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History of modern spiritualism

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  • cepak2001br
    [envia, Mabbo] ********************************************************************* NewAge On-Line Australia [www.newage.com.au] The Story of Spiritualism THE
    Message 1 of 6 , Oct 7, 2003
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      [envia, Mabbo]


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      NewAge On-Line Australia [www.newage.com.au]

      The Story of Spiritualism

      THE BIRTH OF MODERN SPIRITUALISM

      It is an often reiterated statement that "Spiritualism is nothing
      new", its subject matter, the impingement of a non-material world
      upon our material one, is as old as history. The ancient writings of
      mankind are full of the accounts of such occurrences. It was under
      the name of Spiritualism, however, that an attempt was made to bring
      these spasmodic impingements under some form of control.

      Modern Spiritualism was born in the year 1848, but before that time
      the minds of many thinking people had been made more receptive to its
      teachings by the work of Emanuel Swedenborg (1688-1772).

      Swedenborg was a Swedish Scientist, Astronomer, and Engineer of
      international repute, who, at the age of 55 became so developed
      mediumistically as to be able to converse at great length with
      evolved spirits, and to travel in the spirit realms.

      This phase of his life began in London in 1744 and continued until
      his death in 1772. He wrote and published a large number of books
      descriptive of his experiences, and explaining the philosophy taught
      to him by his spirit teachers. Probably the best known of his books
      is "Heaven and Hell". His teachings, though somewhat theologically
      biased, (his father was a Swedish bishop) were, nevertheless advanced
      and revolutionary in the light of the narrow sectarian dogmas of his
      day. They gave much information regarding the spirit world and it's
      occupants, which was to be substantially confirmed by the later
      revelations of Spiritualism.

      The work of Swedenborg was followed by that of Andrew Jackson Davis
      (1826-1910) - "The Poughkeepsie Seer". Davis was naturally
      mediumistic and in his 19th year whilst in a trance, acted as the
      medium through whom Swedenborg was able to resume his work by
      dictating various philosophical books, in one of which, published in
      1847, he predicted the advent of Spiritualism. Davis carried on his
      inspired and inspiring work of writing, lecturing and Lyceum
      development until his passing in 1910. Modern Spiritualism was born
      in March 1848 at Hydesville, USA. There had been some "haunting"
      phenomena in a small wooden cottage where for some time prior to
      December 11, 1847, the date upon which Mr. & Mrs. Fox and their
      young daughters, Catherine and Margaretta, moved into residence.
      They too were disturbed by rapping and other supernormal phenomena.
      Eventually, emboldened by the presence of their parents, the
      children began what, to them, was a game of talking to whatever
      mysterious power was responsible for the disturbances, asking for a
      specified number of raps in response to their questions. The reply
      was immediate and it became obvious that some kind of intelligence
      was manifesting.

      A Committee of Investigation was formed, a definite code of signals
      agreed upon, and it was then established that the communicator was
      one Charles B. Rosna, a pedlar who had been murdered by a previous
      occupant of the cottage and buried in the cellar. This information
      was subsequently verified. Curiosity brought hundreds of people to
      view the cottage and the Fox family were glad to leave it. The
      rappings, however, continued elsewhere in the presence of the girls.

      Three important facts emerged from the Hydesville rappings:-

      1) Organised communication was shown to be possible.
      2) Certain people, e.g. the Fox sisters, were naturally mediumistic.
      3) Communication could be facilitated by means of a code.

      The spirit communicators instructed the investigators to form
      circles in their own homes, under spirit guidance. Thus the idea of
      spirit communication began to spread to ordinary cottage homes, at a
      time when education was becoming more widespread, and people were
      able to realise the import of the spirit teaching.

      These spirits and psychic phenomena attracted the attention of
      certain scholars who became convinced of the spirit-inspired origin
      of the communications and were courageous enough to come into the
      open and admit their conviction. Judge Edmonds (1816-1874) a member
      of the Supremne Court of New York, was one of the investigators of
      the original Hydesville phenomena. He and many of his friends
      accepted fully the spirit hypothesis.

      THE HISTORY OF MODERN SPIRITUALISM

      The following are a list of important dates considered to be
      milestones in the unfoldment of Spiritualism:

      1848 Hydesville Knockings in the USA lead to the investigation of
      the mediumship of the Fox sisters and the birth of Modern
      Spiritualism.

