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Plague -- Black Death - TLS Highlights

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  • Michael Robinson
    Mass destroyer - TLS Highlights - Times Online Ole J. Benedictow THE BLACK DEATH, 1346–1353 The complete history 433pp. Boydell Press. £20. 1 84383 214 3
    Message 1 of 8 , Nov 3, 2006
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      Mass destroyer - TLS Highlights - Times Online
      "Ole J. Benedictow
      THE BLACK DEATH, 1346–1353
      The complete history
      433pp. Boydell Press. £20.
      1 84383 214 3

      The best horror stories are real. A flea sinks its proboscis into the
      skin of a sick black rat, feeds on its blood, and ingests lethal
      bacteria. In the confined space of its tiny alimentary canal, the
      bacteria multiply to such an extent that they form a blockage in the
      stomach of the flea. In desperation, after it senses a drop in the
      body temperature of the rat, which is by now dead, the increasingly
      ravenous flea jumps ship. It cannot find another living rat in the
      nest. Rat nests having for millennia thriven in barns and granaries,
      the flea does not have to travel far to find an alternative source of
      food. It searches out the nearest man, woman, or child, maybe burrows
      its way through layers of clothing, and sinks its proboscis into warm
      flesh.


      The blockage in its stomach prevents the maddened, dying flea from
      being able to ingest more than a small amount of human blood, and
      causes it instead to regurgitate tiny amounts of infected rat blood
      that, breaking free from the blockage, carry thousands of bacteria
      into the open wound. So gaining entry to the largely defenceless human
      body, the bacteria travel through the lymphatic system to nodes in the
      groin or under the arms or in the neck, congregrate, multiply hugely,
      create a bubo of exquisite, agonizing sensitivity, which duly propels
      bacteria into the bloodstream that in 80 per cent of cases overwhelm,
      then kill the sufferer. In rare instances when the flea vomits
      directly into a tiny blood vessel, the bacteria bypass the lymphatic
      system entirely, further multiply at a dizzying rate, bringing death
      in a matter of hours, with 100 per cent mortality. Thus, in a vignette
      that has been played out by thousands of generations of fleas,
      Yersinia pestis, the seemingly unstoppable bacterium we know and fear
      as the bubonic plague, plays leapfrog from rat to person, and runs its
      ghastly course.


      The plague has been endemic for thousands of years, and makes its
      earliest recorded appearance in the First Book of Samuel. Serious
      epidemics have occurred regularly, most recently in 1993, in Surat in
      India, but in the mid-fourteenth century, in a textbook illustration
      of the processes of natural selection in both black rats and the
      handful of fleas that live in their fur and feed on their blood –
      because rats have so completely adapted themselves to human society,
      and the fittest of their fleas have in turn gradually acquired the
      ability to survive on dry grain when no rat blood is available – the
      disease evidently surfaced, suddenly ignited, and turned into a
      colossal pandemic that caused an unprecedented, terrifying human
      catastrophe throughout Western Asia, Asia Minor, the Middle East, the
      Arab world, North Africa and the whole of Europe from Gibraltar to
      Bergen, and from the Faroes to Moscow. It is remembered as the Black
      Death. In many places it is now estimated that 60 to 70 per cent of
      the entire population perished. Nothing like it had ever been
      experienced before, and nothing as destructive has happened since.
      Compared with that volcanic eruption, the Spanish Flu pandemic of
      1918–19 counts as a serious earth tremor, certainly, but, in terms of
      the rate of mortality, not more.

      How and why did the plague, which is still among us, turn into the
      Black Death?"

      Continued:-
      http://tls.timesonline.co.uk/article/0,,25340-2432149,00.html
    • Terry Foreman
      Splendid review, Michael, and grim, read slow and sunk in. Thanks very much for it. And now for the aftermaths. . An image of the population recoveries after
      Message 2 of 8 , Nov 3, 2006
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        Splendid review, Michael, and grim, read slow and sunk in.

        Thanks very much for it.

        And now for the aftermaths. .

        An image of the population recoveries after the Plagues Bubonic (14c) and
        Pneumonic (17c).

