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1597Fwd: On land and sea

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  • Terry Foreman
    Jul 29, 2014
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      From: Andrew Hamilton <jahamiltonjr@...>
      Date: Tue, Jul 29, 2014 at 6:59 AM
      Subject: Fwd: On land and sea
      To: Terry Foreman <terry.foreman@...>

      From: oxforddnb-lotd@...
      Date: July 27, 2014 at 2:00:01 AM EDT
      Subject: On land and sea
      Reply-To: epm-oxforddnb@...

      The songs & anthems of the British Isles http://blog.oup.com/2014/07/commonwealth-national-anthems/

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      To read this Life of the Day complete with a picture of the subject,
      visit http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/lotw/2014-07-27

      Montagu  [Mountagu],  Edward, first earl of Sandwich  (1625-1672), army and naval officer and diplomat, was born at Barnwell, Northamptonshire, on 27 July 1625, the second but eldest surviving son of Sir Sydney Montagu (c.1571-1644) of Hinchingbrooke, Huntingdonshire, MP for Huntingdonshire, master of requests, and groom of the bedchamber to James I, and his wife, Paulina, formerly Pepys (d. 1638). Edward spelt his surname Mountagu, though the family name later settled in the form Montagu.

      Early life, civil war, and protectorate

      Edward Montagu was educated at the grammar school in Huntingdon; he was entered on the books of the Middle Temple in 1635, aged ten, but never studied there. He married Jemimah Crew (1625-1674) at St Margaret's, Westminster, on 7 November 1642. Although his ageing father supported the king in the recently declared civil war, his new in-laws were parliamentarians, and his cousin the earl of Manchester commanded the army of the eastern association. In June 1643 he became a deputy lieutenant of the association, and on 20 August he was commissioned to raise his own regiment of foot, a colonel at eighteen. He first fought at the attack on Hillesden House in March 1644, and early in May took part in Manchester's recapture of Lincoln. His regiment then marched to join the siege of York, fighting in the battle of Marston Moor on 2 July and at the second battle of Newbury on 27 October. Despite his family connections, Montagu was one of the colonels who supported Cromwell's denunciation of Manchester for indecisiveness, giving evidence to the effect that Manchester had opposed the war from the beginning.

      Montagu spent much of the winter of 1644-5 at Henley, where he became governor on 10 January 1645. His regiment fought at Naseby on 14 June, and in the following month Montagu effectively became acting major-general in the west in Skippon's absence, participating in the successful siege of Bristol. In the assault on 10 September, Montagu led the attack through the breach at Lawford's Gate and on to the castle gates. He was one of the two colonels who bore the news of Bristol's surrender to parliament on 12 September, receiving the thanks of the house. On 13 October he returned to parliament on a more permanent basis, having been elected MP for Huntingdonshire. Thereafter, the self-denying ordinance of 1645 precluded further military command, but Montagu played only a limited role in parliament, withdrawing from it entirely at Pride's Purge.

      Montagu spent the early part of the Commonwealth in retirement at Hinchingbrooke, although he continued to act as a county commissioner. He returned to public life in July 1653 as a member of the nominated, or Barebone's Parliament, becoming a member of the council of state on 14 July. His increasingly close association with his Huntingdonshire neighbour Oliver Cromwell became apparent after the establishment of the protectorate. Montagu became one of the fifteen members of Cromwell's council, and was appointed a treasury commissioner on 3 August 1654 with a salary of £1000 p.a. He was employed in a number of high-profile diplomatic roles, such as the reception of the Dutch ambassadors at Whitehall on 20 March 1654. He was a leading government spokesman in the debates over military and naval expenditure in December, and in October 1655 was appointed to the admiralty committee. With Cromwell intent with war on Spain, Montagu was appointed joint general at sea on 2 January 1656. He shared the position with Robert Blake, whose illness-and the need to have someone personally loyal to Cromwell in authority in the fleet-prompted Montagu's elevation.

