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Re: [oil_from_algae] Re: Potential for algae to transform the world economy

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  • Robert Tulip
    Bruce, thanks. You may be right about 1500 ppm (ppb?) as a potentially stable CO2 level, but the problem is the speed of the change at the moment is so much
    Message 1 of 9 , May 1, 2011
      Bruce, thanks.  You may be right about 1500 ppm (ppb?) as a potentially stable CO2 level, but the problem is the speed of the change at the moment is so much faster than anything in previous geological epochs.  Ecosystems previously had millions of years to adjust to changes that we are now imposing in decades.  The current situation could be comparable to the great dying at the end of the Permian due to the rapidity of the change.  We will have the upheaval of the flooding of all low coastal land with CO2 at the levels you mention, as well as wild changes in rainfall and temperature.  Everyone in low lying parts of Bangladesh and Vietnam (for example) would have to move.  I think for this reason it is a public good to try to push CO2 back below 350 ppm.  

      On solar cells, I doubt they are scalable in the same way as algae.  Solar cells need minerals, whereas algae farms could potentially make their own fabric, in order to produce oil which could replace all fossil fuels and expand to allow orders of magnitude greater sustainable energy use.  If roads and buildings were made of ocean based algae that had been compressed at depth, we would potentially have an abundant low cost construction material, on top of the fuel supply.

      The difference now from the whale oil example is scale, and the need for enough time for market forces to kick in at scale.  We need liquid fuel now that will be cost competitive and produceable at volume in the millions of tons per day.  There was plenty of time in the 1800s to shift away from whale lighting, which was a big problem for whales but actually tiny compared to the modern economy.  This is why I see ocean based algae production as essential, because it offers a potentially simple way to make bulk fuel with positive environmental impact, at lower unit cost than land based production.  

      Thanks for the heads up on butanol bacteria.  This might be a key processing method for algae grown in bags at sea.  

      I don't get your point about methane.  It is still a greenhouse gas when burnt, and its use contributes to increased CO2 concentration in the atmosphere.
       
      Robert


      From: Bruce Carroll Lendrum <lendlabs@...>
      To: oil_from_algae@yahoogroups.com
      Sent: Sun, 1 May, 2011 3:10:51 AM
      Subject: [oil_from_algae] Re: Potential for algae to transform the world economy

       

      Robert,
      Four things you missed about energy.
      A: Solar cells are getting up to 70% of the energy with diamond based
      systems in the lab.. same as used in space.
      B: Next Generation Biotech Bacteria is making Butanol from Cellulose
      also a bi-product of algae and corn production.
      C: Methane is a natural recycle system and is made in the area of the
      earth about 100 miles deep. Recycled CaCO3 with H2 from water..
      D: Greater CO2 will increase nature growth of many crops like sugar and
      rice along with B.Braunii.. This math was done in Australia about five
      years ago.. We are have a shortage of CO2 for growth of a lot of algae
      or plants.. Check out the billion year history of the earth.. At 1,500
      PPB we will have a very green world.. all we need to to better use the
      water we have.. like Rome we can ship water from the Great Lakes to
      America's Heart land and feed the world. In Norway they found some pine
      trees ( slash pines.. I think)produced about 250% more wood at 1500 PPB
      CO2.
      Well the cure for high prices are high prices.. So when whale oil got
      too expensive we switched to oil ( Fossil Fuel).. Now we are working
      more and more with Methane.. Cheap and is renewed by the energy from the
      Nuclear Power in the centre of the Earth.
      Just a thought,
      Bruce
      --- In oil_from_algae@yahoogroups.com, "Robert" <waterbagaustralia@...>
      wrote:

      >
      > 1. The world economy relies on the movement of carbon from the earth's
      crust into the atmosphere as its main source of energy. Burning of
      fossil fuel is unsustainable for two reasons: peak oil and climate
      change. Algae biofuel is the only realistic option to fix these
      problems on global scale.
      > 2. Oil extraction rates have already passed their peak, with new
      reserves not adequate to supply growing demand. It is essential for
      political and economic stability that new bulk liquid fuel sources are
      established well in advance of any supply crisis.
      > 3. The climate change impact of carbon emissions is more
      controversial, but the fact is that CO2 emission rates are increasing,
      not decreasing, in order to power economic growth for an expanding world
      population. NASA scientists say that if most of the carbon now in the
      crust was shifted to the atmosphere, Earth would become like Venus, a
      CO2 hothouse where life would be impossible. Just shifting a fraction
      of existing carbon into the air is already causing upheaval in global
      climate. The accelerating rate of emissions under business as usual
      means that climate change will become even more rapid until a systemic
      solution is implemented using new technology.
      > 4. In response to these twin problems, peak oil and climate change,
      biofuel has been proposed as a means to supply sustainable energy. The
      first generation of biofuel, ethanol from grain, actually produces more
      net emissions than fossil fuel, while also displacing food crops and
      driving up food prices. The need is for a new generation of biofuel, a
      source of abundant liquid fuel that can be produced using renewable
      natural energy sources, that does not compete with food production for
      land, and that is rapidly scalable, simple to operate and good for the
      environment. Algae is the only crop that meets all these needs.
      > 5. Transformation of the world economy to sustainable energy
      production from algae requires development of innovative new technology.
      The most promising method for bulk fuel production from algae is likely
      to emerge from the work of the US National Aeronautical and Space
      Administration, NASA, in their OMEGA Project - Offshore Membrane
      Enclosure for Growing Algae.
      > 6. Dr. Jonathan Trent, chief scientist for OMEGA, recently explained
      the status of the project http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1_z-LnKNlco
      OMEGA plans to grow algae by pumping wastewater from sewage plants into
      floating fabric bags located in sheltered coastal bays. OMEGA has
      identified San Francisco Bay as an optimal test site, with readily
      available nutrient supply adjacent to suitable pilot locations, as well
      as abundant human capital in the innovation hub of Silicon Valley.
      > 7. Sewage contains high levels of nutrients, and can be treated
      offshore in floating farms to produce algae and fresh water, instead of
      just dumping the treated waste at sea. Dr. Trent has shown that once
      the sewage is fully converted to algae, it can be simply processed to
      thick slush by putting it in a floating bag of a material that allows
      fresh water to escape by osmosis into the surrounding sea while
      retaining the algae cells in the bag. The concentrated algae is then a
      valuable commercial bulk commodity.
      > 8. Algae cells are mostly made of oil, protein and carbohydrate. A
      number of methods are now in development to extract the oil, which in
      preferred species is about half the mass of the cell. Algae oil can
      easily be converted to diesel fuel for use in transport and heating
      using the same methods now in operation in biofuel plants. The remainder
      of the algae biomass can be used for fertilizer, food and fibre. The aim
      is to produce abundant low cost commodities that will enrich the world
      and put the global economy on to an ecologically sustainable path.
      > 9. Algae, growing in shallow warm seas, was the original source for
      the fossil deposits of petroleum in the earth's crust. Algae farms can
      replicate this original natural production process in a fraction of the
      time, at commercially competitive cost, and in a way that will be good
      for the environment, the climate and the world economy.
      > 10. The OMEGA method mixes the algae with nutrient and CO2 inside a
      floating bag using wave energy. The nutrient source water and CO2 can
      be pumped in and out using tidal power. The entire operation needs no
      fossil fuel at all, as it uses natural sources and produces its own
      operational energy by converting sunlight into algae.
      > 11. If CO2 is pumped into the base of the algae farm together with
      nutrients, and drizzled up through the algated water, the CO2 will
      provide buoyancy for the farm and create a cultured environment to
      maximize productivity.
      > 12. Algae produced from sewage will not survive in the open ocean as
      it will die on contact with salt water. This provides an initial
      guarantee against environmental damage. Any spilled algae will be eaten
      by fish.
      > 13. The OMEGA pilot will examine risks such as shipping, lightning and
      storm. It appears these are readily solved. Signage can separate farms
      from shipping lanes, ability to patch any torn fabric can repair