      1849 The first public demonstration of Mediumship by Margaret Fox in
      the Corinthian Corinthian Hall in New York.

      1852 Mrs Hayden came from America to be the first Spiritualist
      medium to work in Britain.

      1853 Darlington born David Richmond returned to his native town from
      America. The Quaker townsfolk obliged him to leave. He went to
      Keighley in Yorkshire, the first Spiritualist Church being opened by
      him there.

      1854 Robert Owen, Socialist Reformer and Co-Founder of the Co-
      operative Society, became converted to Spiritualism after sittings
      with Mrs. Hayden. After he passed to Spirit he became the author of
      The Principles of Spiritualism which he gave through the mediumship
      of Emma Hardinge Britten.

      1855 "The Yorkshire Spiritual Telegraph" the first Spiritual
      Newspaper was published in Keighley.

      1863 Andrew Jackson Davis established the first Sunday Lyceum in New
      York.

      1865 An attempt was made to form the first National Organisation of
      Spiritualists in Darlington.

      1866 Emma Hardinge Britten returned to England where she was quickly
      recognised as a very powerful medium.

      1866 The first Lyceum in Britain was opened by Mr. J. Hitchcock in
      Nottingham.

      1869 The Dialectical Society appointed a Committee to investigate
      Spiritualism. They published a very favourable report - (the best by
      any external body.)

      1871 Sir William Crookes reported on Spiritualism to the Royal
      Society and published his findings in the quarterly Journal of
      Science.

      1872 A second attempt to form a National Organisation was made at a
      National Conference in Darlington. Again it failed. However, it
      stimulated interest and people wrote to the Spiritualist Press. It
      soon became recognised that there was a need for such an organisation.

      1873 A conference was held in Liverpool which led to the formation of
      the British National Association of Spiritualists with its
      headquarters in London.

      1878 Emma Hardinge Britten toured Australia and New Zealand
      promoting spiritualism.

      1882 The Society for Psychical Research was started.

      1887 The "Two Worlds" was launched as a weekly newspaper by Emma
      Hardinge Britten.

      The British "Lyceum Manual" was published for the first time. Its Co-
      authors were Mr H. A Kersey of Newcastle upon Tyne, Mr Alfred Kitson
      and Emma Hardinge Britten.

      The Principles of Spiritualism were published in the "Two Worlds"
      magazine as follows: -
      The Fatherhood of God
      The Brotherhood of Man
      The Immortality of the Soul and its Personal Characteristics
      The proven facts of Communion between departed Human Spirits and
      mortals
      Personal Responsibility with compensation and retribution hereafter
      for all the good and evil deeds done here
      A path of Eternal Progress open to every Human Soul that wills to
      tread it by the path of Eternal Good.

      1890 Formation of the National Spiritualists' Federation.
      Spiritualists' Lyceum Union established. Name was later changed to
      British Spiritualists' Lyceum Union in 1894.

      1893 Foundation of National Spiritualists' Association of America.

      1901 Foundation of Spiritualists' National Union Limited.

      1902 The S.N.U. took over the rights, assets and obligations of the
      Federation and obtained legal status whereby it could hold real
      property.

      1916 Parliamentary Campaign for the legal recognition of
      Spiritualism instituted by the Union under Ernest Oaten.

      1918 Sir Arthur Conan Doyle proclaimed his belief in spiritualism.

      1923 Formation of the Internation Spiritualists Federation.

      1924 Hannen Swaffer proclaimed his belief in the teachings and truth
      of Spiritualism.

      1931-
      1935 Arthur Findlay's Trilogy published:
      "On the Edge of the Etheric"
      "The Rock of Truth"
      "The Unfolding Universe"

      1932 The "Psychic News" was founded by Arthur Findlay under the
      editorship of Maurice Barbanell.

      1934 First broadcast on behalf of Spiritualism through BBC by Ernest
      Oaten.

      1937 Spiritualism investigated by Church of England Committee set up
      by Archbishop of Canterbury, Dr. Cosmo Lang. (It's subsequent
      favourable report was suppressed but leaked to "Psychic News").

