , Dec 1, 2007
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                Where did you get them ??

                I have also heard Boa slugs are snail eaters, ( as the Iberia slugs ),
                mostly eating the eggs.

                Geir Flatabø

                2007/12/1, Michael Porter <michaels4gardens@...>:
                > I completely solved my slug and snail problem by using Rosy Predator Snail, if it is OK to use them where you are I would try them, --[but they can make native types of snails extinct] --but they are slug eating machines--Michael
                >
                > Juliano <juliano8@...> wrote: HI,
                >
                > This is my very first post here.
                >
                > I am TRYING to get as much inspiration as possible to try and create a
                > permaculture garden where I live.
                > It is a small garden and quite odd. But before I go off on a tangent, in
                > order for me to even BEGIN the design--as it were--i need to know what
                > to do about the slug problem we have here in Northwest UK, or at least I have.
                > Manchester---well hwere I am anyway.
                >
                > I cannot tell you the amount of plants we have bought--not
                > vegetables--that have simply become slug food. I have kept the garden
                > organic, but in doing so kind of gave in to the slug problem by just
                > keeping the plants they dont seem to eat!
                >
                > But...if I want to create an edible garden, I really need help with this
                > first(?) MAJOR problem.
                >
                > I bought Michael Guerra's book Edible Container Garden, and before
                > emailing you, I tried to find if he has a contact address (?) but cannot
                > find one. because this is a question I would ask him.
                >
                > So I am looking for an idea or _IDEAS_ how to tackle this problem of slugs.
                >
                >
                > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                >
                >
                >
                >
                >
                >
                > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                >
                >
                >
                >
                > Yahoo! Groups Links
                >
                >
                >
                >
              • Geir Flatabø
                The nematodes have very limited effect, needing special humidity, and only working when the slugs are small... Geir Flatabø
                Message 7 of 28 , Dec 1, 2007
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                  The nematodes have very limited effect,
                  needing special humidity,
                  and only working when the slugs are small...

                  Geir Flatabø

                  2007/12/1, Infowolf1@... <Infowolf1@...>:
                  >
                  > In a message dated 12/1/2007 3:51:15 A.M. Pacific Standard Time,
                  > biker_muggridge@... writes:
                  >
                  > Hello Juliano
                  > Have you never heard of Nematodes? You can buy them in a dried condition,
                  > mix them with water and water onto your garden. These little darlings then
                  > penetrate the body of the slugs and KILL them. I'm not sure where you live but
                  > they are very easy to obtain in England, by mail order. Try doing a search for
                  > 'biological control of slugs.'
                  >
                  >
                  >
                  >
                  > What else do they kill?
                  >
                  >
                  >
                  > **************************************Check out AOL's list of 2007's hottest
                  > products.
                  > (http://money.aol.com/special/hot-products-2007?NCID=aoltop00030000000001)
                  >
                  >
                  > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                  >
                  >
                  >
                  >
                  > Yahoo! Groups Links
                  >
                  >
                  >
                  >
                • Pat Meadows
                  ... We have cool damp conditions most summers and a major slug/snail problem as well. I use a slug bait that is non-poisonous to anything else; it is based
                  Message 8 of 28 , Dec 1, 2007
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                    On Sat, 1 Dec 2007 08:49:35 -0000, you wrote:


                    >
                    > But...if I want to create an edible garden, I really need help with this
                    > first(?) MAJOR problem.
                    >
                    > I bought Michael Guerra's book Edible Container Garden, and before
                    > emailing you, I tried to find if he has a contact address (?) but cannot
                    > find one. because this is a question I would ask him.
                    >
                    > So I am looking for an idea or _IDEAS_ how to tackle this problem of slugs.
                    >

                    We have cool damp conditions most summers and a major slug/snail problem as
                    well. I use a 'slug bait' that is non-poisonous to anything else; it is
                    based on iron phosphate which decomposes harmlessly into the soil. It
                    works well.

                    We're in the USA, but I would think something similar is available in the
                    UK.

                    Here is the website, in case you want to take the description to a local
                    garden center to inquire:
                    http://www.gardensalive.com/product.asp?pn=2111&ss=Es-Car-Go

                    Also, I am told that ducks are wonderful for slugs; they eat them all. But
                    you may not want to have ducks.... I'd like to have ducks; we don't feel we
                    can deal with anything else at present, but maybe someday we will feel able
                    to cope with ducks.

                    Pat
                    -- Northern Pennsylvania

                    Good planets are hard to find; let's take care of
                    the one we have.
                  • Travis Philp
                    Slugs eh? I had a problem with slugs out in BC. We were losing whole brassica and squash sections of our two acre garden to slug damage.We had huge success
                    Message 9 of 28 , Dec 1, 2007
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                      Slugs eh? I had a problem with slugs out in BC. We were losing whole brassica and squash sections of our two acre garden to slug damage.We had huge success with using mock beer traps. It was cheap, simple, highly effective, and you don't need to use real beer.

                      Here's a recipe I found online at http://www.slugsandsalal.com/bookrevu/slugguide.html I have not used this exact recipe so I cannot vouch for its specific effectiveness but as long as you get that beer smell the slugs will make an exodus to your traps.

                      According to Field Guide to the Slug some of the best slug traps using beer are made from plastic margarine tubs or sour cream type containers, "the depth of which makes it harder for satiated slugs to escape."