      lightning damage, and ability to sink the entire system simply by
      expelling CO2 from the base can protect against rough weather. The
      ocean is still just below the surface.
      > 14. Considering the potential to expand from the San Francisco OMEGA
      pilot project, one feasible plan is the co-location of electricity
      stations with coastal algae farms and sewage plants, with all the CO2
      from the power plant going into the algae production, and the algae
      being dried and used as fuel in a closed loop with zero emissions. This
      was proposed on land by the US National Renewable Energy Laboratory in
      the 1970s, but the project was shelved due to lack of interest from the
      petrochemical industry.
      > 15. If all the emissions from power plants, mines, cement factories
      and the like were piped into algae farms, the rise in global CO2 level
      could be stabilized and even reversed. Algae, produced in this way, can
      replace the need for geological sequestration of C02. The best way to
      sequester carbon is to use it as a valuable commodity to grow algae in
      bags at sea.
      > 16. My estimate is that all fossil fuel could be replaced by algae
      grown on 0.1% of the world ocean, 500,000 square kilometers. Optimal
      initial locations include pilot sites such as San Francisco Bay, and
      other sheltered shallow warm waters such as in the Gulf of Mexico and
      the northern coast of Australia. Just one mining project in Australia,
      the Gorgon Gas Project on Barrow Island, proposes to produce three
      million tons of CO2 each year as a byproduct. Instead of pumping it
      below ground as worthless waste, algae farms can use this CO2 as a
      resource for energy production.
      > 17. In heavily polluted industrial environments such as in China,
      pumping of power station emissions into algae farms could rapidly reduce
      air pollution. Such pumping can be entirely powered by tidal energy in
      coastal locations. Concentrated CO2 from inland locations can be barged
      down rivers in fabric balloons to coastal algae farms.
      > 18. Another excellent potential test site is Australia's Great Barrier
      Reef. The reef is now at high risk from climate change due to warming
      ocean water temperature killing the coral. Algae farms located near
      the reef can contain all the heat from the sun in the surface layer,
      providing local cooling of ocean water beneath them, reducing the
      overall temperature of the reef water, protecting the coral, processing
      phosphorus from agricultural runoff, and providing a sustainable food
      source for fish.
      > 19. The OMEGA pilot project in San Francisco offers the opportunity to
      consider even more productive large scale methods, such as salt water
      algae that draws its nutrient by tidal power from the deep rich water
      500 meters below the surface. Strains of salt water algae can be
      produced that will dominate within the cultured farm environment but
      will not grow in the open ocean.
      > 20. Tidal energy for pumping can mimic the upwelling of deep cold
      ocean currents that are now the nutrient source for the world's richest
      fish grounds. Eaten by fish, the algae product from an offshore farm
      will rapidly increase the protein biomass of the surrounding ocean,
      providing a major boost to food production and protecting fish stocks.
      > 21. Plant husbandry methods can achieve high yielding strains. If an
      algae farm has multiple parallel tracks along which water flows, the
      output can be tested for desired criteria, and the most productive batch
      can be used to seed the system, to outcompete wild strains and maximize
      yield. If CO2 is pumped into the water in the farm, new algae varieties
      will rapidly evolve that will grow well in the cultured environment, but
      will not survive in the open sea. My view is that such plant husbandry
      techniques are preferable to genetic engineering, and that all research
      and development should be highly precautionary regarding any risks. My
      estimate is that an initial yield goal of one cubic meter of oil per
      hectare per day can rapidly be multiplied many times over through
      intensive research and development.
      > 22. Algae provides the only realistic way to actually drive down
      atmospheric CO2 levels by replacing current energy sources at global
      scale. Focus on technological innovation is far better than existing
      proposed climate response methods that concentrate on tax reform. While
      it is likely that government subsidy would speed up the establishment of
      a large scale commercial algae production industry, my assessment is
      that the methods described here should be commercially competitive
      against fossil fuels on current market prices, and even more so when the
      environmental damage of fossil fuels is considered.
      > 23. There is no point in climate schemes that do not use market forces
      to transform the global economy away from its short term addiction to
      fossil fuels. Production of fuel, fertilizer, fibre and food from algae
      will rapidly address fuel security and food security. Resources are
      needed to expand current pilot projects. Equity investment will be
      highly profitable and socially responsible, establishing a sustainable
      new industry that will fix some of the biggest problems facing the
      world.
      >

