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Russian Spies of the Future

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  • Beowulf
    Accurate. B http://www.frontpagemag.com/Articles/Read.aspx?GUID=10178FE5-3B51-4844-B295- B6E98FC3199F Russian Spies of the Future By Ion Mihai Pacepa,
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      Russian Spies of the Future
      By Ion Mihai Pacepa, FrontPageMagazine.com, 4 December, 2007

      President Vladimir Putin has declared a new Cold War against the West.[1]
      I was one of the protagonists in the old Cold War. That war was primarily
      carried out by spies, in spite of the media prominence given to its
      nuclear confrontation. The atomic bomb of Soviet bloc espionage was the
      illegal officer, whose extraordinary value is still too little known
      outside the Kremlin.

      The concept of the illegal officer was -and still is-unique to Russian
      intelligence, and it constituted an extremely closely guarded secret.
      In 1964 I became a deputy chief of the Romanian espionage service, the
      DIE[2], but it was not until eight years later, when I became responsible
      for supervising Romania's illegal operations, that I understood how little
      I had known about this super-secret intelligence discipline until then.
      Brigade U, as the illegal component was called, was so hush-hush that the
      location of its headquarters was known to only four outsiders (one of whom
      I had just become). Its officers never set foot inside any other Romanian
      intelligence organization. When assigned abroad, the illegal officers were
      not handled by the legal residencies but by other illegal officers run out
      of Brigade U headquarters. It was a state within a state, entirely

      President Putin's new Cold War has moved the illegal officer to the
      forefront again. The Russian daily Vzglyad (The View) reports that George
      Blake -an alleged Briton who now lives in Moscow- has published a new book,
      Transparent Walls. The forward of this book was signed by Russia's spy
      chief, Sergey Lebedev, himself.

      "Despite the book being devoted to the past, it is about the present as

      Lebedev writes. I am sure he is correct.

      New information coming out of Moscow confirms to an informed eye what I
      have long suspected. Blake, a former senior officer of the British Secret
      Intelligence Service known to us, at the top of the bloc's intelligence
      community, as the "spy of the century," was in fact a Russian from start
      to finish. In other words, he was one of the KGB's own, an illegal
      intelligence officer dispatched to the U.K. during World War II, who caused
      more damage to the West than any other spy, ever.

      That's why Blake was able to avoid the alcoholism, wife-swapping and
      depression suffered by the likes of Kim Philby, Donald Maclean and Guy
      Burgess after resettling in Moscow. That's also why Blake, when SIS sent
      him in 1947 to a Russian language course run by Cambridge University for
      officers of the armed services, was able to read Anna Karenina fluently in
      less than three months[4] - a stunning achievement, as anyone who has
      studied Russian will agree, and one that gave him a strong boost up the
      ladder of SIS hierarchy.

      Blake is history. His story still has gaps in it - as any real spy story
      has. But it illustrates what we can expect from Russia, as long as that
      country's government is being run by former KGB officers.

      * * *

      On October 22, 1966, a dramatic prison break occurred in England. George
      Blake, who was serving an unprecedented 42-year sentence for being a Soviet
      spy, was sprung from Wormwood Scrubs prison - and later turned up in
      For years Moscow denied any complicity in Blake's escape. But KGB defector
      Victor Cherkashin recently revealed that the daring rescue of George Blake
      had been engineered by the KGB - Cherkashin himself had once been assigned
      to draw up plans for the escape.[6] In fact, not only was Blake sprung
      from prison, but one of his rescuers, Sean Bourke, then joined him in
      Moscow. Bourke could not adjust to life there, however, so the KGB allowed
      him to go to Ireland, where the British had no jurisdiction.

      Original KGB documents in the Mitrokhin Archive-described by the FBI as

      "the most complete and extensive intelligence ever received from any

      show that the KGB's foreign intelligence service, the PGU,[8] also addled
      Bourke's memory. On instructions from General Aleksandr Sakharovsky, the
      head of the PGU, Bourke was given a drug

      "designed to cause brain damage and to thus limit his potential usefulness
      if he fell into the hands of British intelligence."