                      Cut a few one-inch square or triangular doors into the container sides and use the lid to deflect rain and prevent dilution of the beer. Position the holes just below the container rim and dig the container into the soil, leaving the cut holes at or just slightly above soil level.

                      It's the scent of malt and yeast that attracts the voracious creatures. Adding a dash of baker's yeast makes a beer trap more effective. For a less expensive effective substitute for the beer, a mixture of yeast, flour and water can be used. Field Guide to the Slug gives this recipe: "In lieu of beer, an equally potent attractant can be concocted from two tablespoons of flour, one-half teaspoon of brewer's yeast, and one teaspoon of sugar mixed in two cups of warm water."

                      If your recipe doesn't work it may be too watery of a mixture. I also suspect humidity plays a part. Let me know how it goes.
                      -----Original Message-----
                      From: Pat Meadows <pat@...>
                      To: pfaf@yahoogroups.com
                      Date: Sat, 01 Dec 2007 08:39:52 -0500
                      Subject: Re: [pfaf] my HUUUUGE problem with S L U G S. Help!!!

                      On Sat, 1 Dec 2007 08:49:35 -0000, you wrote:


                      >
                      > But...if I want to create an edible garden, I really need help with this
                      > first(?) MAJOR problem.
                      >
                      > I bought Michael Guerra's book Edible Container Garden, and before
                      > emailing you, I tried to find if he has a contact address (?) but cannot
                      > find one. because this is a question I would ask him.
                      >
                      > So I am looking for an idea or _IDEAS_ how to tackle this problem of slugs.
                      >

                      We have cool damp conditions most summers and a major slug/snail problem as
                      well. I use a 'slug bait' that is non-poisonous to anything else; it is
                      based on iron phosphate which decomposes harmlessly into the soil. It
                      works well.

                      We're in the USA, but I would think something similar is available in the
                      UK.

                      Here is the website, in case you want to take the description to a local
                      garden center to inquire:
                      http://www.gardensalive.com/product.asp?pn=2111&ss=Es-Car-Go

                      Also, I am told that ducks are wonderful for slugs; they eat them all. But
                      you may not want to have ducks.... I'd like to have ducks; we don't feel we
                      can deal with anything else at present, but maybe someday we will feel able
                      to cope with ducks.

                      Pat
                      -- Northern Pennsylvania

                      Good planets are hard to find; let's take care of
                      the one we have.
                    • Infowolf1@aol.com
                      In a message dated 12/1/2007 5:40:04 A.M. Pacific Standard Time, pat@meadows.pair.com writes: Also, I am told that ducks are wonderful for slugs; they eat
                      Message 10 of 28 , Dec 1, 2007
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                        In a message dated 12/1/2007 5:40:04 A.M. Pacific Standard Time,
                        pat@... writes:

                        Also, I am told that ducks are wonderful for slugs; they eat them all.


                        do they eat snails too?



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                        products.
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                        [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                      • Infowolf1@aol.com
                        In a message dated 12/1/2007 5:40:04 A.M. Pacific Standard Time, pat@meadows.pair.com writes: Also, I am told that ducks are wonderful for slugs; they eat
                        Message 11 of 28 , Dec 1, 2007
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                          In a message dated 12/1/2007 5:40:04 A.M. Pacific Standard Time,
                          pat@... writes:

                          Also, I am told that ducks are wonderful for slugs; they eat them all.




                          I understand moles eat snails and slugs too



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                          products.
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                          [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                        • Pat Meadows
                          ... I don t have personal experience with them, but I have read that they do. They also lay eggs. :) Edible eggs. But they quack and maybe annoy
                          Message 12 of 28 , Dec 1, 2007
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                            On Sat, 1 Dec 2007 09:38:02 EST, you wrote:

                            >
                            >In a message dated 12/1/2007 5:40:04 A.M. Pacific Standard Time,
                            >pat@... writes:
                            >
                            >Also, I am told that ducks are wonderful for slugs; they eat them all.
                            >
                            >
                            > do they eat snails too?

                            I don't have personal experience with them, but I have read that they do.
                            They also lay eggs. :) Edible eggs.

                            But they quack and maybe annoy neighbors..... there's one type of duck
                            which sort of hisses rather than quacking, but I cannot remember its name.

                            Pat
                            -- Northern Pennsylvania

                            Good planets are hard to find; let's take care of
                            the one we have.
                          • Traveler in Thyme
                            Slugs are not a problem they are a symptom of the real problem, which is too much moisture and too much raw, rotting vegetation in your soil. Keep things
                            Message 13 of 28 , Dec 1, 2007
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                              Slugs are not a "problem" they are a symptom of the real problem, which is
                              too much moisture and too much raw, rotting vegetation in your soil. Keep
                              things a bit drier, compost your material more completely before mulching,
                              and get some sun down there, and the slugs will go away.............


                              ---Marcia Cash
                              Traveler in Thyme
                              http://www.travelerinthyme.com


                              [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                            • Pat Meadows
                              ... This is not always true. Also, it s difficult to keep things drier in a rainy place, such as where we live. Some springs, we have weeks and weeks on end
                              Message 14 of 28 , Dec 1, 2007
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                                On Sat, 1 Dec 2007 10:13:10 -0600, you wrote:

                                >Slugs are not a "problem" they are a symptom of the real problem, which is
                                >too much moisture and too much raw, rotting vegetation in your soil. Keep
                                >things a bit drier, compost your material more completely before mulching,
                                >and get some sun down there, and the slugs will go away.............
                                >

                                This is not always true. Also, it's difficult to keep things drier in a
                                rainy place, such as where we live. Some springs, we have weeks and weeks
                                on end of rain. (Thankfully, not every spring, but some springs we do.)