    • Bruce Carroll Lendrum
      Robert, Thank-you for your questions.. I will try to get better at my English. In fact the warmth leads the CO2 by a few thousand years .. Check out the
      Message 2 of 9 , May 1, 2011
        Robert,

        Thank-you for your questions.. I will try to get better at my English.

        In fact the warmth leads the CO2 by a few thousand years .. Check out
        the billion year charts. The earth is at an all time low in CO2 so it
        my be hard to hold to the 388 PPM area in the long run. The 1500 ppm is
        more of an average for the last 2 or 3 billion years as we have had
        very few supper huge volcanoes in the last few million years. The major
        problem with the volcanoes are we will have a very dark winter that
        could last for 100 years before the earth is warmed again..Nothing man
        has done will be near what the super volcanoes do.. Like the dark
        ages.At that point Nuclear energy will get a lot of action. Today we
        have noted the dimming effect on the pan evaporation rates over the last
        100 years. In fact some of the best studies on the effect of sun on
        algae production was done in Australia by the Renewable Energy group
        that did the B.Braunii Race B ( China 1) study about 5 years ago.

        As far a Methane production in the 100-200 K area of the earth.. This is
        recycled carbon from H2Ca2CO3 (& Lime) from Organic growth being forsed
        under the mantel. I understand much of the methane is lost in deep
        water seeps ( freezes as methane Anhydride). We may have a unlimited
        supply of methane.

        Thank-you again.. Again the raise in CO2 levels from about 300 to 388 is
        only a blip on the chart of the 3 Billion year chart.. Max numbers as I
        recall was about 3,000 PPM and that was before the oil production area
        of the Permian period. ( per Dr. White of the Mathematics department at
        Tarleton University).