        http://spiritrestoration.org/images/popdips2.gif


        Terry




        At 02:43 AM 11/4/2006 +0000, you wrote:
        >Mass destroyer - TLS Highlights - Times Online
        >"Ole J. Benedictow
        >THE BLACK DEATH, 1346­1353
        >The complete history
        >433pp. Boydell Press. £20.
        >1 84383 214 3
        >
        >The best horror stories are real. A flea sinks its proboscis into the
        >skin of a sick black rat, feeds on its blood, and ingests lethal
        >bacteria. In the confined space of its tiny alimentary canal, the
        >bacteria multiply to such an extent that they form a blockage in the
        >stomach of the flea. In desperation, after it senses a drop in the
        >body temperature of the rat, which is by now dead, the increasingly
        >ravenous flea jumps ship. It cannot find another living rat in the
        >nest. Rat nests having for millennia thriven in barns and granaries,
        >the flea does not have to travel far to find an alternative source of
        >food. It searches out the nearest man, woman, or child, maybe burrows
        >its way through layers of clothing, and sinks its proboscis into warm
        >flesh.
        >
        >
        >The blockage in its stomach prevents the maddened, dying flea from
        >being able to ingest more than a small amount of human blood, and
        >causes it instead to regurgitate tiny amounts of infected rat blood
        >that, breaking free from the blockage, carry thousands of bacteria
        >into the open wound. So gaining entry to the largely defenceless human
        >body, the bacteria travel through the lymphatic system to nodes in the
        >groin or under the arms or in the neck, congregrate, multiply hugely,
        >create a bubo of exquisite, agonizing sensitivity, which duly propels
        >bacteria into the bloodstream that in 80 per cent of cases overwhelm,
        >then kill the sufferer. In rare instances when the flea vomits
        >directly into a tiny blood vessel, the bacteria bypass the lymphatic
        >system entirely, further multiply at a dizzying rate, bringing death
        >in a matter of hours, with 100 per cent mortality. Thus, in a vignette
        >that has been played out by thousands of generations of fleas,
        >Yersinia pestis, the seemingly unstoppable bacterium we know and fear
        >as the bubonic plague, plays leapfrog from rat to person, and runs its
        >ghastly course.
        >
        >
        >The plague has been endemic for thousands of years, and makes its
        >earliest recorded appearance in the First Book of Samuel. Serious
        >epidemics have occurred regularly, most recently in 1993, in Surat in
        >India, but in the mid-fourteenth century, in a textbook illustration
        >of the processes of natural selection in both black rats and the
        >handful of fleas that live in their fur and feed on their blood ­
        >because rats have so completely adapted themselves to human society,
        >and the fittest of their fleas have in turn gradually acquired the
        >ability to survive on dry grain when no rat blood is available ­ the
        >disease evidently surfaced, suddenly ignited, and turned into a
        >colossal pandemic that caused an unprecedented, terrifying human
        >catastrophe throughout Western Asia, Asia Minor, the Middle East, the
        >Arab world, North Africa and the whole of Europe from Gibraltar to
        >Bergen, and from the Faroes to Moscow. It is remembered as the Black
        >Death. In many places it is now estimated that 60 to 70 per cent of
        >the entire population perished. Nothing like it had ever been
        >experienced before, and nothing as destructive has happened since.
        >Compared with that volcanic eruption, the Spanish Flu pandemic of
        >1918­19 counts as a serious earth tremor, certainly, but, in terms of
        >the rate of mortality, not more.
        >
        >How and why did the plague, which is still among us, turn into the
        >Black Death?"
        >
        >Continued:-
        >http://tls.timesonline.co.uk/article/0,,25340-2432149,00.html
        >
        >
        >
        >
        >
        >Yahoo! Groups Links
        >
        >
        >
      • Susan Thomas
        ** High Priority ** Some authorities now think that the Black Death was a combination of anthrax and bubonic plague which is why it was so deadly and spread so
        Message 3 of 8 , Nov 3, 2006
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          ** High Priority **

          Some authorities now think that the Black Death was a combination of
          anthrax and bubonic plague which is why it was so deadly and spread so
          fast. What happened in London in 1666 was plague without the anthrax.
          Plague happened in Australia at the end of the 19th century.(from ships)
          By then the connection with rats was known. A bounty on rat tails was
          offered in Sydney, but this changed to The Whole Rat, Please as
          enterprising youngsters proffered boot laces instead for their money.

          Australian Susan

          >>> terry.foreman@... 4/11/2006 2:21 pm >>>
          Splendid review, Michael, and grim, read slow and sunk in.

          Thanks very much for it.

          And now for the aftermaths. .

          An image of the population recoveries after the Plagues Bubonic (14c)
          and
          Pneumonic (17c).