      1939 Ministers begin to be appointed by the Spiritualists' National
      Union.

      1940 Spiritualists National Union gains Government
      sanction/certificate to act as a Trust Corporation.

      1944 Helen Duncan on trial in London.

      1950 The Spiritualists' National Union recognised as the Official
      Spiritualists' body.

      1951 The Lyceum Department received a letter from the Spiritualists
      National Union stating that henceforth it would be known as "The
      Spiritualists' Lyceum Union" (in 1948 the British Spiritualists'
      Lyceum Union was incorporated into the Spiritualists' National Union).

      1963 A motion showing that there was a need for a Guild of
      Spiritualist Healers was put to the Spiritualists' nation Union's
      Annual General Meeting at Worthing and was held to be proven,
      although nothing could be done at the meeting, it was an ideal only.

      1964 Proposals were put to the Spiritualists' National Union's
      Annual General Meeting at Manchester for the formation of such a
      Guild. Stansted Hall bequeathed to the Spiritualists' National Union
      by Arthur Findlay to be used as a College for the advancement of
      Psychic Science.

      1966 Arthur Findlay College (Stansted Hall) opens in September.

      1968 Tom Henwood and Bill Tyler, members of the Healing Committee,
      ask for closer contact with the District Councils, this helped to
      increase membership.

      1969 The League of Friends of Stansted Hall was inaugurated.

      1970 The Northern, Sheffield, Southern, Yorkshire, East Midlands and
      London Guilds had been formed and the first meeting of the Guild of
      Spiritualist Healers took place in Stansted Hall.

      1972 First National Conference of the Guild was also held in
      Stansted Hall.

      1973 A set of Bye-Laws was set up for the administration of the
      Guild, these to be known as By-Laws "H".

      1975 At the S.N.U. Annual General Meeting, members voted in favour
      of adopting a new set of Articles of Association which were
      circulated prior to the meeting. This resulted in bringing into
      force the three tier system of administration.

      1976 The three tier system came into effect immediately after the
      S.N.U. Annual General Meeting marking a new phase in the history of
      the S.N.U.

      1979 At the Spiritualists' National Union's Annual General Meeting
      at Manchester it was agreed that the Guild would administer its own
      funds and its chief officers would be known as President and Vice-
      President, these arrangements took effecct in January 1980.

      1981 The Guild became one of the Founder Members of the
      Confederation of
      Healing Organisations.

      1990 The S.N.U. Centenary celebrated by holding Publicity Meetings
      in every District Council area - National celebration at Wembley,
      London on 31st March, date of the Hydesville event in 1848.

      PROMINENT MEDIUMS OF MODERN SPIRITUALISM

      The following are some of the prominent mediums of the early days:-

      Daniel Douglas Home (1833-1886) one of the greatest physical mediums
      in whose presence almost all types of physical phenomena occurred.
      Born in Edinburgh, his powers were discovered whilst he was living
      in America. On his return to England in 1855 the remarkable
      phenomena aroused great interest.

      David Duguid (1832-1907), this Glasgow medium was perhaps most
      famous for spirit oil paintings of landscapes, produced in total
      darkness at an amazing speed, and independently of his hands. In his
      presence were produced all kinds of phenomena, and through him was
      dictated a remarkable book, the well known "Hafed, Prince of Persia".

      Dr. Henry Slade, an American medium famous for slate-writing
      mediumship, in which messages were written on sealed slates. He was
      thoroughly tested by several eminent investigators, and pronounced
      genuine.

      William Eglington, noted for outdoor and daylight materialisations
      and also for slate-writing mediumship. Questions put in Spanish,
      French and Greek were answered in the same languages. Gladstone,
      after sitting with him, was sufficiently impressed to join the
      Society for Psychical Research.

      Florence Cook (1856-1904), outstanding for the wonderful
      materialisation of Katie King, investigated by Sir William Crookes.
      He proved this spirit to be entirely separate and distinct from the
      medium.

      Leonore E Piper of Boston, USA, allowed herself to be subjected to
      the most exacting scientific investigation of her mediumship for a
      period of 45 years. This great medium was instrumental in converting
      many eminent people to believe in a spirit agency operating through
      her trance mediumship.

      Eusapia Palladino (1854-1918), the famous physical medium was
      subjected to scientific investigation all over Europe and America,
      and brought home the reality of physical phenomena to many
      outstanding scientists.

      Elizabeth D'Esperance (1855-1919), redenowned for extraordinary
      apports, materialisations and sketches made in complete darkness, of
      spirit relatives of her friends.