      Bourke wrote an innocuous book about the escape and died not long

      Why did the PGU go to such unprecedented lengths to hide its hand in
      Blake's prison escape? Because it did not want to crack open a window even
      the slightest bit on the most secret of its secrets: the field of illegal

      The term "illegal operations" has nothing to do with the idea of
      law-breaking. In Russian intelligence terminology, a legal officer is one
      who is assigned abroad to a Russian embassy or other official government
      representation. An illegal officer is one who assumes a non-Russian
      identity and appears abroad as someone who has no connection whatsoever
      with Russia. In other words, in any Western country a Russian illegal
      intelligence officer looks and acts just like your nextdoor neighbor.

      A good illegal officer could inflict more damage on the West than could a
      hundred classical spies. Blake was an outstanding illegal officer. He
      compromised two of the most productive NATO intercept operations during the
      Cold War, the Berlin and the Vienna tunnels. Not long ago I visited the
      Allied Museum in Berlin, which has a large display on the joint SIS/CIA
      tunnel. This very secret venture, codenamed Operation Gold, tapped into the
      Soviet military landlines linking East Berlin with Moscow. According to
      official data posted by the Museum, the tunnel allowed SIS/CIA to obtain
      colossally important military information from the Soviet bloc, and it cost
      Moscow billions to repair the damage.

      Blake had informed the KGB a bout the tunnel from its inception, as he had
      taken the minutes at the first planning session, held in London in February
      1954. In order to protect Blake, Moscow let the completed tunnel operation
      run for over a year until April 22, 1956, when Soviet signal troops, while
      inspecting some sagging cables, "accidentally" stumbled onto the taps. SIS
      and the CIA attributed the loss of the operation to a technical failure.[10]

      Blake's value was, evidently, of overriding importance to the Soviets. Why?

      At the same time, Blake was giving the KGB the names of what ended up being
      some 400 SIS and CIA agents.[11] The SIS chief himself estimated that
      fifteen years of work in Germany could have been destroyed,[12] and the
      judge who sentenced Blake in 1961 went so far as to say that he had undone
      most of the work of British intelligence since the end of World War II.[13]

      * * *

      Most people have not the faintest idea how an illegal officer looks and
      acts. No wonder.

      When assigned abroad, an illegal simply blends into the environment. Rudolf
      Abel was a typical illegal officer. As a supposedly native New Yorker named
      Emil Goldfus (an identity he took from a dead baby), in the 1950s he set
      himself up in Brooklyn as an artist and photographer. In 1957, the FBI
      received a tip and arrested him for espionage, but he steadfastly refused to
      reveal his real identity or discuss his intelligence tasks during his
      interrogations and subsequent trial. He did admit to being a Soviet citizen,
      giving the name of his deceased PGU colleague Rudolf Abel as his own true
      name (as a signal to the PGU that he was not talking), and eventually he
      was freed in a spy swap.[14]

      After 1962, when he was exchanged for U-2 pilot Francis Gary Powers, Abel
      started touring the KGB's satellite services to boost their morale. I met
      him once.
      According to his story, Abel started his intelligence career in 1927 as an
      expert in radio-communications, and later he headed an NKVD unit for
      radio-deceptions. In 1934 Abel was sent as an illegal to London. There he
      persuaded the famous physicist Petr Kapitsa to visit the Soviet Union,
      where his passport was confiscated. Kapitsa had to remain in Moscow, where
      he was appointed head of a Soviet research institute built for him, and in
      1978 he got the Nobel Prize, as Abel told us with paternal pride. Abel also
      claimed to have been in London again in 1935-1936, this time as an illegal
      code clerk for the spy ring known as the Cambridge Five.

      Abel was introduced to us just as Colonel Abel, not under his real name.
      "An illegal should die as an illegal," Abel told us.