        Best Regards,
        Bruce
        --- In oil_from_algae@yahoogroups.com, Robert Tulip
        <waterbagaustralia@...> wrote:
        >
        > Bruce, thanks. You may be right about 1500 ppm as a potentially
        stable
        > CO2 level, but the problem is the speed of the change at the moment is
        so much
        > faster than anything in previous geological epochs. Ecosystems
        previously had
        > millions of years to adjust to changes that we are now imposing in
        decades. The
        > current situation could be comparable to the great dying at the end of
        the
        > Permian due to the rapidity of the change. We will have the upheaval
        of the
        > flooding of all low coastal land with CO2 at the levels you mention,
        as well as
        > wild changes in rainfall and temperature. Everyone in low lying parts
        of
        > Bangladesh and Vietnam (for example) would have to move. I think for
        this
        > reason it is a public good to try to push CO2 back below 350 ppm.
        >
        > On solar cells, I doubt they are scalable in the same way as algae.
        Solar cells
        > need minerals, whereas algae farms could potentially make their own
        fabric, in
        > order to produce oil which could replace all fossil fuels and expand
        to allow
        > orders of magnitude greater sustainable energy use. If roads and
        buildings were
        > made of ocean based algae that had been compressed at depth, we would
        > potentially have an abundant low cost construction material, on top of
        the fuel
        > supply.
        >
        > The difference now from the whale oil example is scale, and the need
        for enough
        > time for market forces to kick in at scale. We need liquid fuel now
        that will
        > be cost competitive and produceable at volume in the millions of tons
        per day.
        > There was plenty of time in the 1800s to shift away from whale
        lighting, which
        > was a big problem for whales but actually tiny compared to the modern
        economy.
        > This is why I see ocean based algae production as essential, because
        it offers
        > a potentially simple way to make bulk fuel with positive environmental
        impact,
        > at lower unit cost than land based production.
        >
        > Thanks for the heads up on butanol bacteria. This might be a key
        processing
        > method for algae grown in bags at sea.
        >
        > I don't get your point about methane. It is still a greenhouse gas
        when burnt,
        > and its use contributes to increased CO2 concentration in the
        atmosphere.
        > Robert
        >
        >
        >
        > ________________________________
        > From: Bruce Carroll Lendrum lendlabs@...
        > To: oil_from_algae@yahoogroups.com
        > Sent: Sun, 1 May, 2011 3:10:51 AM
        > Subject: [oil_from_algae] Re: Potential for algae to transform the
        world economy
        >
        >
        > Robert,
        > Four things you missed about energy.
        > A: Solar cells are getting up to 70% of the energy with diamond based
        > systems in the lab.. same as used in space.
        > B: Next Generation Biotech Bacteria is making Butanol from Cellulose
        > also a bi-product of algae and corn production.
        > C: Methane is a natural recycle system and is made in the area of the
        > earth about 100 miles deep. Recycled CaCO3 with H2 from water..
        > D: Greater CO2 will increase nature growth of many crops like sugar
        and
        > rice along with B.Braunii.. This math was done in Australia about five
        > years ago.. We are have a shortage of CO2 for growth of a lot of algae
        > or plants.. Check out the billion year history of the earth.. At 1,500
        > PPB we will have a very green world.. all we need to to better use the
        > water we have.. like Rome we can ship water from the Great Lakes to
        > America's Heart land and feed the world. In Norway they found some
        pine
        > trees ( slash pines.. I think)produced about 250% more wood at 1500
        PPB
        > CO2.
        > Well the cure for high prices are high prices.. So when whale oil got
        > too expensive we switched to oil ( Fossil Fuel).. Now we are working
        > more and more with Methane.. Cheap and is renewed by the energy from
        the
        > Nuclear Power in the centre of the Earth.
        > Just a thought,
        > Bruce
        > --- In oil_from_algae@yahoogroups.com, "Robert" waterbagaustralia@
        > wrote:
        > >
        > > 1. The world economy relies on the movement of carbon from the
        earth's
        > crust into the atmosphere as its main source of energy. Burning of
        > fossil fuel is unsustainable for two reasons: peak oil and climate
        > change. Algae biofuel is the only realistic option to fix these
        > problems on global scale.
        > > 2. Oil extraction rates have already passed their peak, with new
        > reserves not adequate to supply growing demand. It is essential for
        > political and economic stability that new bulk liquid fuel sources are
        > established well in advance of any supply crisis.
        > > 3. The climate change impact of carbon emissions is more
        > controversial, but the fact is that CO2 emission rates are increasing,
        > not decreasing, in order to power economic growth for an expanding
        world