      PROMINENT SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATORS

      So great was the impact of "other-world" manifestations and
      materialisations that some promenent scientists were drawn to make a
      thorough investigation of the subject. Listed below are some who
      require mention:

      Dr. A Russel Wallace, (1823-1903). Co-discoverer with Charles Darwin
      of the Theory of Evolution. He painstakingly investigated
      Spiritualism over a number of years, eventually stating quite
      fearlessly that its phenomena were proved quite as well as the facts
      of any other science.

      Sir William Crookes (1832-1919). An outstanding physicist who began
      his investigations into Spiritualism with the avowed intent of
      exposing it as nonsense. The facts, however, (particularly his
      investigation of Katie King through the mediumship of Florence Cook)
      was too overwhelming, and to the end of his life he remained
      completely convinced of the truth of Spirit communication.

      Sir William F. Barrett (1845-1926). Made searching enquiries both in
      this country and in the USA. His summing up was that there is
      evidence for the existence of a spirit world for survival after
      death, and for occasional communication with those passed over.

      Lord Rayleigh (1842-1919). Made prolonged investigatins, and
      although he made no public pronouncement, he contributed to the work
      of the Society for Psychical Research, becoming the President in
      1919.

      THE SOCIETY FOR PSYCHICAL RESEARCH

      Despite the pioneer work of Wallace, Crookes and Barrett, orthodox
      science remained antagonistic to the facts of physical phenomena.
      Similarly the orthodox Churches were opposed to the teachings of
      Spiritualism. the time, therefore, was ripe for the establishment of
      an independent body to further scientific knowledge in the direction
      of psychical research and in 1882 Sir William Barrett gathered
      together a group of people capable of developing this idea. This
      group formed themselves into the Society for Psychical Research with
      the objects of "furthering scientific knowledge of telepathy,
      hypnotism, mediumship, apparitions, physical phenomena of
      mediumship, etc."

      The original body consisted of Professor Henry Sidgwick (President);
      F.W. Myers, Edmund Furney, Professor Balfour Steward, Rev. Stainton
      Moses, Dawson Rogers and Doctor George Wyld. Some of these made
      important individual contributions to psychical research, notably:

      F.W.H. Myers (1834-1901) whose celebrated book "Human Personality
      and its Survival of Bodily Death" is acknowledge as a classic, and
      has established psychical research as an organised science. All
      students of Spiritualism should read this book.

      Edmund Gurney (1847-1888) studied the psychological aspect of
      Hypnotism in this country.

      Henry Sidgwick (1838-1900) took an active part in the work of the
      Society until his death, and contributed largely to the "Proceeding
      of the S.P.R." He investigated the work of many mediums but kept his
      personal convictions private.

      Dr Richard Hodgson. An early member of the Society soon became noted
      as a competent and critical investigator. He made a systematic study
      of the mediumship of Mrs. Leonore Piper, through which he became
      completely convinced of the reality of spirit return. The
      development of his own mediumistic powers late in life brought to
      him an even deeper conviction.
      PROMINENT SPIRITUALISTS

      Organisation of the Spiritualist Movement in Great Britain began in
      the latter half of the 19th Century. Many Churches and societies
      were formed throughout the country, and it became desirable to unite
      these isolated bodies into some kind of Federation. After several
      attempts to do this,
      the National Federation of Spiritualists was formed in 1890 as the
      result of preliminary meetings called by:-

      Emma Hardinge Britten (1823-1899). Mrs Britten was the natural
      leader of the new Movement. She launched the journal "The Two
      Worlds" and was editor for five years. A gifted orator and writer,
      she was largely responsible for the philosophical outlook of
      Spiritualists. Through her mediumship the Principles of Spiritualism
      were given.

      Other prominent figures in the vanguard of Spiritualist
      organisations were:-

      William Stainton Moses (1839-1892). An Oxford M.A. and a clergyman
      of the Church of England. He was the leading light in promoting the
      London Spiritualist Alliance, and became its first President and the
      first Editor of "Light". High great contributions were the teachings
      produced through him by means of spirit controlled writing and
      published as "Spirit teachings" and "More Spirit Teachings".

      William T. Stead (1849-1912). In 1892 Stead discovered that he had
      the gifts of spirit-controlled handwriting. He became associated
      with the L.S.A. and was a fearless champion of Spiritualism. He was,
      of course, a well-known editor, and a nationally famous figure for
      his great fight against the White Slave Traffic and the prostitution
      of children. He passed to the Higher Life through the tragic sinking
      of the "Titanic" in 1912.