      In 1972, I was taken to see Khrushchev's and Abel's graves in Moscow.
      Abel's looked monumental; Khrushchev's, at that time, miserable. For the
      PGU, the grave was the main way to honor an illegal. Abel's gravestone
      displayed two names: Rudolf Ivanovich Abel and Vilyam Genrikhovich Fisher.
      Was Fisher his real name, I asked General Sakharovsky, a former chief
      intelligence adviser to Romania, who was just retiring after spending
      fourteen years as head of the PGU. "Who knows," he told me with a friendly

      The training of an illegal could take anywhere from three to eight years,
      including familiarization visits to Western countries and intensive
      language training, along with practice in clandestine communications
      techniques and equipment. By far the most important goal of all that
      training is to make an illegal feel comfortable in a new, Western identity,
      while at the same time to reinforce his ideological commitment to his own
      intelligence service.

      After being dispatched abroad, an illegal is periodically brought home
      "black"- that is, clandestinely, in another identity - to "recharge his
      batteries," meaning for political indoctrination.

      * * *

      It is almost impossible to identify an illegal officer who lives in the West
      under the legend of having been born there. I approved many such
      biographical legends. All were supported by Western birth certificates,
      school diplomas, pictures of alleged relatives, and even fake graves. In
      some important cases we also created ersatz living relatives in the West by
      using ideologically motivated people who received life-long secret
      annuities from us.

      By definition, however, there are no legends without holes in them, and a
      knowledgeable eye can spot quite a few holes in Blake's biography.
      It is characteristic of illegal officers to have allegedly been born in some
      country other than the one whose citizenship they claim, to avoid close
      background scrutiny.
      Blake's biography follows that rule. He claims to have been born George
      Behar in Holland in 1922, as a British citizen. His mother was Dutch, his
      father a Turkish (or Spanish, or Egyptian) Jew who had received British
      citizenship for having fought with the British army. Blake claimed to have
      been born on 11 November - Armistice Day - a fact that so impressed his
      father that he insisted his child be named for King George V of England,
      whom the father admired. Blake also said that his father had studied at the
      Sorbonne, and that his parents had hopped over to London for a civil
      marriage, so as not to offend the Dutch relatives who were against his
      mother's marrying a foreigner.[15] These are the kinds of sentimental
      flourishes the KGB (and my DIE) liked to add to an illegal's biography - but
      of course they could also be true.

      Blake's early biography is replete with fanciful tales of people and places
      that are completely uncheckable, of family members who died early, and other
      murky stories. His father, for instance, not only conveniently died when
      George was very young, but in fact George knew little about him, as they
      had shared no common language.[16] The Rotterdam neighborhood where George
      claims to have lived as a child was conveniently destroyed in the war.[17]
      That was another frequent element in an illegal's fictional biography after
      World War II, when so many European neighborhoods had been bombed flat.

      Blake claims that, after the age of thirteen, he spent considerable time
      with his father's sister and her family in Cairo, where he learned English
      and French.[18] It just happened that when he later tried to locate his
      alleged relatives in Cairo, he learned they were all dead.[19]

      When he first turned up on British shores, Blake also claimed to have a
      mother and two sisters living in London, who had escaped there from Holland.
      His alleged sisters, however, were born long after Blake and had learned
      about him through their mother, who was related by marriage to Henri
      Curiel, a founder of the Egyptian Communist Party.[20] (Curiel was an
      identified person, although nothing confirms his relationship to Blake's
      This was a trick we often used, and the old widows were always grateful to
      us for the annuity we provided them in exchange. Blake's mother seemed to be
      happy in her role too, and she even moved to Moscow for a while, after
      Blake had been spirited there. In his autobiography he frequently talks
      with affection about his mother, who kept house for him when he was single,
      both in London and in Moscow.

      A main concern for Russian illegals is to obtain Western citizenship
      without leaving any trace leading back to Russia. In consequence, a new
      illegal typically travels to several other countries first, under different
      identities. Only when his Russian connection is finally lost, is he ready
      to get citizenship in his final identity. Since an illegal bases this
      process on an initial document fabricated by the KGB, he should exchange
      it for a genuine one, not in the country of the issuing authority, but at
      one of its embassies abroad, where checks tend to be more casual - and from
      where he can escape in case the fabrication is spotted.