          http://spiritrestoration.org/images/popdips2.gif


          Terry




          At 02:43 AM 11/4/2006 +0000, you wrote:
          >Mass destroyer - TLS Highlights - Times Online
          >"Ole J. Benedictow
          >THE BLACK DEATH, 1346-1353
          >The complete history
          >433pp. Boydell Press. £20.
          >1 84383 214 3
          >
          >The best horror stories are real. A flea sinks its proboscis into the
          >skin of a sick black rat, feeds on its blood, and ingests lethal
          >bacteria. In the confined space of its tiny alimentary canal, the
          >bacteria multiply to such an extent that they form a blockage in the
          >stomach of the flea. In desperation, after it senses a drop in the
          >body temperature of the rat, which is by now dead, the increasingly
          >ravenous flea jumps ship. It cannot find another living rat in the
          >nest. Rat nests having for millennia thriven in barns and granaries,
          >the flea does not have to travel far to find an alternative source of
          >food. It searches out the nearest man, woman, or child, maybe burrows
          >its way through layers of clothing, and sinks its proboscis into warm
          >flesh.
          >
          >
          >The blockage in its stomach prevents the maddened, dying flea from
          >being able to ingest more than a small amount of human blood, and
          >causes it instead to regurgitate tiny amounts of infected rat blood
          >that, breaking free from the blockage, carry thousands of bacteria
          >into the open wound. So gaining entry to the largely defenceless
          human
          >body, the bacteria travel through the lymphatic system to nodes in
          the
          >groin or under the arms or in the neck, congregrate, multiply hugely,
          >create a bubo of exquisite, agonizing sensitivity, which duly propels
          >bacteria into the bloodstream that in 80 per cent of cases overwhelm,
          >then kill the sufferer. In rare instances when the flea vomits
          >directly into a tiny blood vessel, the bacteria bypass the lymphatic
          >system entirely, further multiply at a dizzying rate, bringing death
          >in a matter of hours, with 100 per cent mortality. Thus, in a
          vignette
          >that has been played out by thousands of generations of fleas,
          >Yersinia pestis, the seemingly unstoppable bacterium we know and fear
          >as the bubonic plague, plays leapfrog from rat to person, and runs
          its
          >ghastly course.
          >
          >
          >The plague has been endemic for thousands of years, and makes its
          >earliest recorded appearance in the First Book of Samuel. Serious
          >epidemics have occurred regularly, most recently in 1993, in Surat in
          >India, but in the mid-fourteenth century, in a textbook illustration
          >of the processes of natural selection in both black rats and the
          >handful of fleas that live in their fur and feed on their blood -
          >because rats have so completely adapted themselves to human society,
          >and the fittest of their fleas have in turn gradually acquired the
          >ability to survive on dry grain when no rat blood is available - the
          >disease evidently surfaced, suddenly ignited, and turned into a
          >colossal pandemic that caused an unprecedented, terrifying human
          >catastrophe throughout Western Asia, Asia Minor, the Middle East, the
          >Arab world, North Africa and the whole of Europe from Gibraltar to
          >Bergen, and from the Faroes to Moscow. It is remembered as the Black
          >Death. In many places it is now estimated that 60 to 70 per cent of
          >the entire population perished. Nothing like it had ever been
          >experienced before, and nothing as destructive has happened since.
          >Compared with that volcanic eruption, the Spanish Flu pandemic of
          >1918-19 counts as a serious earth tremor, certainly, but, in terms of
          >the rate of mortality, not more.
          >
          >How and why did the plague, which is still among us, turn into the
          >Black Death?"
          >
          >Continued:-
          >http://tls.timesonline.co.uk/article/0,,25340-2432149,00.html
          >
          >
          >
          >
          >
          >Yahoo! Groups Links
          >
          >
          >





          Yahoo! Groups Links
        • mfrassociates@aol.com
          Some authorities now think that the Black Death was a combination of anthrax and bubonic plague ... Presumably writing prior to Benedictow, whose summary ,
          Message 4 of 8 , Nov 4, 2006
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            "Some authorities now think that the Black Death was a combination of
            anthrax and bubonic plague  ..."
             
            Presumably writing prior to Benedictow, whose summary , the first, of all contemporary evidence is  the subject of this review.
             
            There are other possibilities, but the anthrax suggestion has very serious problems indeed according to those who specialize in these diseases; see Lise Wilkinson's very polite review of Graham Twigg The Black Death: a biological reappraisal (1984), the major proponent of this view,
             
             
             
             
            In a message dated 11/4/2006 12:59:09 A.M. Eastern Standard Time, susan.thomas@... writes:
            Some authorities now think that the Black Death was a combination of
            anthrax and bubonic plague which is why it was so deadly and spread so
            fast. What happened in London in 1666 was plague without the anthrax.
             
          • Nicholas Balmer
            Hello Michael, For those of you who wish to fully understand the impact of the Plague in 1665 I can highly recommend The Great Plague, The Story of London s
            Message 5 of 8 , Nov 4, 2006
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              Hello Michael,
               
              For those of you who wish to fully understand the impact of the Plague in 1665 I can highly recommend "The Great Plague, The Story of London's Most Deadly Year" by A. Lloyd Moote and Dorothy Moote.
               
              It was published in 2003 by John Hopkin's Press.
               
              The book goes into both the origins of the plague but also its impact on London. There is a great deal of interest about how london functioned in those days as well.
               
              I found the book originally whilst researching my 8 x great grandfather Sir John Baber who was a Physician in Henrietta Street just off Covent Garden, just yards from Long Acre where the 1665 outbreak first started.  He was one of three physician's to the King, and was responsible for many of the precautions put in place to protect the court.
               

              In October 1667, Sir John petitioned “for a warrant for payment from the Exchequer of 954l 4s. arrears of his pension of 12s a day, from 1st December 1662 to 16th April 1667, there being no fund at the Green Cloth from which it can be paid.”.  He annexed a “Note of monies due to Sir John Baber; for 1597 days, total., 958l 4s.”[i]

               

              The petition, is just one of many attempts he had made to get payment for his work.  However it demonstrates the important role, Sir John was playing in ensuring that the King remained healthy.  One can but regret that we don’t have Sir John’s account of events during the Great Plague.  That he did play a role is clear from the following document, which describes arrangements that were made so that the Court could return to London, from it’s self imposed exile to avoid getting caught up in the epidemic.

               

               

              December 19th 1665. Westminster.