      Alfred Kitson (1855-1934). Lyceums were opened in 1870 at Keighley
      and Sowerby Bridge. Alfred kitson attended the first anniversary of
      the latter and thereafter devoted himself to this cause. He began to
      develop a system of Lyceum teaching here based upon the American
      model of Andrew Jackson Davis. Kitson was jointly responsible with
      Mr. Kersey and Mrs. Britten for the English Lyceum Manual.

      EUROPEAN SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATORS

      Meanwhile, Spiritualism was spreading rapidly on the continent of
      Europe. It gained a strong hold in France where many men of science
      investigated it's claims. Some of these, notably Dr. Gustave Geley,
      Dr. Charles Richet, Cable Flammarion, the famous astronomer, and Dr.
      Joire made important contributions to the literature of the subject.

      Allan Kardec (1804-1869) (France) expounded a system of Spiritualist
      philosophy based upon mediumistic communications. Reincarnation was
      a central doctrine of Kardec's teaching which became basic to the
      whole Latin world.

      Ernest Bozzano (1862-1943) (Italy). A brilliant scientist who was
      converted to the Spiritualist hypothesis through the mediumship of
      Eusapia Palladino. He wrote extensively on the subject.

      Dr Schrenck Notzing (1862-1929) (Germany). A scientist of great
      repute who made prolonged researches into physical phenomena,
      particularly the production of ectoplasmic formations, and recorded
      his observations in his book "Phenomena of Materialisation".

      Alexander N. Akaskof (1832-1903) (Russia). Spiritualism made little
      headway in Russia although some pioneering work was undertaken by
      Akaskof.

      SPIRITUALISTS' NATIONAL FEDERATION

      The Spiritualists' National Federation, formed in 1890, gathered
      many churches, societies and individual members under it's wing. It
      had, however, no legal status, and to remedy this state of affairs
      it was in 1902 merged into the Spiritualists National Union Limited,
      which had been incorporated under the companies Act in October 1901,
      and had power to hold properties, etc., as a Company limited by
      guarantee. the primary object of the Spiritualists' National Union
      is to promote the advancement and diffusion of the religion and
      religious philosophy of Spiritualism. The Movement sustained a
      severe blow in 1899 when Emma Hardinge Britten passed on.

      Sir Arthur Conan Doyle had in 1902 joined the Society for Psychical
      Research. As a result of prolonged investigation, Doyle openly
      championed the cause of Spiritualism by the publication of "The New
      Revelation". Due to the wide-spread sorrow after the 1914-18 war,
      Doyle decided to make Spiritualism his life's mission. He travelled
      very widely in his missionary zeal and became known as "The St. Paul
      of Spiritualism". He hasx been regarded since his transition as the
      Honorary President of the S.N.U. in Spirit.

      Ernest Oaten was Doyle's tour organiser and right-hand man, but
      years peior to this he had devoted his life to the building up of
      the S.N.U. In 1919 he became editor of "The Two Worlds" and was
      rightly recognised as a leader of Spiritualist thought. Spiritualism
      is indebted to him beyond measure for his efforts on its behalf.

      Hannen Swaffer. Author, journalist and socialist, created a
      sensation when he made public his conversion to spiritualism in
      1924, in his book "Northcliffe's return". He was a great
      propagandist through the spoken and written word.

      Lord Dowding came into prominence as a champion of Spiritualism
      after the 1939-45 war. Lord Dowding was in command of the R.A.F.
      during the Battle of Britain and, through a medium friend, many of
      the airmen who had passed over were able to give their former Chief
      convincing evidence of their survival. Since then Lord Dowding spoke
      and wrote indefatigably on his convictions regarding the continuity
      of life.

      PROMINENT AUTHORS

      A great feature of the 20th Century Spiritualism in this country has
      been the wealth of excellent writers on the subject, far beyond
      anything produced in any other country. Four writers deserve special
      mention:

      Rev G. Vale Owen (1869-1931). A Church of England clergyman who
      developed spirit-controlled writing. A whole series of articles
      produced in this manner was published in the "Weekly Dispatch" in
      1920 and made a profound impression. In consequence of this
      publicity he was persecuted
      by his Ecclesiastical superiors and resigned from the Church. He
      conducted lecture tours of Britain and America. His "Life Beyond the
      Veil" (five volumes) has become a Spiritualist classic.