                                I've had slugs in containers that were sitting on a paved (cement) path. No
                                mulch. For that matter, no rotting vegetation either: I used all-purpose
                                soilless mix in those particular containers. Still lots of slugs.

                                Conditions differ from place to place - especially in gardening.

                                Pat

                                -- Northern Pennsylvania

                                Good planets are hard to find; let's take care of
                                the one we have.
                              • Clarke Editing Services
                                .. .. there s one type of duck ... That would be the Muscovy -- a South American tree waterfowl. Very easy to keep. Doesn t need a pond either, just a little
                                Message 15 of 28 , Dec 1, 2007
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                                  .. .. there's one type of duck
                                  >
                                  > which sort of hisses rather than quacking, but I cannot remember its name.
                                  >
                                  >
                                  That would be the Muscovy -- a South American tree waterfowl. Very easy
                                  to keep. Doesn't need a pond either, just a little pool of water. Even
                                  without clipping their wings they tend to stay around your house.
                                • Infowolf1@aol.com
                                  In a message dated 12/1/2007 5:45:22 P.M. Pacific Standard Time, ces@gol.com writes: That would be the Muscovy -- a South American tree waterfowl. Very easy
                                  Message 16 of 28 , Dec 1, 2007
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                                    In a message dated 12/1/2007 5:45:22 P.M. Pacific Standard Time, ces@...
                                    writes:


                                    That would be the Muscovy -- a South American tree waterfowl. Very easy
                                    to keep. Doesn't need a pond either, just a little pool of water. Even
                                    without clipping their wings they tend to stay around your house.





                                    Where can I get them? Are they big enough cats would feel inhibited
                                    about attacking them?



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                                  • Griselda Mussett
                                    Ducks also eat your precious plants, or walk on them, and they leave their slippery and smelly mess around too, so for a small garden (in my opinion) they
                                    Message 17 of 28 , Dec 2, 2007
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                                      Ducks also eat your precious plants, or walk on them, and they leave
                                      their slippery and smelly mess around too, so for a small garden (in my
                                      opinion) they would be as much of a menace as slugs. We had them at my
                                      parents' smallholding when I was a kid and I agree they like staying
                                      round the house. So it's very easy to walk the mess inside on your own
                                      shoes. It would be sad to see them penned up all the time.

                                      On 1 Dec 2007, at 18:17, Clarke Editing Services wrote:

                                      > .. .. there's one type of duck
                                      > >
                                      > > which sort of hisses rather than quacking, but I cannot remember
                                      > its name.
                                      > >
                                      > >
                                      > That would be the Muscovy -- a South American tree waterfowl. Very
                                      > easy
                                      > to keep. Doesn't need a pond either, just a little pool of water. Even
                                      > without clipping their wings they tend to stay around your house.
                                      >
                                      >

                                      [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                                    • Niels Corfield
                                      It will have to be a multi-pronged assault unfortunately. Like plugging holes in a leaky dam with your fingers. That said some precautions as well as
                                      Message 18 of 28 , Dec 2, 2007
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                                        It will have to be a multi-pronged assault unfortunately. Like plugging
                                        holes in a leaky dam with your fingers.
                                        That said some precautions as well as preparations I think can give success.

                                        From experience with a grower near Hebdon Bridge, near Halifax, in the
                                        Yorkshire Pennines, where climate is something comparable, to say the
                                        least, much success has been gained by rearing plants in a nursery till
                                        quite large, on tables. We have extended this model and started to
                                        include shelving units as well as tables. And you can take further
                                        action by placing the legs of these tables in deep troughs of water
                                        and/or wrapping copper wire around the legs. Though be sure to keep the
                                        grass down around shelves especially as it can easily grow above above
                                        these first-line defences. We raised much of our brassica crop into 2l
                                        pots before planting-out and they have survived into maturity (though
                                        are still affected by slugs).
                                        Both in the nursery and in your plantings there is no substitute for
                                        healthy, vigorous plants. With well supplied fertile planting media the
                                        final objective, whether in your soil in containers in the nursery. I
                                        would recommend the widespread application of rock dust,
                                        http://www.organiccatalog.com/catalog/product_info.php?cPath=60_165_166&products_id=2546.
                                        It will be more economic to apply this product to growing media/composts
                                        in the nursery than in your beds. Though a one time high-level dose of
                                        rock dust is worthwhile, and if you operate a no-dig system, with
                                        widespread use of deep-rooting companion/fertility plants, you should
                                        never have to make again. Bearing in-mind though that the object is
                                        raise healthy plants (in a healthy soil) that well disposed to resist
                                        predation (by slugs or whatever). I remember well a garden I visited in
                                        Asturias, Spain, a very maritime, mountainous region with much rain and
                                        clay. The example that sticks in the mind is of one particularly mangy
                                        looking brassica bed, in dry panned earth. However what was most
                                        interesting about this bed was that only one of these plants was badly
                                        effected by slug attacks. So I like to think of these beasts as a little
                                        more discerning than perhaps they are painted.
                                        In addition to this there are nursery container technologies that
                                        promote healthy plants by encouraging root development and virtually
                                        eliminating the issue of circling roots. One brand is called
                                        Rootrainers, they are expensive but do represent a real advantage in the
                                        critical early months as well furnishing you with sturdy plants ready
                                        for the onslaught.
                                        There is always something going-on at the microscopic level that we are
                                        seldom sensitive to. With this in mind, I'd like to suggest some other
                                        techniques for building soil life, or "a healthy Soil Foodweb". Which
                                        some feel now, is the key to healthy plant systems. Much more than the
                                        more widely accepted soil chemistry model. That minerals and other plant
                                        "foods", and their availability, is governed much more by soil
                                        microbiology. So nurturing soil micro-organisms (MOs) (and culturing
                                        your own) is one route to improving soil and plant health.
                                        I offer two complementary methods to realise this aim, without a degree
                                        in biology and simple materials:
                                        _Effective Micro-organisms (EM)_:
                                        -laboratory-isolated and cultured complementary group of MOs easily
                                        multiplied and prepared for garden application at home
                                        -also very effective at processing pure kitchen waste (cooked food,
                                        meat, fish the lot)
                                        -a renewed interest in ferments, as an analogy for beneficial soil
                                        processes -NB no "bad smells" in the compost or in the soil.
                                        http://del.icio.us/entrailer/EM
                                        http://www.livingsoil.co.uk/learning/whatis.html
                                        _Actively Aerated Compost Teas_ ("Biobrews")
                                        -home-prepared soil-plant "feeds"
                                        -can be applied to leaves and soil
                                        Links: http://del.icio.us/entrailer/BioBrew
                                        Books: /"Teaming with Microbes" /by Jeff Lowenfels
                                        Yahoo group: http://tech.groups.yahoo.com/group/compost_tea/