        > population. NASA scientists say that if most of the carbon now in the
        > crust was shifted to the atmosphere, Earth would become like Venus, a
        > CO2 hothouse where life would be impossible. Just shifting a fraction
        > of existing carbon into the air is already causing upheaval in global
        > climate. The accelerating rate of emissions under business as usual
        > means that climate change will become even more rapid until a systemic
        > solution is implemented using new technology.
        > > 4. In response to these twin problems, peak oil and climate change,
        > biofuel has been proposed as a means to supply sustainable energy.
        The
        > first generation of biofuel, ethanol from grain, actually produces
        more
        > net emissions than fossil fuel, while also displacing food crops and
        > driving up food prices. The need is for a new generation of biofuel,
        a
        > source of abundant liquid fuel that can be produced using renewable
        > natural energy sources, that does not compete with food production for
        > land, and that is rapidly scalable, simple to operate and good for the
        > environment. Algae is the only crop that meets all these needs.
        > > 5. Transformation of the world economy to sustainable energy
        > production from algae requires development of innovative new
        technology.
        > The most promising method for bulk fuel production from algae is
        likely
        > to emerge from the work of the US National Aeronautical and Space
        > Administration, NASA, in their OMEGA Project - Offshore Membrane
        > Enclosure for Growing Algae.
        > > 6. Dr. Jonathan Trent, chief scientist for OMEGA, recently explained
        > the status of the project http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1_z-LnKNlco
        > OMEGA plans to grow algae by pumping wastewater from sewage plants
        into
        > floating fabric bags located in sheltered coastal bays. OMEGA has
        > identified San Francisco Bay as an optimal test site, with readily
        > available nutrient supply adjacent to suitable pilot locations, as
        well
        > as abundant human capital in the innovation hub of Silicon Valley.
        > > 7. Sewage contains high levels of nutrients, and can be treated
        > offshore in floating farms to produce algae and fresh water, instead
        of
        > just dumping the treated waste at sea. Dr. Trent has shown that once
        > the sewage is fully converted to algae, it can be simply processed to
        > thick slush by putting it in a floating bag of a material that allows
        > fresh water to escape by osmosis into the surrounding sea while
        > retaining the algae cells in the bag. The concentrated algae is then
        a
        > valuable commercial bulk commodity.
        > > 8. Algae cells are mostly made of oil, protein and carbohydrate. A
        > number of methods are now in development to extract the oil, which in
        > preferred species is about half the mass of the cell. Algae oil can
        > easily be converted to diesel fuel for use in transport and heating
        > using the same methods now in operation in biofuel plants. The
        remainder
        > of the algae biomass can be used for fertilizer, food and fibre. The
        aim
        > is to produce abundant low cost commodities that will enrich the world
        > and put the global economy on to an ecologically sustainable path.
        > > 9. Algae, growing in shallow warm seas, was the original source for
        > the fossil deposits of petroleum in the earth's crust. Algae farms
        can
        > replicate this original natural production process in a fraction of
        the
        > time, at commercially competitive cost, and in a way that will be good
        > for the environment, the climate and the world economy.
        > > 10. The OMEGA method mixes the algae with nutrient and CO2 inside a
        > floating bag using wave energy. The nutrient source water and CO2 can
        > be pumped in and out using tidal power. The entire operation needs no
        > fossil fuel at all, as it uses natural sources and produces its own
        > operational energy by converting sunlight into algae.
        > > 11. If CO2 is pumped into the base of the algae farm together with
        > nutrients, and drizzled up through the algated water, the CO2 will
        > provide buoyancy for the farm and create a cultured environment to
        > maximize productivity.
        > > 12. Algae produced from sewage will not survive in the open ocean as
        > it will die on contact with salt water. This provides an initial
        > guarantee against environmental damage. Any spilled algae will be
        eaten
        > by fish.
        > > 13. The OMEGA pilot will examine risks such as shipping, lightning
        and
        > storm. It appears these are readily solved. Signage can separate
        farms
        > from shipping lanes, ability to patch any torn fabric can repair
        > lightning damage, and ability to sink the entire system simply by
        > expelling CO2 from the base can protect against rough weather. The
        > ocean is still just below the surface.
        > > 14. Considering the potential to expand from the San Francisco OMEGA
        > pilot project, one feasible plan is the co-location of electricity
        > stations with coastal algae farms and sewage plants, with all the CO2
        > from the power plant going into the algae production, and the algae