               

              Edm Godfrey to Fras. Lann.  Memoranda to be imparted to Mountjoy Earl of Newport.

               

                          The workhouse in the New Churchyard is finished, and the vault made the largest burying place in England.  The Lords Chamberlain’s letter, published by the King’s order in all churches near Whitehall, has been of great use to prevent the swarming of rascally lodgers, who, if they have not occasioned, have greatly spread the plague there, and brought more charge on the inhabitants than they are able to support.

                          All the common Sewers and watercourses have been cleaned against the return of the King and Court.  Has paid Dr. Innard at the pest house 200l, for services till All Hallow’s Day.

                          Since which he pretends to higher terms, on some agreement with Sir John Baber.  He and all his regiment are to be dismissed the pesthouse, except three warders and a nurse or two, to prevent its being pulled down as formerly.

                          Has met Mr. Warcupp twice a week in Covent Garden Vestry Meetings; they have agreed well, and the people seem satisfied with there government, except some poor, who cry out through dearness of fuel, and want of employment because King & Court are away, and some of the nobility and gentry forget their debts as well as their charity.  They have ordered all churchyards where many have been buried to be filled up with fresh mould, and earth a yard high laid on the graves etc. etc.[ii]

               

               

              From the above it would appear that Sir John must have been one of those people in authority, who were left in London to battle with the disease amongst the poor and those who could not flee. As both a Doctor and a Justice of the Peace, he was one of who attended the meetings of the St. Paul’s Vestry twice a week. I expect Sir John had to promise Dr. Innard and his brave staff a great deal, to get them to remain at his post in the Pesthouse.

               

              He was already a widower appears to have sent his own children to the Isle of Wight with his mother in law Lady Richards, where her appearance engendered panick as presumably the servants and villagers knew where she was coming from, and what her son in law was involved in.

               

               

              Inhabitants of Yaverland to Sir W. Oglander
              The Humble desire of ye Inhabitants of yaverland August the 30th (65)

              Sr
              These few lines are to entreate yor worpp for to send to Bradinge yt they might sett a watch & ward to keepe out all newport people out of the towne wee are resolved to keepe a gard day & night att yarbridge & wee have beene with Major Holmes att the fort & he hath promise that none shall come that way & we doe understand that the Lady Richards is minded to come to Yaverland too morrow but we are resolved for to stop her & not to lett her come in & wee are fearfull if she might come in thorough Brading & soe to come over the wall by ye sluce therefore we thought fitt to acquainte your worshipp with it hopeinge that yor worshipp will send to Bradinge that they might secure that way

              [iii]

               

              From the records I know that Sir John waspart of the vestry for St Paul's Covent Garden at this time.  I cannot at present work out what he actually did, but I have discovered a curious set of minutes about a column put up after the plague in the Piazza which had Sir John's arms on it in reward for his services, which I think must have been related to the plague. Only 25 doctors and physicians stayed in London. Most fled. Those that stayed are identified in Moote's book, and their extremely interesting tales are told.

               

              In much of Europe there was a tradition of building ornamental columns to celebrate a cities deliverance from the Plague.  The Piazza at Covent Garden when it was originally laid out it was an empty square.  At some point in the 1630’s a single solitary tree was planted in the centre of the Piazza surrounded by some wooden railings.  In 1668 it was decided by the parishioners that a column be erected to replace the tree which was not growing very well.  A Mr. Tomlinson, who was probably Richard Tomlinson, a churchwarden, proposed the erection of the column.  In 1668 he informed the vestry : -

               

              “that he and his gentlemen had a desire to erect a Doricke columne of polished marble, for the support of a quadrangular dyall in the midst of the railes where now the trees are, it being very improbable that they should ever come to any maturity.”[iv]

               

              The Churchwarden’s accounts for 1668-9 record the receipts of gifts “towards the Erecting of the Columne - £20 from the fifth Earl of Bedford, and £10 each from Sir Charles Cotterell, master of ceremonies, and Lord Denzil Holles. 

               

              £90 was paid to “Mr Keizar at the Sculpture of the Pallas for the Columne”, 8s. 6d. to Mr Wainwright for the four gnomons, and £2to Mr. Browne, “the mathematician, for his paines about the dial.”

               

              10s. was paid for “ Drawing A Modell of the Columne to be presented to the Vestry.”

               

              Then the churchwardens accounts go on to record that “Upon due consideration of those many signall services, that the Honorable Sir John Baber hath don this Parish from Time to Time Wee thought it good to affix his Coate of Armes, in one of the Heilds belonging to the Columne, as a Perpetual acknowledgement of our gratitude, and to Refuse any present from him that should be tendered Towards the Charge thereof.”[v]

               

              Sir John Baber appears in Pepy’s Diary on 12th-13th January 1666 when Pepy’s says-

               

               

              “And again my Lord Brouncker[i] doth tell us that he hath it from Sir John Baber, that relates to my Lord Craven, that my Lord Craven doth look after Sir G Carteret’s place and doth reckon himself sure of it.”[ii]


               Later on in 1670's together with Sir Robert Howard he would run a dirty tricks campaign to oust Pepy's from his Kings Lynn seat in Parliament, although from the correspondance preserved by Tanner they seem to have been friends until that point.