                                        The other much overlooked and vitally important soil process is that of
                                        mycorrhizal fungi and their beneficial associations with plants. Their
                                        absence is almost guaranteed in a clean cultivated environment, yet they
                                        improve plant vigour significantly by extending root run, as much as
                                        100x; allowing further and more efficient gathering of nutrients and
                                        water by the plant, and in some cases by actually physically protecting
                                        the plant roots from attack, in this case by "snaring" parasitic
                                        nematodes while they forage in the root zone, looking to invade the
                                        roots thus weakening the plant. This phenomenon can apparently be seen
                                        in /Private Life of Plants/ BBC documentary series. Needless to say the
                                        action of these organisms will serve to weaken a plant making it more
                                        susceptible to slug damage.
                                        You can either make your own:
                                        http://www.sunseed.org.uk/downloads.asp?sid=Make%20your%20own%20Mycorrhizal
                                        http://www.sunseed.org.uk/downloads.asp?sid=Information%20Leaflets&id=106&dd=otherUploadeddocs/MycorrizhaMP08(E)_23.pdf
                                        http://www.sunseed.org.uk/downloads.asp?sid=Information%20Leaflets
                                        Or buy a product e.g.:
                                        http://www.fire1076.co.uk/rootgrowhome.php
                                        and then make your own.
                                        But remember they can't survive without living host plants (symbiosis).
                                        Links: http://del.icio.us/entrailer/mycorhizal

                                        The bottom-line here is that balanced ecosystems are not prone to the
                                        kind of explosive or destructive nature of slugs etc. The above measures
                                        promote health and balance in the garden.

                                        As for other techniques aimed directly at slugs: I have had good results
                                        with nematodes ("Nemaslug"). The main draw-back is the nematodes don't
                                        keep once the packet is open. One pack does 100 square metres. So my
                                        advice is to have enough plants to plant the whole area in one go. Or at
                                        least to have 100m2 worth of beds prepared for seeding. We had good
                                        success with direct seeding after nematode application also.
                                        I had satisfactory results with the organic slug pellets "Advanced Slug
                                        Killer". Best price B&Q. However they do end-up being an expensive
                                        solution as you will have to re-apply. They also seem not to be suitable
                                        for use with containers in the nursery, especially in the greenhouse, as
                                        they seem to act as a vector for fungi which seem to proliferate off
                                        them and all around the young seedlings, not good.
                                        Another option is copper tools. I have no experience of this directly
                                        but there seems some interest in these. They are expensive but from what
                                        I have seen, well-made.
                                        http://www.implementations.co.uk/
                                        The beer traps info provided by a previous respondent is useful. To this
                                        I would add, though perhaps implied earlier, that is very important to
                                        raise the level of the entrance holes above the soil. This will stop
                                        other creatures (beetle especially) from being drowned also. Also
                                        consider making the holes quite small, as I found a shrew in one of my
                                        traps last year.

                                        All these ideas, unfortunately, equate to more work and more learning.
                                        You might be lucky, one of these solutions used judiciously may give
                                        good results. Perhaps Nemaslug is the best candidate, but again you have
                                        to have things in place to make best use of its potential.

                                        Hope this helps.