      W.H. Evans wrote extensively on the philosphy of Spiritualism and
      contributed regularly to the psychic press.

      J. Arthur Findlay, MBE. Author of the following widely read books on
      Spiritualism, "On the Edge of the Etheric"
      "The Rock of Truth"
      "The Unfolding Universe"
      "The Psychic Stream"
      "The Curse of Ignorance".
      He helped to found "The Psychic News" in 1932.

      Rev. C. Drayton Thomas whose works include descriptions of life in
      the Spirit World.

      MEDIUMS

      The quickening of the tempo of life has demanded a great increase in
      concentration upon earning a livelihood. Mass production methods are
      not conducive to the state of inner tranquility which is essential
      to good mediumship. Mediumship has therefore declined in quality as
      well as changed in character. Tom Tyrell, now passed on, was an
      exceptionally brilliant medium. His mediumship was notable for the
      fact that he always gave full names, ages and addresses, as well as
      other particulars of the spirit people whom he described. He seldom
      failed to bring complete conviction.

      Mrs Helen Hughes and Mrs Estelle Roberts are also noteworthy for
      their fine clairaudient work, being excellent mediums for propaganda
      purposes in large meetings.

      Another great medium Mrs Gladys Osborne Leonard has done excellent
      work for the S.P.R. and also with such investigators as Sir Oliver
      Lodge and Rev. C. Drayton Thomas who has permanently recorded the
      same in book form.

      There have been diverse types of mediumship in this century, each of
      which has brought a great deal of conviction.

      William Hope of Crewe was famous for his spirit photography, many
      competent investigators testifying to his genuine powers.

      Miss Geralding Cummins. Playwright and authoress. Has the gift of
      spirit controlled writing. Through her hand has been received a
      series of remarkable books dealing with the early days of
      Christianity. Despite her own lack of knowledge of the places dealt
      with in her books, or of theology, eminent authorities have
      acclaimed the merit and accuracy of her books.

      Frank Leah has given convincing evidence of survival by his gift of
      drawing the departed friends and relations of sitters. Many striking
      likenesses have been produced.

      Harold Sharp's particular form of mediumship enabled him to design
      what may be called an artistic diagram of the human aura. The so-
      called 'auragraph' was explained by the Chinese guide responsible,
      and was usually most enlightening and helpful regarding the inner
      naturee and psychic trends of the sitter.
      One of the new developments in 20th Century mediumship is direct
      voice phenomena. Admiral Usborne Moore, a well-known psychical
      researcher brought the powerful American Direct Voice medium Mrs
      Etta Wreidt to England in 1912 and 1913. She never sat in a cabinet,
      nor passed into trance, and often joined in the conversation when
      spirit voices spoke to sitters. This medium could only speak
      English, but the direct voices spoke in numerous languages. One of
      the most famous English direct voice mediums is Leslie Flint.

      George Valiantine also an American, was an outstanding Direct Voice
      medium. Many different languages were heard at his Seances, notably
      ancient Chinese, which was spoken in the presence of Dr. Wymant, an
      authority on the subject. Dennis Bradley wrote two forthright books
      on Valiantine's mediumship.

      Mrs Margery Crandon was also noted for Direct Voice phenomena and
      many other types of mediumship.

      Carol Mirabelli, the South American medium, was searchingly
      investigated and passed as a genuine medium, for the most astounding
      Direct Voice and Materialisation phenomena.
    • Paulo Dias
      Hi! http://groups.yahoo.com/group/ocams/message/25 The Story of Spiritualism THE BIRTH OF MODERN SPIRITUALISM It is an often reiterated statement that
      Message 2 of 6 , May 25 10:23 PM
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        Hi!

        http://groups.yahoo.com/group/ocams/message/25

        The Story of Spiritualism

        THE BIRTH OF MODERN SPIRITUALISM

        It is an often reiterated statement that "Spiritualism is nothing
        new", its subject matter, the impingement of a non-material world upon
        our material one, is as old as history. The ancient writings of
        mankind are full of the accounts of such occurrences. It was under the
        name of Spiritualism, however, that an attempt was made to bring these
        spasmodic impingements under some form of control.