      Blake ended up with a travel document issued by a British representative
      at the American consulate in Lyon, France during the war.[21]
      He embellished his story with having had many identities - none checkable -
      while working with the wartime resistance in Holland, France and Spain. As
      he casually remarks, "I have fairly often had to change my name in the
      course of my life."[22]

      The most important rule for an illegal who wants to remain in the good
      graces of his government, is never to admit to being an intelligence officer
      in possession of a fake biography. Blake played it by the book. In April
      1961 he was brought back from Lebanon, where SIS had sent him to study
      Arabic, and was confronted with documentary evidence (provided by a source
      who had defected to the American CIA) that he had been supplying
      information to the KGB. For two days Blake denied everything. At the end
      of the third day, the SIS interrogator in desperation remarked:

      "We know that you were working for the Soviets, but we understand why. While
      you were their prisoner in Korea, you were tortured and made to confess
      that you were a British intelligence officer. From then on you were
      blackmailed and had no choice but to cooperate with them."

      Blake indignantly denied that he had been tortured or blackmailed by the
      Soviets, claiming he had acted out of conviction, out of a belief in
      communism. He then proceeded to confess his treachery in an uninterrupted
      monologue -pausing only at one point to ask: "Am I boring you?"[23]

      This is Blake's confession, which his sympathetic interrogators so readily
      believed. In 1948 SIS sent him to South Korea, assigned as the only SIS
      officer at the British legation in Seoul. In 1950 the North Koreans
      captured the legation, took all the British employees prisoner, and moved
      them to North Korea. There Blake read Marx's Das Kapital and other books in
      Russian that had been thoughtfully supplied to the prisoners by the Soviet
      embassy. Blake claims that as a result he was won over to communism,
      secretly asked to meet with a Soviet officer, and in 1951 volunteered to
      cooperate with the Soviet intelligence service.[24] The SIS interrogators
      congratulated themselves on having made Blake confess, because without his
      confession the case would not have stood up in court.[25]

      Blake confession was faked. According to original KGB documents found in
      the Mitrokhin Archive, Blake had the PGU operational codename "DIOMID."[26]
      The PGU and its predecessors, particularly in the early years, did assign
      cryptonyms directly related to an agent's life. The fact that Blake was
      called DIOMID strongly indicates that he did not start cooperating with the
      PGU in 1951 while being held prisoner in North Korea, but rather that his
      assignment as an illegal began with his enlistment in the British navy in
      1943 and almost immediate assignment to the training cruiser Diomede and
      transfer shortly thereafter to SIS.[27]

      Blake's calculated confession to SIS allowed him to keep his illegal status
      a secret. He understood that SIS had enough evidence to send him to prison,
      but if his status as a Soviet illegal were not revealed, he would
      eventually be released, brought to Moscow, and welcomed with honor and a
      George de Mohrenschildt, whom I identify in my latest book as a KGB illegal
      associated with President Kennedy's assassin Lee Harvey Oswald, knew he
      would be never taken back to Moscow - that would have recognized that the
      KGB had been involved in the assassination. De Mohrenschildt therefore
      committed suicide when he realized he might be forced to reveal his status
      as a KGB illegal officer.[28]

      Loyalty to Soviet communism was another rule imposed on illegal officers who
      wanted to preserve Moscow's support. De Mohrenschildt, who posed as a
      European American aristocrat who had dedicated his life to fighting
      communism, left a post-mortem ode to his commander-in-chief, Nikita
      Khrushchev: "He is gone now. God bless his Bible-quoting personality. His
      sudden bursts of anger and beating on the table with his shoe are all gone
      and belong to history. Millions of Russians miss him."[29]

      Blake followed the loyalty rule as well. In all of his later statements,
      he has consistently shown himself a convinced communist. Even before his
      trial in 1961, when his counsel asked if he could say in his address to the
      judge that Blake was deeply sorry for all he had done, as that might help
      his case, Blake refused, saying it was not only untrue but also
      undignified.[30] Regarding the perfunctory security checks made on him
      during the war, he once told an interviewer:

      "They didn't realize that, throughout the war, my loyalty was to the
      anti-Nazi cause, not to Britain."[31]

      He also has denied being a traitor, insisting he never felt British: "To
      betray, you first have to belong. I never belonged."[32] In his
      autobiography - undoubtedly written with generous input from the KGB - he
      calls communism the highest form of society and frequently expresses the
      appeal to him of a society that abolishes class distinctions.[33]

      The illegal officers assigned abroad would have learned from Blake's
      example that loyalty to Moscow pays off in the end, with a good pension
      and a happy and respected life in Moscow.