        > being dried and used as fuel in a closed loop with zero emissions.
        This
        > was proposed on land by the US National Renewable Energy Laboratory in
        > the 1970s, but the project was shelved due to lack of interest from
        the
        > petrochemical industry.
        > > 15. If all the emissions from power plants, mines, cement factories
        > and the like were piped into algae farms, the rise in global CO2 level
        > could be stabilized and even reversed. Algae, produced in this way,
        can
        > replace the need for geological sequestration of C02. The best way to
        > sequester carbon is to use it as a valuable commodity to grow algae in
        > bags at sea.
        > > 16. My estimate is that all fossil fuel could be replaced by algae
        > grown on 0.1% of the world ocean, 500,000 square kilometers. Optimal
        > initial locations include pilot sites such as San Francisco Bay, and
        > other sheltered shallow warm waters such as in the Gulf of Mexico and
        > the northern coast of Australia. Just one mining project in
        Australia,
        > the Gorgon Gas Project on Barrow Island, proposes to produce three
        > million tons of CO2 each year as a byproduct. Instead of pumping it
        > below ground as worthless waste, algae farms can use this CO2 as a
        > resource for energy production.
        > > 17. In heavily polluted industrial environments such as in China,
        > pumping of power station emissions into algae farms could rapidly
        reduce
        > air pollution. Such pumping can be entirely powered by tidal energy
        in
        > coastal locations. Concentrated CO2 from inland locations can be
        barged
        > down rivers in fabric balloons to coastal algae farms.
        > > 18. Another excellent potential test site is Australia's Great
        Barrier
        > Reef. The reef is now at high risk from climate change due to warming
        > ocean water temperature killing the coral. Algae farms located near
        > the reef can contain all the heat from the sun in the surface layer,
        > providing local cooling of ocean water beneath them, reducing the
        > overall temperature of the reef water, protecting the coral,
        processing
        > phosphorus from agricultural runoff, and providing a sustainable food
        > source for fish.
        > > 19. The OMEGA pilot project in San Francisco offers the opportunity
        to
        > consider even more productive large scale methods, such as salt water
        > algae that draws its nutrient by tidal power from the deep rich water
        > 500 meters below the surface. Strains of salt water algae can be
        > produced that will dominate within the cultured farm environment but
        > will not grow in the open ocean.
        > > 20. Tidal energy for pumping can mimic the upwelling of deep cold
        > ocean currents that are now the nutrient source for the world's
        richest
        > fish grounds. Eaten by fish, the algae product from an offshore farm
        > will rapidly increase the protein biomass of the surrounding ocean,
        > providing a major boost to food production and protecting fish stocks.
        > > 21. Plant husbandry methods can achieve high yielding strains. If
        an
        > algae farm has multiple parallel tracks along which water flows, the
        > output can be tested for desired criteria, and the most productive
        batch
        > can be used to seed the system, to outcompete wild strains and
        maximize
        > yield. If CO2 is pumped into the water in the farm, new algae
        varieties
        > will rapidly evolve that will grow well in the cultured environment,
        but
        > will not survive in the open sea. My view is that such plant
        husbandry
        > techniques are preferable to genetic engineering, and that all
        research
        > and development should be highly precautionary regarding any risks.
        My
        > estimate is that an initial yield goal of one cubic meter of oil per
        > hectare per day can rapidly be multiplied many times over through
        > intensive research and development.
        > > 22. Algae provides the only realistic way to actually drive down
        > atmospheric CO2 levels by replacing current energy sources at global
        > scale. Focus on technological innovation is far better than existing
        > proposed climate response methods that concentrate on tax reform.
        While
        > it is likely that government subsidy would speed up the establishment
        of
        > a large scale commercial algae production industry, my assessment is
        > that the methods described here should be commercially competitive
        > against fossil fuels on current market prices, and even more so when
        the
        > environmental damage of fossil fuels is considered.
        > > 23. There is no point in climate schemes that do not use market
        forces
        > to transform the global economy away from its short term addiction to
        > fossil fuels. Production of fuel, fertilizer, fibre and food from
        algae
        > will rapidly address fuel security and food security. Resources are
        > needed to expand current pilot projects. Equity investment will be
        > highly profitable and socially responsible, establishing a sustainable
        > new industry that will fix some of the biggest problems facing the
        > world.
        > >
        >
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