      General at sea

      The fleet sailed on 15 March 1656, shortly after the first surviving piece of correspondence between Montagu and his relatively new servant, his distant kinsman Samuel Pepys. Blake and Montagu flew their flag in the new first-rate Naseby. After reconnoitring Tangier, Tetuan, and Gibraltar, and exacting compensation for English merchants in Lisbon from the Portuguese crown (partly by threatening the returning Brazil fleet), Montagu returned home in October. He carried with him much of the Spanish treasure captured by Richard Stayner in the previous month, and on 4 November unjustly received parliament's thanks for an action in which he had taken no part.

      Montagu became one of the leading members of the 'new Cromwellian' faction which advocated the offer of the crown to Cromwell in 'The humble petition and advice' of April 1657. On 17 July he rejoined the Naseby to command the fleet designed to support the attacks on Dunkirk and Mardyke, promised to England under Cromwell's treaty with Mazarin. From 19 to 22 September his ships supported Marshal Turenne's successful attack on Mardyke. He returned to England in October and joined Cromwell's privy council, becoming additionally (in January 1658) a baron and member of the controversial 'other house' created by 'The humble petition and advice'. He returned to his command at sea on 1 June, supporting Turenne's attack on Dunkirk; after the town's surrender on 24 June he was presented to Louis XIV and entertained Mazarin aboard the Naseby.

      Montagu strongly supported the protectorship of Richard Cromwell following Oliver's death on 3 September, and presented an address of loyalty to the new regime from the navy. He was made a colonel of horse on 16 September, and in October briefly took a squadron to sea to suppress the Dunkirk privateers. His strong personal commitment to Richard made him enemies, notably major-generals Fleetwood and Desborough, who at the privy council in December accused Montagu of plotting to kidnap and perhaps kill them. Montagu denied the charge, which was based on anonymous information, and Desborough walked out of the meeting in disgust.

      In March 1659 Montagu returned to the Naseby to take command of a fleet intended for the Baltic. The ongoing conflict between Sweden and Denmark threatened England's substantial trading interests in that area, especially as the Dutch, who sympathized with Denmark, had sent a large fleet to 'mediate'. The prospects of the Dutch gaining greater control of Baltic trade, and of England's ally Sweden's being defeated, were unacceptable to Richard Cromwell's council, and Montagu was sent with forty ships to provide England's input into the mediation effort. He arrived at Elsinore on 6 April to find the forces of Charles X of Sweden besieging Copenhagen, and his first efforts were directed towards persuading the Dutch not to intervene on Denmark's side, and persuading the Swedes to negotiate at all. Montagu's efforts were temporarily stymied by the fall of Richard Cromwell at the end of April, and the fleet withdrew to await the outcome of events in England.

      Montagu made it plain that he regretted Richard's fall, but promised to follow the orders of the newly restored Rump Parliament. The royalists immediately seized the opportunity to approach Montagu, using direct letters from Charles and the agencies of two intermediaries, the general at sea's eponymous cousin Edward Montagu and the former naval captain Thomas Whetstone (a nephew of Oliver Cromwell). Royalist doubts about Montagu's loyalty to the Rump were shared by that body itself, which removed him from the admiralty commission on 31 May, sent the known republican John Lawson to command a fleet off Flanders as a counterweight to Montagu's, and dispatched three commissioners, led by the leading republican Algernon Sidney, ostensibly to assist Montagu with the negotiations but in reality at least partly to monitor his activities. The new commissioners and their government were less inclined towards Sweden, and agreed to form a joint Anglo-Dutch fleet to enforce their proposed treaty. Montagu opposed this, arguing that the rapidly diminishing level of provisions in the fleet made its immediate return to England essential. Sidney suspected that Montagu was in touch with the royalists-he had seen Whetstone ashore in Copenhagen-and that the real reason for taking the fleet home would be to assist that cause. The fleet sailed on 24 August, arriving in Hollesley Bay on 6 September. The fact that Montagu had persistently rejected the option of obtaining provisions ashore, and that a nationwide royalist uprising took place during August (albeit abortively, except in the case of Sir George Booth's revolt in Cheshire), led to immediate suspicions that he had covertly planned to use the fleet for the royalists, perhaps by blockading the Thames. Montagu argued his case before the Rump and no hard evidence could be found against him. Nevertheless, he ceased to command at sea and retired to Hinchingbrooke.