      * * *

      Since World War II most illegal officers have been loners, or (truly or
      ostensibly) married couples, but in important countries the Soviet bloc
      established illegal residencies. These were mini-intelligence stations,
      concealed in private houses and capable of carrying on intelligence
      operations in case of war, when the embassies and legal residencies would
      be shut down, and in peacetime handling extremely sensitive agents. An
      illegal residency consists of an illegal resident, usually an illegal
      support officer or team for handling secret communications with Moscow,
      perhaps a couple of other illegal officers, and a few agents considered too
      sensitive to be handled by the legal residency.

      There is strong, though circumstantial, evidence that Blake was handled by
      such an illegal station. In his autobiography he writes that in Moscow he
      became good friends with Gordon Lonsdale, whom he allegedly first met when
      they were both serving time in Wormwood Scrubs prison in the early 1960s.
      Lonsdale, whom the Soviets acknowledged as their PGU officer Konon Molody,
      had been freed in a spy swap in 1964. (The circumstances of his arrest had
      provided documentary proof that he was a PGU illegal.) About him Blake

      "Lonsdale had been a so-called 'illegal resident.' I have always had the
      greatest respect and admiration for this class of intelligence officer. To
      my mind there is no higher... Lonsdale was a perfect example of what an
      'illegal resident' should be."

      And he elaborates:

      "Only an intelligence service which works for a great cause can ask such a
      sacrifice from its officers. That is why, as far as I know, at any rate in
      peace time, only the Soviet intelligence service has 'illegal

      Why should the British citizen George Blake, even if he had worked for SIS,
      know so much about PGU illegal residents? I postulate that Blake had been
      the express reason for the PGU's establishment of its first postwar illegal
      residency in London. That was a very big deal, but Blake was a very big
      case. After his return from Korea in 1953, Blake held important positions at
      SIS headquarters, and the PGU's illegal component surely wanted to keep in
      close touch with him and provide a rapid way for him to send PGU
      headquarters his anticipated voluminous intelligence on SIS operations.

      Here are the facts. The first members of Molody's illegal residency to
      arrive in London were the illegal agents Morris and Lona Cohen, whose
      identities had earlier been compromised in the United States. (The Cohens
      had both been born in the U.S., making them KGB agents rather than officers,
      but otherwise their careers paralleled those of illegal officers.) They were
      scheduled to be sent to Japan, but suddenly they were assigned as the
      communications support team for the new London illegal residency.
      In May 1954 they traveled to Paris to pick up new identities as Peter and
      Helen Kroger, also meeting Molody there. Morris once claimed he and his
      wife had selected Dutch names because they were originally scheduled for
      assignment to South Africa.[35] I note, however, that Blake's alleged Dutch
      background could have given him a reason for knowing the Krogers, should
      they have needed a public excuse for meeting in person. In London, the
      Cohens, now Krogers, rented a house in a secluded area and set themselves
      up in the antiquarian book business. In fact they were the communications
      unit for the illegal residency's encoded radio, microdot and secret writing
      contact with Moscow. It was also in 1954 that Molody went to Canada to
      establish his identity as the Canadian Gordon Lonsdale.

      In March 1955 Lonsdale arrived in London and established himself in the
      vending machines business.[36] Over the next six years he is known to have
      handled essentially only two agents, Harry Houghton and his girlfriend Ethel
      Gee, both of whom provided classified information on submarine warfare.[37]
      The complicated process of establishing an illegal residency does not seem
      an efficient way for the PGU to have handled two normal cases that surely
      could have been run out of the legal residency. (Molody also briefly handled
      a long-time London legal residency agent, but after two months she was
      turned back over to the legal residency.[38] That was in early 1959, just
      when Blake returned from a tour of several years in West Berlin.)