                                        All the best,
                                        Niels



                                        My Bookmarks:
                                        http://del.icio.us/entrailer

                                        My Pics and Projects:
                                        http://www.flickr.com/photos/nielscorfield/
                                        http://picasaweb.google.com/mudguard

                                        Groups I Contribute to:
                                        http://tech.groups.yahoo.com/group/polyculturepeople/
                                        http://uk.groups.yahoo.com/group/leeds_permaculture_network/?yguid=243022692
                                        http://lists.ibiblio.org/mailman/listinfo/scythe




                                        Griselda Mussett wrote:
                                        >
                                        > Ducks also eat your precious plants, or walk on them, and they leave
                                        > their slippery and smelly mess around too, so for a small garden (in my
                                        > opinion) they would be as much of a menace as slugs. We had them at my
                                        > parents' smallholding when I was a kid and I agree they like staying
                                        > round the house. So it's very easy to walk the mess inside on your own
                                        > shoes. It would be sad to see them penned up all the time.
                                        >
                                        > On 1 Dec 2007, at 18:17, Clarke Editing Services wrote:
                                        >
                                        > > .. .. there's one type of duck
                                        > > >
                                        > > > which sort of hisses rather than quacking, but I cannot remember
                                        > > its name.
                                        > > >
                                        > > >
                                        > > That would be the Muscovy -- a South American tree waterfowl. Very
                                        > > easy
                                        > > to keep. Doesn't need a pond either, just a little pool of water. Even
                                        > > without clipping their wings they tend to stay around your house.
                                        > >
                                        > >
                                        >
                                        > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                                        >
                                        >


                                        [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                                      • Light2uToo@aol.com
                                        Travis Philp _trphilp@flemingc.on.ca _ (mailto:trphilp@flemingc.on.ca?Subject= Re:%20my%20HUUUUGE%20problem%20with%20S%20L%20U%20G%20S.%20Help!!!) wrote:
                                        Message 19 of 28 , Dec 2, 2007
                                        • 0 Attachment
                                          "Travis Philp" _trphilp@... _
                                          (mailto:trphilp@...?Subject= Re:%20my%20HUUUUGE%20problem%20with%20S%20L%20U%20G%20S.%20Help!!!) wrote:

                                          << Cut a few one-inch square or triangular doors into the container sides
                                          and use the lid to deflect rain and prevent dilution of the beer. Position the
                                          holes just below the container rim and dig the container into the soil,
                                          leaving the cut holes at or just slightly above soil level. >>

                                          That was so well-explained. Thank you! We have a lot of trouble with slugs
                                          around here, which is southwestern Oklahoma. The odd thing is that it can get
                                          so, so hot and dry, especially in the summers, and yet we'll have problems
                                          with slugs. I only use plants that are fairly drought resistant, because we
                                          have to ration water sometimes. And still, the slugs will be a problem. They
                                          must be little creatures.

                                          I think the idea of killing them with beer is a really good one, even mock
                                          beer. Somehow it seems more humane than most other ways I've heard of.
                                          Probably the most humane way would be to quickly smash them with a shoe or
                                          something, but I can't deal with those sluggy guts. Bleecchhh.

                                          Lena


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                                        • ingrid glass
                                          Hi! I visited a wildlife friendly garden last year, run by Marc Carlton & his partner in SE London, and I remember him saying they didn t have a problem with
                                          Message 20 of 28 , Dec 3, 2007
                                          • 0 Attachment
                                            Hi!

                                            I visited a wildlife friendly garden last year, run by Marc Carlton & his partner in SE London, and I remember him saying they didn't have a problem with slugs/snails eating their veg because they attracted sufficient predators (birds/frogs/hedgehogs etc) for there to be a balanced ecosystem. It had taken many years to achieve this - seems like a sustainable (permaculture) way to approach the problem to me, tho' more of a long term approach I guess. His website is : http://www.foxleas.com/

                                            Ingrid


                                            ________________________________

                                            To: pfaf@yahoogroups.com
                                            From: juliano8@...
                                            Date: Sat, 1 Dec 2007 08:49:35 +0000
                                            Subject: [pfaf] my HUUUUGE problem with S L U G S. Help!!!







                                            HI,

                                            This is my very first post here.

                                            I am TRYING to get as much inspiration as possible to try and create a
                                            permaculture garden where I live.
                                            It is a small garden and quite odd. But before I go off on a tangent, in
                                            order for me to even BEGIN the design--as it were--i need to know what
                                            to do about the slug problem we have here in Northwest UK, or at least I have.
                                            Manchester---well hwere I am anyway.

                                            I cannot tell you the amount of plants we have bought--not
                                            vegetables--that have simply become slug food. I have kept the garden
                                            organic, but in doing so kind of gave in to the slug problem by just
                                            keeping the plants they dont seem to eat!

                                            But...if I want to create an edible garden, I really need help with this
                                            first(?) MAJOR problem.

                                            I bought Michael Guerra's book Edible Container Garden, and before
                                            emailing you, I tried to find if he has a contact address (?) but cannot
                                            find one. because this is a question I would ask him.

                                            So I am looking for an idea or _IDEAS_ how to tackle this problem of slugs.



                                            _________________________________________________________________
                                            Celeb spotting – Play CelebMashup and win cool prizes
                                            https://www.celebmashup.com
                                          • Allmende Verden
                                            Hi everybody, here in Northgermany we get growing problems with slugs as the winters are getting warmer and fewer of the eggs are destroyed by frosts. So
                                            Message 21 of 28 , Dec 3, 2007
                                            • 0 Attachment
                                              Hi everybody,
                                              here in Northgermany we get growing problems with slugs as the winters
                                              are getting warmer and fewer of the eggs are destroyed by frosts. So
                                              another method is to keep the soil without mulch over winter (what is
                                              bad for both, slugs and soil).

