THE LADDER OF VIRTUES
- THE LADDER OF VIRTUES
Fourth week of the Great Lent
In the preceding weeks of the Great Lent, dear brethren, the Church
revealed to us the various aspects of Orthodoxy which we must incorporate
into our lives, in order for the Triumph of Orthodoxy to be not only a
historical fact, but a fact of our everyday life. On the second Sunday of
Lent the Church instructed us in prayer, particularly inner prayer. The
third Sunday of Lent was dedicated to the bearing of one’s cross.
And today we are taught yet another important part of our faith, of our
path to salvation – and that is the acquisition of virtues. And, as always,
the Church presents to us the best teacher on the subject – St. John of the
Ladder, whose writings give us an insight into this area of spiritual
However, as we attempt to gain knowledge on the subject of virtues, we must
first of all clarify two important points: first – the fact that aside from
genuine virtues there are also false virtues, and secondly – the cases in
which virtues do not lead us to salvation.
Saint Ignaty Bryanchaninov clearly tells us that worldly virtues do not
bring salvation. But how can we determine whether a given virtue is genuine
and leads to salvation? The answer is simple: in each virtue we try to
attain, we must, as the Scripture tells us, crucify our old nature with its
passions and lusts; i.e. we must always limit ourselves in something, we
must give up something, we must struggle against something. If we do not do
so, then the virtue remains only theoretical and does not bring us any
practical benefit. Let us look at a simple example: love for one’s
neighbor. If we love only those whom we like and who love us in return,
then – as the Lord Himself said – we will receive no benefit from such a
love, because pagans do likewise. But we must do more, we must do that
which, from the world’s point of view, is unnatural – we must love our
enemies; only then will our love for our neighbors truly constitute a
The same is true of charity. There are so many people who are engaged in
charitable works, who do good deeds… but how? For example, charity balls
are organized to obtain funds for the needy. For those who attend these
balls, who eat, drink, and make merry – where is the virtue in that? But to
restrain oneself from buying something one terribly wants in order to give
money to the poor or to a church, or to give up some badly-needed rest in
order to visit the sick or comfort the suffering – that is genuine charity,
that is genuine virtue.
In the same manner, even genuine virtues do not always lead us to salvation
if, while engaging in them, we do not give up something. For example, for a
vegetarian to keep the fast does not represent a spiritual hardship, while
an extravagant spender is not truly charitable. Virtues are genuine and
lead us to salvation only when they are linked with spiritual endeavors and
when they are interrelated.
At this point we approach the teaching of St. John of the Ladder. St. John
presents virtues to us in the form of a ladder, by ascending which we reach
the Heavenly Realm. Virtues are like steps, so that the acquisition of one
virtue leads us to another, and that one to yet another, etc. Thus
spiritual life is constant motion, constant improvement. Having acquired,
by the grace of God, a certain virtue, we cannot rest on our laurels,
because that is the same as becoming stuck on one step – we will not move
anywhere. Similarly, if we suddenly lose a previously acquired virtue – the
entire ladder will fall down.
This is how St. John of the Ladder shows us an example of how virtues are
interrelated, and how one cannot bring benefit without the other: he says –
“the chief of all virtues is prayer, and their foundation is fasting. If we
should sow the seeds of prayer without having attenuated our bodies through
fasting, then instead of truth we will bear the fruits of sin. By the same
token, if the body is attenuated through fasting, but the soul is not
cultivated with prayer, spiritual reading and humbleness, then fasting
becomes the parent of a multitude of passions: pride, vanity, contempt, and
Even in the hustle and bustle of our modern life, dear brethren, we can
step onto the ladder of virtues and ascend it. Fasting is accessible to all
of us, perhaps not always in terms of food, but certainly in terms of
spiritual abstinence, while in regard to prayer we have already mentioned
how universally available is the Jesus prayer, even for those who are
terribly busy with worldly affairs. And you can see how wonderfully
everything falls into place: if we push out of our mind the usual jumble of
thoughts that prevails there and replace it with the Jesus prayer, then we
will attain our first usage of prayer, and when the mind is filled with
prayer, it will no longer have place for evil thoughts or condemnation of
others, and we will thus acquire the virtue of non-judgment, and at this
point the fruits of inner prayer will appear – we will begin to see our own
failings, our own sins, which will help us to acquire the virtues of
repentance and humility. And in this manner, very gradually, by applying
effort and demonstrating earnestness on our part, and by earning in return
the action of God’s grace, we will go higher and higher up the wondrous
ladder of virtues, straight into the Kingdom of God. Amen.
Father Rostislav Sheniloff
Excerpts from St. John’s “Ladder”
A Christian is one who imitates Christ as much as possible in word, deed,
and thought, and who believes in the Holy Trinity correctly and purely.
Adam, as long as he retained his childlike innocence, did not see his
nakedness; blessed is natural innocence, but more glorious is the reward
for innocence that is acquired through much sweat and labor, for it is the
source of the greatest humility and meekness.
Illness is sometimes sent to us for the cleansing of sins and sometimes to
temper our vanity.
The Lord sojourns in the hearts of the meek, while a rebellious soul is the
seat of the devil.
Earnest prayer eliminates even despair.
May the entire fabric of your prayer consist of few words, for both the
publican and the prodigal son attracted God’s mercy by their brief words.
If you lean continuously on the staff of prayer, you will not stumble, but
even if this should happen – you will not fall completely.
Ill thoughts that are not confessed to one’s spiritual father turn into
When embarking upon spiritual life, we must remember that among demons
there are those who even “interpret” the Holy Scriptures for us; they do
this usually in the hearts of the vain, especially among learned (educated)
people, and by gradually seducing them, they finally bring them to a state
of heresy and blasphemy.
Knowing that your neighbor reproached you in your absence or presence, show
your love by praising him.
He shows humility who does not lessen his love for others when reproached
by them, and not he who engages in self-reproach.
We have not been invited into this world to attend a wedding feast, but to
weep over ourselves...
Chastity is the comprehensive name for all virtues.
Purity and chastity are the desirable abode of Christ and heaven on earth
for the soul.
An unbridled tongue can in a short while waste the fruit of many labors.
By earnestly offering Christ the labors of your youth, in old age you will
rejoice in the wealth of dispassion, for that which is amassed in youth
nourishes and comforts in the fatigue of old age.