      The Restoration

      Montagu's agents in London, notably Samuel Pepys and John Creed, kept him informed of the bewildering pace of political change over the winter of 1659-60. On 5 December he was named one of the fleet's representatives at projected talks on a new constitution, but he decided to remain at home. In February 1660 the arrival in London of George Monck's Scottish army, and the subsequent recall of the 'secluded members' to parliament, signalled Montagu's recall to public life. He was appointed to the council of state on 23 February and made general at sea jointly with Monck on 2 March, although the latter's enforced presence in London meant that Montagu was effectively in sole command. He was reappointed to the admiralty commission on 3 March. His first task was to oversee a purge of known republican officers from the fleet; his first list of casualties and their replacements (many of them his own clients) was approved by the council on the 7th. Montagu was certainly amenable to a restoration of the monarchy by this point, although in a pragmatic rather than an idealistic way: on 6 March 1660 Pepys noted his belief that the king would return, but would not last long 'unless he carry himself very soberly and well'  (Pepys, 1.79). Montagu was in regular correspondence with Charles II by this time. On 23 March he joined the fleet, and continued to work on the purge of the officer corps, engineering the dismissals of several potential dissidents and sending off others in command of distant convoys. He was elected to the Convention for both Weymouth and Dover, choosing to sit for the latter, where he was also made a freeman. On 14 May the fleet under his command dropped anchor off Scheveningen, having decided not to wait for parliament's commissioners-an action that made him a number of lifelong enemies, or so Clarendon alleged. On the 23rd the royal party went aboard, landing at Dover on the 25th.

      The inevitable honours quickly followed. Within forty-eight hours of the king's landing Montagu was an earl (subsequently choosing Sandwich for his title on 12 July) and a knight of the Garter. To maintain an earl's dignity, he was granted an estate of £4000 p.a. He was reappointed to the treasury commission, where he had previously served between 1654 and 1659. In June he was sworn of the privy council and made master of the wardrobe and warden of Trinity House (serving as master in 1661-2). He commanded the squadrons which brought Princess Mary from the Netherlands in October 1660, that which conveyed the queen mother, Henrietta Maria, and Princess Henrietta to France in January 1661, and that which brought the queen mother back in July 1662. On the first voyage to France he fell out with the duke of Buckingham, challenging him to a duel when the duke refused to pay his losses to Sandwich at cards; only the direct intervention of the queen mother and her entourage settled the quarrel. Sandwich was one of the Garter knights who bore the canopy over the king's head at the coronation (23 April 1661). Additionally, he was elected to the Royal Society on 13 February 1661 and appointed master of the king's swans on 10 May, having become 'lieutenant, or admiral and general of the narrow seas'  (Journal, xxix)-effectively vice-admiral of England-on 18 March. The perennial disputes with the north African Barbary regencies over freedom of the seas, and the imminent marriage of Charles II to Catherine of Braganza, led to Sandwich's being sent with a fleet to the Mediterranean, with the additional title of ambassador-extraordinary to Portugal. He sailed in June 1661 and after recovering from a fever anchored before Algiers on 29 July and engaged in a desultory exchange of fire with the town. From September he was at Lisbon to begin the arrangements for the royal wedding, sailing on 3 October to take possession of Tangier, part of Catherine's dowry. His fleet oversaw the Portuguese evacuation and the arrival of the English garrison before sailing once more for Lisbon on 18 February. After a spectacular ceremonial entrance into the city, he spent two months conducting the protracted negotiations over the payment of Catherine's dowry. The fleet sailed on 15 April, arriving at Spithead on 14 May, and Sandwich attended the subsequent marriage ceremony at Portsmouth. He was a strong advocate of the sale of Dunkirk to France (October 1662), believing from his Mediterranean experiences in the 1650s that the possession of Tangier offered England far better opportunities, but he bore the brunt of some of the public outcry against the sale.