                                              In our project we`re trying to use only materials and technics that,
                                              at least in theory, can be made availible by smal groups of people
                                              under any economical circumstances.
                                              We`re using slug-fences. The overal principle of these can be seen here
                                              http://www.slugfence.com/slug_info/fence_info/hauptteil_fence_info.html

                                              It is an inteligence-barrier. To come over it the slug would have to
                                              climb in the opposite direction it wants to go.
                                              We built a fence from regional oak-wood which can be seen on the
                                              bottom of http://davyd.de/allmende/fotos3.html

                                              A good lute might be birch bark tar.

                                              still you`ll have the slugs and their eggs inside the fenced area and
                                              it`ll be ongoing reinfected by mulch or something. For these problems
                                              we found collecting of the slugs successful.
                                              for that we`re baiting them with selected rests from the kitchen:
                                              brassica, fruit, avocado, onion... (experiment what yours like best!).
                                              The best time for collecting is in the dark, when dew has fallen.
                                              Worse is in rain and daylight. In the sunlight you won`t find any.
                                              Best of all they like the cut and dead bodies of other slugs, so a
                                              second patrol over the area will be successful.
                                              greetings from Klaus

                                              Allmende e.V.-Gemeinschaftlicher Permakulturgarten für Verden
                                              Artilleriestr. 6
                                              D-27283 Verden
                                              Tel (+49) 4231- 90 50 30
                                              Mobil (+49) 176- 23172036
                                              http://davyd.de/allmende
                                              Wir bieten Praktika und freiwilliges ökologisches Jahr.
                                            • Travis Philp
                                              They themselves are not a problem but I had a problem with them. They produce a problem for me when they wipe out whole beds of plants. Too much moisture is
                                              Message 22 of 28 , Dec 3, 2007
                                              • 0 Attachment
                                                They themselves are not a problem but I had a problem with them. They produce a problem for me when they wipe out whole beds of plants.

                                                Too much moisture is impossible to avoid in the Frasier Valley except for freakishly dry seasons which are rare. We used only well rotted compost so that wasn't a factor...As for getting "some sun down there", I'm not sure what else I can do. The sun doesn't take my requests, and believe me I've asked for it. When slugs are in small numbers I let them do their thing but in a garden that is only two years old their population is too great. We knocked their population back and then once they stopped decimating our crops we left them alone. I think that taking 2 acres and leaving with them with about 78 isn't asking too much.

                                                -----Original Message-----
                                                From: "Traveler in Thyme" <marcia@...>
                                                To: <pfaf@yahoogroups.com>
                                                Date: Sat, 1 Dec 2007 10:13:10 -0600
                                                Subject: [pfaf] Re:my HUUUUGE problem with S L U G S. Help!!!

                                                Slugs are not a "problem" they are a symptom of the real problem, which is
                                                too much moisture and too much raw, rotting vegetation in your soil. Keep
                                                things a bit drier, compost your material more completely before mulching,
                                                and get some sun down there, and the slugs will go away.............


                                                ---Marcia Cash
                                                Traveler in Thyme
                                                http://www.travelerinthyme.com


                                                [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                                              • Travis Philp
                                                You re welcome. I don t know if I mentioned the spacing of the traps. I cant say what is optimal but I put them every 15 feet or so. ... From:
                                                Message 23 of 28 , Dec 3, 2007
                                                • 0 Attachment
                                                  You're welcome. I don't know if I mentioned the spacing of the traps. I cant say what is optimal but I put them every 15 feet or so.

                                                  -----Original Message-----
                                                  From: Light2uToo@...
                                                  To: pfaf@yahoogroups.com
                                                  Date: Sun, 2 Dec 2007 20:47:41 EST
                                                  Subject: [pfaf] Re: my HUUUUGE problem with S L U G S. Help!!!

                                                  "Travis Philp" _trphilp@... _
                                                  (mailto:trphilp@...?Subject= Re:%20my%20HUUUUGE%20problem%20with%20S%20L%20U%20G%20S.%20Help!!!) wrote:

                                                  << Cut a few one-inch square or triangular doors into the container sides
                                                  and use the lid to deflect rain and prevent dilution of the beer. Position the
                                                  holes just below the container rim and dig the container into the soil,
                                                  leaving the cut holes at or just slightly above soil level. >>

                                                  That was so well-explained. Thank you! We have a lot of trouble with slugs
                                                  around here, which is southwestern Oklahoma. The odd thing is that it can get
                                                  so, so hot and dry, especially in the summers, and yet we'll have problems
                                                  with slugs. I only use plants that are fairly drought resistant, because we
                                                  have to ration water sometimes. And still, the slugs will be a problem. They
                                                  must be little creatures.

                                                  I think the idea of killing them with beer is a really good one, even mock
                                                  beer. Somehow it seems more humane than most other ways I've heard of.
                                                  Probably the most humane way would be to quickly smash them with a shoe or
                                                  something, but I can't deal with those sluggy guts. Bleecchhh.

                                                  Lena


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                                                • Infowolf1@aol.com
                                                  In a message dated 12/3/2007 6:10:56 A.M. Pacific Standard Time, ingrid_glass@hotmail.com writes: sufficient predators (birds/frogs/hedgehogs etc) for there to
                                                  Message 24 of 28 , Dec 3, 2007
                                                  • 0 Attachment
                                                    In a message dated 12/3/2007 6:10:56 A.M. Pacific Standard Time,
                                                    ingrid_glass@... writes:

                                                    sufficient predators (birds/frogs/hedgehogs etc) for there to be a balanced
                                                    ecosystem.