              [i] C.S.P.D. Volume CXCVII paragraph 93.

              [ii] C.S.P.D. Volume CXXXIX 1665-1666 paragraph 68.

              [iii] Source: (OG/89/11) from http://www.btinternet.com/~rob.martin1/bem/plag.htm

              [iv] See “Survey of London, Volume XXXVI, page 79, and 331, originally from British Library scrapbook entitled “Gleanings relating to the Parish of Covent Garden Westminster” pressmark 1889 a 20.

              [v] Covent Garden Churchwardens Accounts, Westminster Records Office

               

              [i] Lord Brouncker 1620-1684, Navy commissioner 1664-1679.  Commissioner of the Duke of York’s Household to 1667, Chancellor to the Queen 1662 -1684.  He was a mathematician, and first President of the Royal Society, who carried out some of the first experiment science.  He designed a yacht for king Charles II.

              [ii] Taken from “The Diary of Samuel Pepys” Volume vii, 1666.  1972 edition published by G Bell & Sons Ltd.

               

              Regards

               

              Nick Balmer

              .

               
            • mfrassociates@aol.com
              Nick: Many thanks for this suggestion; will put it on my list for future, 1665, reading! Sounds as if you will have a great deal of information for the
              Message 6 of 8 , Nov 4, 2006
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                Nick:
                 
                Many thanks for this suggestion; will put it on my list for "future,"1665, reading!
                 
                Sounds as if  you will have a great deal of information for the encyclopedia when the time comes.
                 
                Best,
                 
                Michael
                 
                 
                 
                In a message dated 11/4/2006 3:51:18 A.M. Eastern Standard Time, nicholas.balmer1@... writes:
                For those of you who wish to fully understand the impact of the Plague in 1665 I can highly recommend "The Great Plague, The Story of London's Most Deadly Year" by A. Lloyd Moote and Dorothy Moote.
                 
                It was published in 2003 by John Hopkin's Press.
                 
                The book goes into both the origins of the plague but also its impact on London. There is a great deal of interest about how london functioned in those days as well.
                 
              • Kate
                Hello Nick Having done some research on Sir John Baber you might be interested to know he features frequently in the Entring Book of Roger Morrice. Morrice
                Message 7 of 8 , Nov 6, 2006
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                  Hello Nick
                   
                  Having done some research on Sir John Baber you might be interested to know he features frequently in the 'Entring Book' of Roger Morrice. Morrice is a sort of anti-Pepys: a Presbyterian who kept an epic news diary from 1678 into the 1690s. One of Morrice's chief sources of Court news was Baber so Baber clearly wasn't limiting his gossiping to Pepys!  I've posted a link to the Entring Book project site below, though it is now a bit outdated:
                   
                   
                  The edition is due out in April 2007, so will hopefully be in major libraries sometime next year.
                   
                  Kate
                   


                  Nicholas Balmer <nicholas.balmer1@...> wrote:
                  Hello Michael,
                   
                  For those of you who wish to fully understand the impact of the Plague in 1665 I can highly recommend "The Great Plague, The Story of London's Most Deadly Year" by A. Lloyd Moote and Dorothy Moote.
                   
                  It was published in 2003 by John Hopkin's Press.
                   
                  The book goes into both the origins of the plague but also its impact on London. There is a great deal of interest about how london functioned in those days as well.
                   
                  I found the book originally whilst researching my 8 x great grandfather Sir John Baber who was a Physician in Henrietta Street just off Covent Garden, just yards from Long Acre where the 1665 outbreak first started.  He was one of three physician's to the King, and was responsible for many of the precautions put in place to protect the court.
                   
                  In October 1667, Sir John petitioned “for a warrant for payment from the Exchequer of 954l 4s. arrears of his pension of 12s a day, from 1st December 1662 to 16th April 1667, there being no fund at the Green Cloth from which it can be paid.”.  He annexed a “Note of monies due to Sir John Baber; for 1597 days, total., 958l 4s.”[i]
                  The petition, is just one of many attempts he had made to get payment for his work.  However it demonstrates the important role, Sir John was playing in ensuring that the King remained healthy.  One can but regret that we don’t have Sir John’s account of events during the Great Plague.  That he did play a role is clear from the following document, which describes arrangements that were made so that the Court could return to London, from it’s self imposed exile to avoid getting caught up in the epidemic.
                  December 19th 1665. Westminster.
                  Edm Godfrey to Fras. Lann.  Memoranda to be imparted to Mountjoy Earl of Newport.
                              The workhouse in the New Churchyard is finished, and the vault made the largest burying place in England.  The Lords Chamberlain’s letter, published by the King’s order in all churches near Whitehall, has been of great use to prevent the swarming of rascally lodgers, who, if they have not occasioned, have greatly spread the plague there, and brought more charge on the inhabitants than they are able to support.
                              All the common Sewers and watercourses have been cleaned against the return of the King and Court.  Has paid Dr. Innard at the pest house 200l, for services till All Hallow’s Day.
                              Since which he pretends to higher terms, on some agreement with Sir John Baber.  He and all his regiment are to be dismissed the pesthouse, except three warders and a nurse or two, to prevent its being pulled down as formerly.
                              Has met Mr. Warcupp twice a week in Covent Garden Vestry Meetings; they have agreed well, and the people seem satisfied with there government, except some poor, who cry out through dearness of fuel, and want of employment because King & Court are away, and some of the nobility and gentry forget their debts as well as their charity.  They have ordered all churchyards where many have been buried to be filled up with fresh mould, and earth a yard high laid on the graves etc. etc.[ii]
                  From the above it would appear that Sir John must have been one of those people in authority, who were left in London to battle with the disease amongst the poor and those who could not flee. As both a Doctor and a Justice of the Peace, he was one of who attended the meetings of the St. Paul’s Vestry twice a week. I expect Sir John had to promise Dr. Innard and his brave staff a great deal, to get them to remain at his post in the Pesthouse.
                   