      The defector Oleg Gordievsky tells us that Molody was (as of 1985) the only
      postwar illegal officer whose portrait was hanging in the Memory Room of the
      PGU.[39] Molody's handling of Houghton and his girlfriend, two valuable but
      routine agents, would not have earned him such a great honor. But his
      handling of Blake certainly would have. That would also explain why Blake
      expressed "genuine joy" over accidentally running into Morris Cohen in
      Moscow one day in 1971. According to the Mitrokhin Archive, the two
      exchanged telephone numbers and agreed to meet, but then KGB headquarters
      discouraged them individually, and each found a reason to make excuses to
      the other, as confirmed by their bugged telephones. They never met
      again.[40] Although the Cohens and Blake had briefly met in Wormwood Scrubs
      prison in the U.K., the KGB clearly did not want them to be seen as close
      friends, as that might have confirmed that they were both members of
      Molody's illegal residency. (Blake does not even mention the Cohens/Krogers
      in his autobiography.)

      In 1959 the CIA told SIS that it had information about two Soviet agents
      operating in Britain, one working in naval research and one in SIS. By March
      1960, British Security Service officers had sufficient information to
      identify Harry Houghton (and his girlfriend Ethel Gee), whom they followed
      to identify Lonsdale (Molody), who in turn led them to the Krogers (Cohens),
      but the British cleverly let the case run, hoping to learn more. In August,
      Molody was overheard telling Houghton that there would be no monthly meeting
      in September as he was visiting the U.S. (actually Moscow), but he hoped to
      be back for their October meeting.

      Molody was away from 27 August to 17 October. While he was gone, MI5 was
      able to copy his code pads and decipher his radio traffic, positively
      identifying him as a KGB illegal. The traffic was monitored for two months
      after Molody's return from Moscow, but it consisted only of routine
      instructions for handling "SHAH" (Houghton) and messages from Molody's
      family in Moscow. The Government Communications Headquarters (the British
      equivalent of NSA) then identified a similar radio traffic link, containing
      about twice the volume, which had run from ca. 1955 to August 1960, and then
      abruptly stopped.[41] In early September 1960 Blake left London to study
      Arabic at a school in Lebanon, and I suggest that the decrease in Molody's
      radio traffic with KGB headquarters may have been related to Blake's new
      assignment and Molody's own future without him.

      The future took care of itself, with the arrest of Molody and the Cohens in
      January and Blake in April 1961. Taken together, this group, who I am
      convinced formed one illegal residency, inflicted enormous, unprecedented
      damage on the West.

      * * *

      On September 11, 2002, a select cluster of former senior KGB officers
      gathered at the KGB museum, a dreary gray building behind the Lubyanka. They
      had not congregated to sympathize with us on the anniversary of our national
      tragedy, but to celebrate the 125th birthday of Feliks Dzerzhinsky[42]-the
      man who created one of the most criminal institutions in contemporary

      George Blake, whose smiling image is prominently displayed in the museum,
      was among them. His KGB-inspired autobiographical book was also prominently
      displayed. In it Blake states out loud, for all illegal officers hiding
      around the world to hear, that he never disclosed that he was an illegal
      officer, and that in recognition of his loyalty, the Soviet government
      rewarded him with a marvelous life in Moscow and with many decorations,
      beginning with the Order of Lenin - which Philby once happily compared to a
      British knighthood when he got his, although he was miffed to receive it a
      year later than Blake.[43]

      The fact that Blake's book also lists among his rewards the Military Order
      of the Red Banner and the Military Order of Merit[44] - decorations that
      only a military officer could receive - attests that the KGB displayed this
      book for the primary benefit of its illegal officers spread around the
      world. That also confirms Blake's own status as an illegal officer, as all
      PGU officers, both legal and illegal, had military rank.

      Today there are some 6,000 former KGB officers running Russia's federal and
      local governments, and illegal officers are en vogue more than ever before.
      Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, Canada has arrested and deported at
      least three illegal officers working for the SVR (the new name of the PGU).
      Two were caught in 1996, and one in 2006. The first two, documented as Ian
      Mackenzie Lambert and Laurie Brodie, used the stolen identities of dead
      Canadian children. The third, documented as Paul William Hampel, used the
      identity of a living Canadian.[45]

      Without explanation, the latest Wikipedia entry on Blake, introduced a few
      weeks ago, suddenly describes him as a "colonel of foreign intelligence."
      Evidently, Moscow wanted its illegals abroad to hear from an independent
      source as well that Blake is now highly honored in Moscow.