      Sandwich spent much of the period 1661-4 rebuilding Hinchingbrooke, consolidating his estates, and supervising the work of the wardrobe from the London house pertaining to the master. He took little part in politics, although he sat on a number of Lords' committees and was identified (as, indeed, he was throughout the period 1660-67) as a close political ally of the lord chancellor, Clarendon. An illness forced his retirement to Chelsea for much of 1663, where rumours of a liaison with his landlady's daughter led Pepys to send him an ill-judged letter of reproof, one of the factors that probably contributed to the gradual cooling of the relationship between the cousins in the period covered by Pepys's diary.

      The Second Anglo-Dutch War

      In July 1664 Sandwich hoisted his flag in the London, taking command of a small squadron intended to monitor Dutch movements. He cruised in the channel in the following months, and when the fleet was enlarged in November he became admiral of the Blue squadron under the overall command of the duke of York. In February 1665 he moved to the Revenge for a brief and abortive cruise to intercept Banckert's Dutch squadron in the North Sea. At the end of March he hoisted his flag aboard the Royal Prince, his flagship for the main campaign of 1665. Aboard her, he commanded the rear squadron in the battle of Lowestoft (3 June), playing a prominent part in the victory, especially when his squadron successfully broke through the Dutch centre. Despite this, Sandwich received little credit in the printed accounts of the battle, and blamed York and Prince Rupert for denigrating him. As it transpired, York's departure from the fleet after the victory and Rupert's refusal to contemplate a joint command handed Sandwich the position of sole admiral for the remainder of the campaign. His main objectives, as laid down in his instructions, were to be the interception of the returning Dutch East Indies ships and De Ruyter's fleet which had been cruising off Africa, even if they took refuge in neutral harbours in Norway. The belief that the king of Denmark-Norway, Frederick III, had been persuaded by the English envoy, Sir Gilbert Talbot, to acquiesce in such an attack in return for part of the proceeds led to the over-hasty departure of a badly prepared fleet on 5 July. Sandwich cruised on the Dogger Bank until all his reinforcements had arrived, then moved slowly north-east towards Norway. While he did so, De Ruyter evaded him by slipping along the Danish coast to the Ems. However, Sandwich was informed on 23 July that the Dutch merchant fleet from the Mediterranean was certainly in Bergen, and on the 30th he received intelligence that ten East Indiamen had just come into the same port. Trusting in Talbot's diplomacy, on 30 July Sandwich detached a squadron under Sir Thomas Teddeman to attack the shipping in Bergen. When the attack was made, on 2 August, the Danish governor refused to co-operate with Teddeman, and the Dutch and Danes jointly manned the shore batteries. The hail of fire forced Teddeman's withdrawal with over 400 casualties. Although public opinion criticized Sandwich, he retained the support of the court, and the real responsibility for the failure seems to have lain in a breakdown of communications and series of misunderstandings between Talbot and Frederick III, and then between Talbot, his political masters, and Sandwich.