                                                    I would love to have a cute little hedgehog, but they are illegal
                                                    in California and my cats might get hurt pouncing on it. Also,
                                                    I might run over it in the driveway. Frogs would get eaten. Birds
                                                    are my best bet.

                                                    Do you know if rats eat slugs and snails? there is enough of a rat
                                                    population here in the ivy to support owls who barf the results.

                                                    Mary Christine



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                                                    [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                                                  • Allmende Verden
                                                    Hi! We do not have good experiences in using beer traps. The beer doesn t only attrack the slugs you ve got in your garden, it also attracks every slug in the
                                                    Message 25 of 28 , Dec 4, 2007
                                                    • 0 Attachment
                                                      Hi!
                                                      We do not have good experiences in using beer traps. The beer doesn't
                                                      only attrack the slugs you've got in your garden, it also attracks
                                                      every slug in the neighbourhood. So you are always going on catching
                                                      them, while the next ones are arriving.
                                                      The other thing I did not like was that not only slugs got drowned in
                                                      the beer, but also flys, worms, beetles, and other small animals.
                                                      And that happened although the hole of the traps was above soil level.

                                                      Greets from northern Germany,
                                                      Alex

                                                      Zitat von Light2uToo@...:

                                                      > "Travis Philp" _trphilp@... _
                                                      > (mailto:trphilp@...?Subject=
                                                      > Re:%20my%20HUUUUGE%20problem%20with%20S%20L%20U%20G%20S.%20Help!!!)
                                                      > wrote:
                                                      >
                                                      > << Cut a few one-inch square or triangular doors into the container sides
                                                      > and use the lid to deflect rain and prevent dilution of the beer.
                                                      > Position the
                                                      > holes just below the container rim and dig the container into the soil,
                                                      > leaving the cut holes at or just slightly above soil level. >>
                                                      >
                                                      > That was so well-explained. Thank you! We have a lot of trouble with slugs
                                                      > around here, which is southwestern Oklahoma. The odd thing is that
                                                      > it can get
                                                      > so, so hot and dry, especially in the summers, and yet we'll have problems
                                                      > with slugs. I only use plants that are fairly drought resistant, because we
                                                      > have to ration water sometimes. And still, the slugs will be a problem. They
                                                      > must be little creatures.
                                                      >
                                                      > I think the idea of killing them with beer is a really good one, even mock
                                                      > beer. Somehow it seems more humane than most other ways I've heard of.
                                                      > Probably the most humane way would be to quickly smash them with a shoe or
                                                      > something, but I can't deal with those sluggy guts. Bleecchhh.
                                                      >
                                                      > Lena
                                                      >
                                                      >
                                                      > _Click to Donate - Free donations to your favorite causes! _
                                                      > (http://www.care2.com/click2donate/)
                                                      >
                                                      >
                                                      >
                                                      >
                                                      >
                                                      >
                                                      > **************************************Check out AOL's list of 2007's hottest
                                                      > products.
                                                      > (http://money.aol.com/special/hot-products-2007?NCID=aoltop00030000000001)
                                                      >
                                                      >
                                                      > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                                                      >
                                                      >



                                                      Allmende e.V.-Gemeinschaftlicher Permakulturgarten für Verden
                                                      Artilleriestr. 6
                                                      D-27283 Verden
                                                      Tel (+49) 4231- 90 50 30
                                                      Mobil (+49) 176- 23172036
                                                      http://davyd.de/allmende
                                                      Wir bieten Praktika und freiwilliges ökologisches Jahr.
                                                    • Allmende Verden
                                                      I´d support what Alex says. Before we startet baiting/collecting we used beertraps for years in a way that they where always at the outer boarders of the bed
                                                      Message 26 of 28 , Dec 4, 2007
                                                      • 0 Attachment
                                                        I´d support what Alex says. Before we startet baiting/collecting we
                                                        used beertraps for years in a way that they where always at the outer
                                                        boarders of the bed (hoping to catch the slugs coming from outside),
                                                        though always slugs were caught in control-traps in the center. And in
                                                        the end maybe we breeded beer-resistant slugs: this year when the
                                                        population aroused enormous, the number of slugs in the traps didn´t.
                                                        greets from Klaus