        Modern Spiritualism was born in the year 1848, but before that time
        the minds of many thinking people had been made more receptive to its
        teachings by the work of Emanuel Swedenborg (1688-1772). Etc. etc. etc.

        Greetings!

        paulo dias=
      • Paulo Dias
        Hi! About Emanuel Swedenborg: http://swedenborg.newearth.org paulo dias=
        Message 3 of 6 , May 25 10:35 PM
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          Hi!

          About Emanuel Swedenborg:

          http://swedenborg.newearth.org

          paulo dias=
        • Paulo
          THE BIRTH OF MODERN SPIRITUALISM It is an often reiterated statement that Spiritualism is nothing new , its subject matter, the impingement of a non-material
          Message 4 of 6 , Mar 12, 2011
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            THE BIRTH OF MODERN SPIRITUALISM

            It is an often reiterated statement that "Spiritualism is nothing
            new", its subject matter, the impingement of a non-material world
            upon our material one, is as old as history. The ancient writings of
            mankind are full of the accounts of such occurrences. It was under
            the name of Spiritualism, however, that an attempt was made to bring
            these spasmodic impingements under some form of control.

            Modern Spiritualism was born in the year 1848, but before that time
            the minds of many thinking people had been made more receptive to its
            teachings by the work of Emanuel Swedenborg (1688-1772).

            Swedenborg was a Swedish Scientist, Astronomer, and Engineer of
            international repute, who, at the age of 55 became so developed
            mediumistically as to be able to converse at great length with
            evolved spirits, and to travel in the spirit realms.

            This phase of his life began in London in 1744 and continued until
            his death in 1772. He wrote and published a large number of books
            descriptive of his experiences, and explaining the philosophy taught
            to him by his spirit teachers. Probably the best known of his books
            is "Heaven and Hell". His teachings, though somewhat theologically
            biased, (his father was a Swedish bishop) were, nevertheless advanced
            and revolutionary in the light of the narrow sectarian dogmas of his
            day. They gave much information regarding the spirit world and it's
            occupants, which was to be substantially confirmed by the later
            revelations of Spiritualism.

            The work of Swedenborg was followed by that of Andrew Jackson Davis
            (1826-1910) - "The Poughkeepsie Seer". Davis was naturally
            mediumistic and in his 19th year whilst in a trance, acted as the
            medium through whom Swedenborg was able to resume his work by
            dictating various philosophical books, in one of which, published in
            1847, he predicted the advent of Spiritualism. Davis carried on his
            inspired and inspiring work of writing, lecturing and Lyceum
            development until his passing in 1910. Modern Spiritualism was born
            in March 1848 at Hydesville, USA. There had been some "haunting"
            phenomena in a small wooden cottage where for some time prior to
            December 11, 1847, the date upon which Mr. & Mrs. Fox and their
            young daughters, Catherine and Margaretta, moved into residence.
            They too were disturbed by rapping and other supernormal phenomena.
            Eventually, emboldened by the presence of their parents, the
            children began what, to them, was a game of talking to whatever
            mysterious power was responsible for the disturbances, asking for a
            specified number of raps in response to their questions. The reply
            was immediate and it became obvious that some kind of intelligence
            was manifesting.

            A Committee of Investigation was formed, a definite code of signals
            agreed upon, and it was then established that the communicator was
            one Charles B. Rosna, a pedlar who had been murdered by a previous
            occupant of the cottage and buried in the cellar. This information
            was subsequently verified. Curiosity brought hundreds of people to
            view the cottage and the Fox family were glad to leave it. The
            rappings, however, continued elsewhere in the presence of the girls.

            Three important facts emerged from the Hydesville rappings:-

            1) Organised communication was shown to be possible.
            2) Certain people, e.g. the Fox sisters, were naturally mediumistic.
            3) Communication could be facilitated by means of a code.

            The spirit communicators instructed the investigators to form
            circles in their own homes, under spirit guidance. Thus the idea of
            spirit communication began to spread to ordinary cottage homes, at a
            time when education was becoming more widespread, and people were
            able to realise the import of the spirit teaching.

            These spirits and psychic phenomena attracted the attention of
            certain scholars who became convinced of the spirit-inspired origin
            of the communications and were courageous enough to come into the
            open and admit their conviction. Judge Edmonds (1816-1874) a member
            of the Supremne Court of New York, was one of the investigators of
            the original Hydesville phenomena. He and many of his friends
            accepted fully the spirit hypothesis.