      Sandwich's fleet, containing Teddeman's battered contingent, returned to Southwold Bay on 21 August. He sailed again seven days later, intending to intercept De Ruyter as he escorted home the merchantmen at Bergen. Although the English failed in their main objective, they had a major success on 3 September when a number of Dutch vessels, separated from De Ruyter by storms, were taken off the Texel. The prizes included two East Indiamen, the Phoenix and Slothany, and two other large merchant ships. Sandwich fought a further brief and successful engagement with the Dutch on 9 September before returning to the buoy of the Nore on 13 September. The hugely lucrative cargoes of the prizes guaranteed Sandwich's triumphant reception, but this quickly turned sour. Legally, the prize goods should have been turned over to the officials of the prize commission, but, on the voyage to the Nore, Sandwich was persuaded (notably by Sir William Penn) to order an immediate distribution of part of the cargoes to the flag officers of the fleet. His action quickly triggered jealousy among the captains who had not benefited, and some of the flag officers, in particular Sir George Ayscue, repudiated their shares. Sandwich sought retrospective authorization for his actions from the king and duke of York, but this had not arrived before the flagmen started to ship their goods ashore. His rivals, the duke of Albemarle prominent among them, used Sandwich's indiscretion to undermine his position, and his decision on 1 October to lay up the fleet for the winter only encouraged the (entirely unjustified) popular perception of him as a cowardly and avaricious admiral. This impression was heightened by Sandwich's departure from the fleet to attend the court at Oxford, despite the fact that the Dutch spent much of October on the English coast, and by the seizure of some of his prize goods by the customs at King's Lynn, whence they were to be taken upriver to Hinchingbrooke. It had already been decided, thanks largely to Albemarle's urging, that Sandwich would hold no further command at sea in the forthcoming campaigns.

      Ambassador to Spain

      In late October or early November 1665 it was decided that Sandwich should go to Spain as ambassador-extraordinary. The appointment removed him from the political storm over the prize goods affair, but also presented him with a major challenge. The new ambassador would be expected to mediate in the ongoing war between Spain and England's ally Portugal, and to conclude a commercial treaty which had been stalled throughout 1665. Moreover, England desperately needed Spanish support, or at least sympathy, to prevent her complete diplomatic isolation (relations between her and both France and Denmark-Norway were deteriorating rapidly, leading to outbreaks of war early in 1666). The situation was complicated by the fact that the Spanish government was itself in a state of flux, with the recent death of King Philip IV having brought to the throne the sickly four-year-old Charles II under the regency of his mother, Maria Anna. Sandwich received his official appointment as ambassador on 20 February, said his farewells to his family and to Pepys on the 25th, and sailed on 2 March. On arrival off Corunna on 12 March Sandwich was informed that he and his retinue would have to be quarantined owing to fears of the plague spreading from England, and he was put up in quarters in Burgos. He finally set off for Madrid on 27 April, entered the city on 18 May, and was presented privately to the queen regent on 27 May and publicly on 20 June.

      Sandwich's negotiations were bedevilled by the factional divisions among the Spanish ministers, by their insistence on ratifying the highly favourable commercial treaty that the previous ambassador, Sir Richard Fanshawe, had been prepared to concede, and by their categorical refusal to allow Alfonso of Portugal recognition as a reigning monarch. Moreover, the French diplomats in Madrid attempted to undermine Sandwich's efforts at every turn, as war between Spain and Portugal served Louis XIV's purpose. Sandwich eventually persuaded the Spanish to decouple the commercial treaty from the Portuguese question, and that treaty was signed in May 1667. By its most important clause, English goods imported into Spain could be re-exported without paying a second set of customs duties, and this proved an immensely valuable boost to the English carrying trade to and from the Mediterranean. Meanwhile, Sandwich's hand on the outstanding issues was strengthened by the Franco-Portuguese alliance of March 1667, and by the French invasion of Brabant in May. Sandwich attempted to exact substantial concessions from the Spanish before he would agree to a full alliance; above all, he sought access for English shipping to the lucrative trade of the Spanish Americas. The Spanish could not contemplate such sweeping concessions, but the ending of the Second Anglo-Dutch War (and the concomitant Anglo-French war) by the treaty of Breda in July 1667 panicked the Spanish, as it seemed to free the French to turn all their attentions to Spain. Within two days of the news of Breda reaching Madrid, the Spanish government had agreed to recognize Portugal as a kingdom. Moreover, a coup in Lisbon in November effectively sidelined Alfonso and installed, as regent, his brother Pedro, who rejected the pro-French line of the previous government. Sandwich himself set out for Madrid on 26 December to hasten matters, arriving in Lisbon on 12 January 1668. Despite the inevitable last-minute arguments over individual clauses, he was able to engineer the signing of the treaty on 3 February. The Portuguese war of independence, which had lasted since 1640, was over.