                  He was already a widower appears to have sent his own children to the Isle of Wight with his mother in law Lady Richards, where her appearance engendered panick as presumably the servants and villagers knew where she was coming from, and what her son in law was involved in.
                  Inhabitants of Yaverland to Sir W. Oglander
                  The Humble desire of ye Inhabitants of yaverland August the 30th (65)
                  Sr
                  These few lines are to entreate yor worpp for to send to Bradinge yt they might sett a watch & ward to keepe out all newport people out of the towne wee are resolved to keepe a gard day & night att yarbridge & wee have beene with Major Holmes att the fort & he hath promise that none shall come that way & we doe understand that the Lady Richards is minded to come to Yaverland too morrow but we are resolved for to stop her & not to lett her come in & wee are fearfull if she might come in thorough Brading & soe to come over the wall by ye sluce therefore we thought fitt to acquainte your worshipp with it hopeinge that yor worshipp will send to Bradinge that they might secure that way
                  From the records I know that Sir John waspart of the vestry for St Paul's Covent Garden at this time.  I cannot at present work out what he actually did, but I have discovered a curious set of minutes about a column put up after the plague in the Piazza which had Sir John's arms on it in reward for his services, which I think must have been related to the plague. Only 25 doctors and physicians stayed in London. Most fled. Those that stayed are identified in Moote's book, and their extremely interesting tales are told.
                   
                  In much of Europe there was a tradition of building ornamental columns to celebrate a cities deliverance from the Plague.  The Piazza at Covent Garden when it was originally laid out it was an empty square.  At some point in the 1630’s a single solitary tree was planted in the centre of the Piazza surrounded by some wooden railings.  In 1668 it was decided by the parishioners that a column be erected to replace the tree which was not growing very well.  A Mr. Tomlinson, who was probably Richard Tomlinson, a churchwarden, proposed the erection of the column.  In 1668 he informed the vestry : -
                  “that he and his gentlemen had a desire to erect a Doricke columne of polished marble, for the support of a quadrangular dyall in the midst of the railes where now the trees are, it being very improbable that they should ever come to any maturity.”[iv]
                  The Churchwarden’ s accounts for 1668-9 record the receipts of gifts “towards the Erecting of the Columne - £20 from the fifth Earl of Bedford, and £10 each from Sir Charles Cotterell, master of ceremonies, and Lord Denzil Holles. 
                  £90 was paid to “Mr Keizar at the Sculpture of the Pallas for the Columne”, 8s. 6d. to Mr Wainwright for the four gnomons, and £2to Mr. Browne, “the mathematician, for his paines about the dial.”
                  10s. was paid for “ Drawing A Modell of the Columne to be presented to the Vestry.”
                  Then the churchwardens accounts go on to record that “Upon due consideration of those many signall services, that the Honorable Sir John Baber hath don this Parish from Time to Time Wee thought it good to affix his Coate of Armes, in one of the Heilds belonging to the Columne, as a Perpetual acknowledgement of our gratitude, and to Refuse any present from him that should be tendered Towards the Charge thereof.”[v]
                   
                  Sir John Baber appears in Pepy’s Diary on 12th-13th January 1666 when Pepy’s says-
                  “And again my Lord Brouncker[i] doth tell us that he hath it from Sir John Baber, that relates to my Lord Craven, that my Lord Craven doth look after Sir G Carteret’s place and doth reckon himself sure of it.”[ii]

                   Later on in 1670's together with Sir Robert Howard he would run a dirty tricks campaign to oust Pepy's from his Kings Lynn seat in Parliament, although from the correspondance preserved by Tanner they seem to have been friends until that point.