                                                        > Hi!
                                                        > We do not have good experiences in using beer traps. The beer doesn't
                                                        > only attrack the slugs you've got in your garden, it also attracks
                                                        > every slug in the neighbourhood. So you are always going on catching
                                                        > them, while the next ones are arriving.
                                                        > The other thing I did not like was that not only slugs got drowned in
                                                        > the beer, but also flys, worms, beetles, and other small animals.
                                                        > And that happened although the hole of the traps was above soil level.
                                                        >
                                                        > Greets from northern Germany,
                                                        > Alex
                                                        >
                                                        > Zitat von Light2uToo@...:
                                                        >
                                                        >> "Travis Philp" _trphilp@... _
                                                        >> (mailto:trphilp@...?Subject=
                                                        >> Re:%20my%20HUUUUGE%20problem%20with%20S%20L%20U%20G%20S.%20Help!!!)
                                                        >> wrote:
                                                        >>
                                                        >> << Cut a few one-inch square or triangular doors into the container sides
                                                        >> and use the lid to deflect rain and prevent dilution of the beer.
                                                        >> Position the
                                                        >> holes just below the container rim and dig the container into the soil,
                                                        >> leaving the cut holes at or just slightly above soil level. >>
                                                        >>
                                                        >> That was so well-explained. Thank you! We have a lot of trouble with slugs
                                                        >> around here, which is southwestern Oklahoma. The odd thing is that
                                                        >> it can get
                                                        >> so, so hot and dry, especially in the summers, and yet we'll have problems
                                                        >> with slugs. I only use plants that are fairly drought resistant, because we
                                                        >> have to ration water sometimes. And still, the slugs will be a
                                                        >> problem. They
                                                        >> must be little creatures.
                                                        >>
                                                        >> I think the idea of killing them with beer is a really good one, even mock
                                                        >> beer. Somehow it seems more humane than most other ways I've heard of.
                                                        >> Probably the most humane way would be to quickly smash them with a shoe or
                                                        >> something, but I can't deal with those sluggy guts. Bleecchhh.
                                                        >>
                                                        >> Lena
                                                        >>
                                                        >>
                                                        >> _Click to Donate - Free donations to your favorite causes! _
                                                        >> (http://www.care2.com/click2donate/)
                                                        >>
                                                        >>
                                                        >>
                                                        >>
                                                        >>
                                                        >>
                                                        >> **************************************Check out AOL's list of 2007's hottest
                                                        >> products.
                                                        >> (http://money.aol.com/special/hot-products-2007?NCID=aoltop00030000000001)
                                                        >>
                                                        >>
                                                        >> [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                                                        >>
                                                        >>
                                                        >
                                                        >
                                                        >
                                                        > Allmende e.V.-Gemeinschaftlicher Permakulturgarten für Verden
                                                        > Artilleriestr. 6
                                                        > D-27283 Verden
                                                        > Tel (+49) 4231- 90 50 30
                                                        > Mobil (+49) 176- 23172036
                                                        > http://davyd.de/allmende
                                                        > Wir bieten Praktika und freiwilliges ökologisches Jahr.
                                                        >
                                                        >



                                                        Allmende e.V.-Gemeinschaftlicher Permakulturgarten für Verden
                                                        Artilleriestr. 6
                                                        D-27283 Verden
                                                        Tel (+49) 4231- 90 50 30
                                                        Mobil (+49) 176- 23172036
                                                        http://davyd.de/allmende
                                                        Wir bieten Praktika und freiwilliges ökologisches Jahr.
                                                      • veronica giselle lescano
                                                        Hi, If releasing the slug´s natural predator do not work, perhaps you can try with trap crops ( these are plants which are known to be attractive to the pest
                                                        Message 27 of 28 , Dec 4, 2007
                                                        • 0 Attachment
                                                          Hi,
                                                          If releasing the slug´s natural predator do not work, perhaps you can try with trap crops ( these are plants which are known to be attractive to the pest and which are used to lure the pest away from the actual crop), or intercropping (two crops are grown together, either intimately within the same row or in adjacent rows, when onions and carrots are grown together , the strong smell of the onions masks that of the carrots which are thus given protection from the carrot rrot fly, for example, some plants are known to be repellent to some invertebrates pests. Here in South America, as the soil is very humid, we usually use some of these techniques to protect crops from being damage by invertebrates,
                                                          Greetings
                                                          Veronica


                                                          Infowolf1@... escribió:

                                                          In a message dated 12/3/2007 6:10:56 A.M. Pacific Standard Time,
                                                          ingrid_glass@... writes:

                                                          sufficient predators (birds/frogs/hedgehogs etc) for there to be a balanced
                                                          ecosystem.

                                                          I would love to have a cute little hedgehog, but they are illegal
                                                          in California and my cats might get hurt pouncing on it. Also,
                                                          I might run over it in the driveway. Frogs would get eaten. Birds
                                                          are my best bet.

                                                          Do you know if rats eat slugs and snails? there is enough of a rat
                                                          population here in the ivy to support owls who barf the results.

                                                          Mary Christine

                                                          **************************************Check out AOL's list of 2007's hottest
                                                          products.
                                                          (http://money.aol.com/special/hot-products-2007?NCID=aoltop00030000000001)

                                                          [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]






                                                          ---------------------------------

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                                                          [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                                                        • vic_doyle
                                                          ... balanced ... illegal ... Also, ... eaten. Birds ... of a rat ... results. ... Reply- Hi Im new here, but I can recommend that you manage a small flock of
                                                          Message 28 of 28 , Jan 11, 2008
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                                                            --- In pfaf@yahoogroups.com, Infowolf1@... wrote:
                                                            >
                                                            >
                                                            > In a message dated 12/3/2007 6:10:56 A.M. Pacific Standard Time,
                                                            > ingrid_glass@... writes:
                                                            >
                                                            > sufficient predators (birds/frogs/hedgehogs etc) for there to be a
                                                            balanced
                                                            > ecosystem.
                                                            >
                                                            >
                                                            >
                                                            > I would love to have a cute little hedgehog, but they are
                                                            illegal
                                                            > in California and my cats might get hurt pouncing on it.
                                                            Also,
                                                            > I might run over it in the driveway. Frogs would get
                                                            eaten. Birds
                                                            > are my best bet.
                                                            >
                                                            > Do you know if rats eat slugs and snails? there is enough
                                                            of a rat
                                                            > population here in the ivy to support owls who barf the
                                                            results.
                                                            >
                                                            > Mary Christine
                                                            >
                                                            Reply-

                                                            Hi Im new here, but I can recommend that you manage a small flock of
                                                            Khaki Campbell ducks as they eat all slugs in the area and they lay
                                                            lots of eggs, so go get ducking!!!
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