      Sandwich returned to Madrid on 22 March 1668, and made his formal farewell to the king and queen regent on 23 April. He left Madrid on 10 July, bound for Cadiz and a tour of inspection of Tangier. He arrived in the English colony on 14 August and undertook a rigorous examination of the defences, population, and facilities of the town, as well as presenting it with a new charter. He sailed from Tangier aboard the Greenwich on 29 August, and, after a short stay in Cornwall, returned to Spithead on 28 September. He was received by the king at Audley End on 11 October, returning finally to Hinchingbrooke two days later. In his absence, both the Bergen and prize-goods affairs had been raised in parliament, and in April 1668 Sandwich had been threatened with impeachment. In the summer of 1668 the 'Brooke House committee', which was investigating the alleged miscarriages of the Dutch war, demanded his responses to the allegations against him over the prize goods. His answer, sent to the committee on 10 September, failed to satisfy it, and in February 1669 he was pressed for further information, but his stalling tactics prevailed: the committee was dissolved before it obtained a fuller response from him. Sandwich spent much of 1669 and the early months of 1670 at Hinchingbrooke and in attendance at the House of Lords, and at the privy council's committee for trade and the plantations which he had joined on 13 January 1669. In May 1670 he escorted Princess Henrietta to Dover, unaware of the secret treaty which her visit entailed, and on 30 July became president of the newly created council for foreign plantations, a smaller, more efficient replacement for the previous committee.

      The Third Anglo-Dutch War

      Sandwich reportedly disliked the war which Charles II and Louis XIV began against the Dutch in 1672. He told John Evelyn that he 'was utterly against this war from the beginning', and seems to have regarded his own prospects with fatalism: when he parted from Evelyn, 'shaking me by the hand he bid me good-bye, and said he thought he should see me no more ... "No", says he, "they will not have me live ... I must do something, I know not what, to save my reputation"'  (Evelyn, 3.616). However, unknown to Evelyn or the earl's subsequent biographers, Sandwich, along with the French ministers Seignelay and Colbert de Croissy, had signed the naval treaty of January 1672, which set out the arrangements for the conduct of the naval campaign. On 21 April 1672 the earl hoisted his flag aboard the Royal James, a new 100-gun first-rate built in the previous year. He was to be admiral of the blue in a combined Anglo-French fleet. The two English squadrons sailed from the Nore on 2 May, joining with the French at Spithead on 5 May. After attempts to bring the Dutch to an engagement were frustrated by the weather, the allied fleet entered Southwold Bay, or Solebay, on 21 May. Believing the Dutch had retired to their own coast, the fleet began to revictual. However, in the early morning of 28 May the Dutch fleet was sighted. The fact that Sandwich's Blue squadron was the most northerly of the anchored allied squadrons meant that when the combined fleet got under way it formed the van, rather than the rear, and would therefore bear the brunt of De Ruyter's attack. Van Ghent's squadron of Amsterdam ships engaged Sandwich just before seven, and the Royal James gradually became detached from her support: her chief second, Captain Francis Digby's Henry, was taken, and the vice- and rear-admirals' divisions were both too far away to help. About nine, Sandwich's ship was engaged by Captain Jan van Brakel's Groot Hollandia, which got into such a position that she could rake the Royal James from the bows. An hour later van Ghent and the Dolfijn attempted to attack Sandwich's stern, but in the light winds she was unable to manoeuvre, and in the subsequent pounding from the Royal James's guns van Ghent was killed. At the suggestion of his wounded flag captain, Richard Haddock, Sandwich managed to get clear of the Groot Hollandia, only to come under renewed attack from the Olifant and from a Dutch fireship, which succeeded in grappling onto the Royal James. With her crew already decimated, the flagship was unable to repel the attack. Sandwich rejected all suggestions that he should abandon the ship, and, by midday, the last of those who survived had left him. By the end of the afternoon, the ship had burnt to the water-line.