      Russian foreign intelligence has always believed in standardizing its
      operations, as we in the Soviet satellite services were constantly taught.
      The phenomenal success of George Blake ensures that the traditionally
      Russian pattern of illegal operations will be repeated over and over in the
      future. Nothing succeeds like success.

      Lt. Gen. Pacepa is the highest-ranking intelligence official ever to have
      defected from the Soviet bloc. His newest book is Programmed to Kill: Lee
      Harvey Oswald, the Soviet KGB, and the Kennedy Assassination.


      [1] Luke Hardin, "The new cold war: Russia's missiles to target Europe,"The
      Guardian, June 4, 2007.

      [2] Departamentul de Informatii Externe, Department of Foreign Intelligence.

      [3] George Blake, Wikipedia, October 2007.

      [4] George Blake, No Other Choice: An Autobiography (New York: Simon &
      Schuster, 1990), pp. 105-106.

      [5] Blake, pp. 227-228, 231-232.

      [6] Victor Cherkashin, with Gregory Feifer, Spy Handler: Memoir of a KGB
      Officer (New York: Basic Books, 2005), p. 69.

      [7] Quote from the dust jacket of Christopher Andrew and Vasili Mitrokhin,
      The Sword and the Shielf: The Mitrokhin Archive and the Secret History of
      the KGB (New York: Basic Boks, 1999).

      [8] Pervoye Glavnoye Upravleniye, First Chief directorate of the KGB.

      [9] Mitrokhin Archive, p. 400.

      [10] Blake, pp. 180-181.

      [11] Blake, pp. 17-22, 207.

      [12] Tom Bower, The Perfect English Spy: Sir Dick White and the Secret War
      1935-90 (New York: St. Martin's, 1995), p. 181.

      [13] Blake, p. 204.

      [14] Mitrokhin Archive, p. 172.

      [15] Blake, pp. 26-30.

      [16] Blake, p. 31.

      [17] Blake, p. 29.

      [18] Blake, pp. 38-46.

      [19] Blake, p. 111.

      [20] Blake, p. 111.

      [21] Blake, pp. 68, 75.

      [22] Blake, p. 29.

      [23] Bower, p. 265.

      [24] Blake, pp. 111, 137-144.

      [25] Bower, p. 266.

      [26] Mitrokhin Archive, p. 399.

      [27] Blake, p. 80.

      [28] Ion Mihai Pacepa, Programmed to Kill: Lee Harvey Oswald, the Soviet
      KGB, and the Kennedy Assassination (Chicago: Ivan R. Dee, 2007), p. 144.

      [29] Pacepa, p. 174.

      [30] Blake, p. 203.

      [31] Bower, p. 260.

      [32] Quoted in Wikipedia, October 2007.

      [33] Blake, pp. 3, 134-140.

      [34] Blake, p. 263.

      [35] KGB interview with Morris Cohen, p. 3, published at

      [36] Christopher Andrew and Oleg Gordievsky, KGB: The Inside Story (New
      York: HarperCollins, 1990), pp. 440-442.

      [37] Mitrokhin Archive, p. 410.

      [38] Mitrokhin Archive, p. 410.

      [39] Andrew and Gordievsky, p. 443.

      [40] Mitrokhin Archive, p. 411.

      [41] Peter Wright with Paul Greengrass, Spy Catcher: The Candid
      Autobiography of a Senior Intelligence Officer (New York: Dell, 1987), pp.

      [42] Douglas J. Brown, "Chekists Around the World Celebrate 9/11,"
      NewsMax.com, September 19, 2002, published in

      [43] Bower, p. 384.

      [44] Blake, p. 132.

      [45] Steward Bell and Adrian Humphreys, "Suspected spy arrested: False
      identity a Russian technique," National Post, 16 November, 2006.

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