                  [i] C.S.P.D. Volume CXCVII paragraph 93.
                  [ii] C.S.P.D. Volume CXXXIX 1665-1666 paragraph 68.
                  [iii] Source: (OG/89/11) from http://www.btintern et.com/~rob. martin1/bem/ plag.htm
                  [iv] See “Survey of London, Volume XXXVI, page 79, and 331, originally from British Library scrapbook entitled “Gleanings relating to the Parish of Covent Garden Westminster” pressmark 1889 a 20.
                  [v] Covent Garden Churchwardens Accounts, Westminster Records Office
                   
                  [i] Lord Brouncker 1620-1684, Navy commissioner 1664-1679.  Commissioner of the Duke of York’s Household to 1667, Chancellor to the Queen 1662 -1684.  He was a mathematician, and first President of the Royal Society, who carried out some of the first experiment science.  He designed a yacht for king Charles II.
                  [ii] Taken from “The Diary of Samuel Pepys” Volume vii, 1666.  1972 edition published by G Bell & Sons Ltd.
                   
                  Regards
                   
                  Nick Balmer
                  .
                   

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                • Nicholas Balmer
                  Hello Kate, Thanks for the news on Toger Morrice s Entring Book. Several years ago I read some of Morrice s correspondance, at Dr William s Library. I have
                  Message 8 of 8 , Nov 6, 2006
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                    Hello Kate,
                     
                    Thanks for the news on Toger Morrice's Entring Book. Several years ago I read some of Morrice's correspondance, at Dr William's Library.
                     
                    I have been looking forward to the full transcripts coming out very much, as I am aware that they spent a lot of time together.
                     
                    A few years ago I uncovered a receipt from Sir John Baber's grandson in which he acknowledged payment from a Humphrey Morrice for the hire of horses in 1709 for stag hunting.
                     
                    There is also a connection with a slightly earlier Morrice in the 1690's who appears to have nearly broken the flegling Bank of England, so I am really looking forward to the research coming out on the Morrice family, so that with any luck I can work out how this fits together.
                     
                    Regards
                     
                    Nick Balmer
                     
                     
                    ----- Original Message -----
                    From: Kate
                    Sent: Monday, November 06, 2006 2:31 PM
                    Subject: [pepysdiary] Sir John Baber

                    Hello Nick
                     
                    Having done some research on Sir John Baber you might be interested to know he features frequently in the 'Entring Book' of Roger Morrice. Morrice is a sort of anti-Pepys: a Presbyterian who kept an epic news diary from 1678 into the 1690s. One of Morrice's chief sources of Court news was Baber so Baber clearly wasn't limiting his gossiping to Pepys!  I've posted a link to the Entring Book project site below, though it is now a bit outdated:
                     
                     
                    The edition is due out in April 2007, so will hopefully be in major libraries sometime next year.
                     
                    Kate
                     


                    Nicholas Balmer <nicholas.balmer1@ ntlworld. com> wrote:
                    Hello Michael,
                     
                    For those of you who wish to fully understand the impact of the Plague in 1665 I can highly recommend "The Great Plague, The Story of London's Most Deadly Year" by A. Lloyd Moote and Dorothy Moote.
                     
                    It was published in 2003 by John Hopkin's Press.
                     
                    The book goes into both the origins of the plague but also its impact on London. There is a great deal of interest about how london functioned in those days as well.
                     
                    I found the book originally whilst researching my 8 x great grandfather Sir John Baber who was a Physician in Henrietta Street just off Covent Garden, just yards from Long Acre where the 1665 outbreak first started.  He was one of three physician's to the King, and was responsible for many of the precautions put in place to protect the court.
                     
                    In October 1667, Sir John petitioned “for a warrant for payment from the Exchequer of 954l 4s. arrears of his pension of 12s a day, from 1st December 1662 to 16th April 1667, there being no fund at the Green Cloth from which it can be paid.”.  He annexed a “Note of monies due to Sir John Baber; for 1597 days, total., 958l 4s.”[i]
                    The petition, is just one of many attempts he had made to get payment for his work.  However it demonstrates the important role, Sir John was playing in ensuring that the King remained healthy.  One can but regret that we don’t have Sir John’s account of events during the Great Plague.  That he did play a role is clear from the following document, which describes arrangements that were made so that the Court could return to London, from it’s self imposed exile to avoid getting caught up in the epidemic.
                    December 19th 1665. Westminster.
                    Edm Godfrey to Fras. Lann.  Memoranda to be imparted to Mountjoy Earl of Newport.
                                The workhouse in the New Churchyard is finished, and the vault made the largest burying place in England.  The Lords Chamberlain’s letter, published by the King’s order in all churches near Whitehall, has been of great use to prevent the swarming of rascally lodgers, who, if they have not occasioned, have greatly spread the plague there, and brought more charge on the inhabitants than they are able to support.
                                All the common Sewers and watercourses have been cleaned against the return of the King and Court.  Has paid Dr. Innard at the pest house 200l, for services till All Hallow’s Day.
                                Since which he pretends to higher terms, on some agreement with Sir John Baber.  He and all his regiment are to be dismissed the pesthouse, except three warders and a nurse or two, to prevent its being pulled down as formerly.
                                Has met Mr. Warcupp twice a week in Covent Garden Vestry Meetings; they have agreed well, and the people seem satisfied with there government, except some poor, who cry out through dearness of fuel, and want of employment because King & Court are away, and some of the nobility and gentry forget their debts as well as their charity.  They have ordered all churchyards where many have been buried to be filled up with fresh mould, and earth a yard high laid on the graves etc. etc.[ii]
                    From the above it would appear that Sir John must have been one of those people in authority, who were left in London to battle with the disease amongst the poor and those who could not flee. As both a Doctor and a Justice of the Peace, he was one of who attended the meetings of the St. Paul’s Vestry twice a week. I expect Sir John had to promise Dr. Innard and his brave staff a great deal, to get them to remain at his post in the Pesthouse.
                     