      Sandwich's body, recognizable from the Garter ribbon that he had worn during the battle, was recovered from the sea on 10 June. The absence of any evidence of burning suggested that he had probably attempted to swim away from the wreck at the last moment, but that his middle-aged weight ensured he was soon overcome by the sea. The body lay at Landguard Fort until 22 June when it was taken by sea to Deptford. The funeral took place on 3 July. An impressive flotilla escorted the coffin up the Thames to Westminster Abbey, where the earl was laid to rest in Henry VII's chapel. In his will, Sandwich made bequests of £3000 to each of his three daughters, and of £2000 to each of his six sons, who included John Montagu; the estate at Brampton passed to his wife; but the bulk of his inheritance passed naturally to his eldest son, Lord Hinchingbrooke, who became the second earl of Sandwich. It was a sign of how estranged the first earl and his old servant, Samuel Pepys, had become by the time the will was drawn up, in August 1669, that the diarist-an obvious candidate to be an executor-is named nowhere in it.


      If Sandwich was often the subject of popular and political attack in life, his reputation was fortunate in death. The publication of Pepys's diary presented a picture of his 'my lord' almost as a true Renaissance man: the generous patron, the cheerful if sometimes moody companion, the hopeless manager of money, the competent artist and musician. He had an ear for languages, mastering Spanish by the end of his embassy, and his fascination with topography, mathematics, astronomy, and navigation emerges clearly from his manuscript journals, which are still held by his family. These formed the main sources for two sympathetic twentieth-century biographies, by F. R. Harris (1912) and Richard Ollard (1994).

      Sandwich's religious beliefs changed over time. His youthful sympathy for the independents and more radical sects in the 1640s gave way by 1660 to the scepticism and indifference noted by Pepys, and he became a pragmatic supporter of the established church. Politically, he never regained the level of influence he had possessed under the Cromwells from about 1657 to 1659, especially in Richard Cromwell's protectorate. His firm belief in strong rule, ideally of a single person, enabled him to make the transition from lingering adherence to Richard (whom he was still addressing as 'your highness' months after his fall) to a qualified support for the return of Charles II. Although he could handle certain political situations masterfully-for instance, his treatment of Algernon Sydney in the Baltic, or his concealment from an incredulous Pepys of his early dealings with the royalists-he never truly came to terms with the new situation after the Restoration. He was at best a reluctant courtier, and his steady adherence to Clarendon made him many enemies. He did not suffer fools gladly, as his obviously hostile attitude to his political masters in 1659 suggests, and this did not stand him in good stead at a post-Restoration court where dissembling was commonplace. Ultimately, his naivety in the prize-goods affair destroyed much of his public reputation, and his undoubted successes as ambassador in Spain only partially regained his standing in the country and at court.

      Sandwich's career as an admiral was his most enduring achievement. Although modern writers give him less credit than some of their predecessors for the development of the line of battle as the main tactic of the Second Anglo-Dutch War, it is clear that the fighting instructions he issued to his squadron on 1 February 1665, modifying and clarifying the duke of York's of the previous November, were an important step in the process of working through the implications of what was still a very new way of fighting a naval action. Sandwich's belief that less well-armed ships and hired merchantmen should not be placed in the line of battle at all foreshadowed the emphasis on power and weight of broadside that dominated tactical thinking in the French wars from 1689 to 1815. His consistent belief in the necessity for Britain to have a forward Mediterranean strategy, focused on a permanent fleet base, originated during his cruise with Blake in 1656, was refined by his later experiences at Tangier, and again foreshadowed the strategic thinking that led ultimately to the capture of Gibraltar. Sandwich was not the only high-ranking officer to hold such views, but his clarity of thinking on a range of naval matters was a comparative rarity in the seventeenth century.

      Ultimately, the epitaph by his friend John Evelyn still provides one of the best summaries of the character of Edward Montagu, first earl of Sandwich:

      My Lord Sandwich was prudent as well as valiant, and always governed his affairs with success, and little loss, he was for deliberation and reason ... deplorable was the loss of one of the best accomplished persons, not only of this nation but of any other: he was learned in the Mathematics, in Music, in Sea affairs, in political ... was of a sweet obliging temper; sober, chaste, infinitely ingenious and a true noble man, an ornament to the court, and his prince. (Evelyn, 3.616-19)

      J. D. Davies

      Sources  F. R. Harris, The life of Edward Montagu ... first earl of Sandwich, 2 vols. (1912) + R. Ollard, Cromwell's earl: a life of Edward Mountagu, 1st earl of Sandwich (1994) + Bodl. Oxf., MSS Carte 73-75, 223 + The journal of Edward Mountagu, first earl of Sandwich, admiral and general at sea, 1659-1665, ed. R. C. Anderson, Navy RS, 64 (1929) + Pepys, Diary + NMM, Sandwich papers [uncatalogued] + B. Capp, Cromwell's navy: the fleet and the English revolution, 1648-1660 (1989) + Bodl. Oxf., MS Rawl. A. 468 + Evelyn, Diary + The life of Edward, earl of Clarendon ... written by himself, new edn, 3 vols. (1827) + Bodl. Oxf., MSS Clarendon 64-72 + Longleat House, Wiltshire, Coventry MS 95 + TNA: PRO, Admiralty papers [esp. ADM 2/1731 and 2/1745] + NMM, LBK/47 + J. D. Davies, Gentlemen and tarpaulins: the officers and men of the Restoration navy (1991) + A. W. Tedder, The navy of the Restoration (1916) + C. H. Hartmann, Clifford of the Cabal [1937] + R. C. Anderson, ed., Journals and narratives of the Third Dutch War, Navy RS, 86 (1946) + GEC, Peerage + HoP, Commons, 1660-90, 3.82-3 + Cambs. AS, Hinchingbrooke MS 7/34
      Archives Bodl. Oxf., corresp. and papers, Carte MSS 73-75 + Bodl. Oxf., notebook on navigation and places visited + Mapperton House, Dorset, MS journals + NMM, papers + NRA, priv. coll., corresp., journal, and papers | BL, Sloane MSS, corresp. + RS, letters to Lord Brouncker
      Likenesses  P. Lely, oils, c.1649, repro. in Ollard, Cromwell's earl, following p. 142 · P. Lely, oils, c.1655-1659, NPG; repro. in Ollard, Cromwell's earl, jacket · P. Lely, oils, c.1658-1659, NMM · P. Lely, oils, c.1667-1668, NMM · Feliciano, oils, 1668, Gov. Art Coll. · P. Lely, oils, c.1670, repro. in Ollard, Cromwell's earl · P. Lely, oils, c.1670, Yale U. CBA, Paul Mellon collection [see illus.] · T. Flatman, miniature · school of P. Lely, three paintings · miniature · oils, Hampton Court Palace · oils, Sandwich town hall
      Wealth at death  £3000 to each daughter; £2000 to each son; Hinchingbrooke to successor, second earl; estates at Lyveden and Oundle to second son; Brampton to widow; also jewels, incl. presents from the king of Sweden and queen of Spain; over £4000 worth of jewels, plate, and other goods lost in the Royal James: Harris, Life of Edward Montagu, vol. 2, p. 288

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