                    He was already a widower appears to have sent his own children to the Isle of Wight with his mother in law Lady Richards, where her appearance engendered panick as presumably the servants and villagers knew where she was coming from, and what her son in law was involved in.
                    Inhabitants of Yaverland to Sir W. Oglander
                    The Humble desire of ye Inhabitants of yaverland August the 30th (65)
                    Sr
                    These few lines are to entreate yor worpp for to send to Bradinge yt they might sett a watch & ward to keepe out all newport people out of the towne wee are resolved to keepe a gard day & night att yarbridge & wee have beene with Major Holmes att the fort & he hath promise that none shall come that way & we doe understand that the Lady Richards is minded to come to Yaverland too morrow but we are resolved for to stop her & not to lett her come in & wee are fearfull if she might come in thorough Brading & soe to come over the wall by ye sluce therefore we thought fitt to acquainte your worshipp with it hopeinge that yor worshipp will send to Bradinge that they might secure that way
                    From the records I know that Sir John waspart of the vestry for St Paul's Covent Garden at this time.  I cannot at present work out what he actually did, but I have discovered a curious set of minutes about a column put up after the plague in the Piazza which had Sir John's arms on it in reward for his services, which I think must have been related to the plague. Only 25 doctors and physicians stayed in London. Most fled. Those that stayed are identified in Moote's book, and their extremely interesting tales are told.
                     
                    In much of Europe there was a tradition of building ornamental columns to celebrate a cities deliverance from the Plague.  The Piazza at Covent Garden when it was originally laid out it was an empty square.  At some point in the 1630’s a single solitary tree was planted in the centre of the Piazza surrounded by some wooden railings.  In 1668 it was decided by the parishioners that a column be erected to replace the tree which was not growing very well.  A Mr. Tomlinson, who was probably Richard Tomlinson, a churchwarden, proposed the erection of the column.  In 1668 he informed the vestry : -
                    “that he and his gentlemen had a desire to erect a Doricke columne of polished marble, for the support of a quadrangular dyall in the midst of the railes where now the trees are, it being very improbable that they should ever come to any maturity.”[iv]
                    The Churchwarden’ s accounts for 1668-9 record the receipts of gifts “towards the Erecting of the Columne - £20 from the fifth Earl of Bedford, and £10 each from Sir Charles Cotterell, master of ceremonies, and Lord Denzil Holles. 
                    £90 was paid to “Mr Keizar at the Sculpture of the Pallas for the Columne”, 8s. 6d. to Mr Wainwright for the four gnomons, and £2to Mr. Browne, “the mathematician, for his paines about the dial.”
                    10s. was paid for “ Drawing A Modell of the Columne to be presented to the Vestry.”
                    Then the churchwardens accounts go on to record that “Upon due consideration of those many signall services, that the Honorable Sir John Baber hath don this Parish from Time to Time Wee thought it good to affix his Coate of Armes, in one of the Heilds belonging to the Columne, as a Perpetual acknowledgement of our gratitude, and to Refuse any present from him that should be tendered Towards the Charge thereof.”[v]
                     
                    Sir John Baber appears in Pepy’s Diary on 12th-13th January 1666 when Pepy’s says-
                    “And again my Lord Brouncker[i] doth tell us that he hath it from Sir John Baber, that relates to my Lord Craven, that my Lord Craven doth look after Sir G Carteret’s place and doth reckon himself sure of it.”[ii]

                     Later on in 1670's together with Sir Robert Howard he would run a dirty tricks campaign to oust Pepy's from his Kings Lynn seat in Parliament, although from the correspondance preserved by Tanner they seem to have been friends until that point.


                    [i] C.S.P.D. Volume CXCVII paragraph 93.
                    [ii] C.S.P.D. Volume CXXXIX 1665-1666 paragraph 68.
                    [iii] Source: (OG/89/11) from http://www.btintern et.com/~rob. martin1/bem/ plag.htm
                    [iv] See “Survey of London, Volume XXXVI, page 79, and 331, originally from British Library scrapbook entitled “Gleanings relating to the Parish of Covent Garden Westminster” pressmark 1889 a 20.
                    [v] Covent Garden Churchwardens Accounts, Westminster Records Office
                     
                    [i] Lord Brouncker 1620-1684, Navy commissioner 1664-1679.  Commissioner of the Duke of York’s Household to 1667, Chancellor to the Queen 1662 -1684.  He was a mathematician, and first President of the Royal Society, who carried out some of the first experiment science.  He designed a yacht for king Charles II.
                    [ii] Taken from “The Diary of Samuel Pepys” Volume vii, 1666.  1972 edition published by G Bell & Sons Ltd.
                     
                    Regards
                     
                    Nick Balmer
                    .
                     

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