            THE HISTORY OF MODERN SPIRITUALISM

            The following are a list of important dates considered to be
            milestones in the unfoldment of Spiritualism:

            1848 Hydesville Knockings in the USA lead to the investigation of
            the mediumship of the Fox sisters and the birth of Modern
            Spiritualism.

            1849 The first public demonstration of Mediumship by Margaret Fox in
            the Corinthian Corinthian Hall in New York.

            1852 Mrs Hayden came from America to be the first Spiritualist
            medium to work in Britain.

            1853 Darlington born David Richmond returned to his native town from
            America. The Quaker townsfolk obliged him to leave. He went to
            Keighley in Yorkshire, the first Spiritualist Church being opened by
            him there.

            1854 Robert Owen, Socialist Reformer and Co-Founder of the Co-
            operative Society, became converted to Spiritualism after sittings
            with Mrs. Hayden. After he passed to Spirit he became the author of
            The Principles of Spiritualism which he gave through the mediumship
            of Emma Hardinge Britten.

            1855 "The Yorkshire Spiritual Telegraph" the first Spiritual
            Newspaper was published in Keighley.

            1863 Andrew Jackson Davis established the first Sunday Lyceum in New
            York.

            1865 An attempt was made to form the first National Organisation of
            Spiritualists in Darlington.

            1866 Emma Hardinge Britten returned to England where she was quickly
            recognised as a very powerful medium.

            1866 The first Lyceum in Britain was opened by Mr. J. Hitchcock in
            Nottingham.

            1869 The Dialectical Society appointed a Committee to investigate
            Spiritualism. They published a very favourable report - (the best by
            any external body.)

            1871 Sir William Crookes reported on Spiritualism to the Royal
            Society and published his findings in the quarterly Journal of
            Science.

            1872 A second attempt to form a National Organisation was made at a
            National Conference in Darlington. Again it failed. However, it
            stimulated interest and people wrote to the Spiritualist Press. It
            soon became recognised that there was a need for such an organisation.

            1873 A conference was held in Liverpool which led to the formation of
            the British National Association of Spiritualists with its
            headquarters in London.

            1878 Emma Hardinge Britten toured Australia and New Zealand
            promoting spiritualism.

            1882 The Society for Psychical Research was started.

            1887 The "Two Worlds" was launched as a weekly newspaper by Emma
            Hardinge Britten.

            The British "Lyceum Manual" was published for the first time. Its Co-
            authors were Mr H. A Kersey of Newcastle upon Tyne, Mr Alfred Kitson
            and Emma Hardinge Britten.

            The Principles of Spiritualism were published in the "Two Worlds"
            magazine as follows: -
            The Fatherhood of God
            The Brotherhood of Man
            The Immortality of the Soul and its Personal Characteristics
            The proven facts of Communion between departed Human Spirits and
            mortals
            Personal Responsibility with compensation and retribution hereafter
            for all the good and evil deeds done here
            A path of Eternal Progress open to every Human Soul that wills to
            tread it by the path of Eternal Good.

            1890 Formation of the National Spiritualists' Federation.
            Spiritualists' Lyceum Union established. Name was later changed to
            British Spiritualists' Lyceum Union in 1894.

            1893 Foundation of National Spiritualists' Association of America.

            1901 Foundation of Spiritualists' National Union Limited.

            1902 The S.N.U. took over the rights, assets and obligations of the
            Federation and obtained legal status whereby it could hold real
            property.

            1916 Parliamentary Campaign for the legal recognition of
            Spiritualism instituted by the Union under Ernest Oaten.

            1918 Sir Arthur Conan Doyle proclaimed his belief in spiritualism.

            1923 Formation of the Internation Spiritualists Federation.

            1924 Hannen Swaffer proclaimed his belief in the teachings and truth
            of Spiritualism.

            1931-
            1935 Arthur Findlay's Trilogy published:
            "On the Edge of the Etheric"
            "The Rock of Truth"
            "The Unfolding Universe"

            1932 The "Psychic News" was founded by Arthur Findlay under the
            editorship of Maurice Barbanell.

            1934 First broadcast on behalf of Spiritualism through BBC by Ernest
            Oaten.

            1937 Spiritualism investigated by Church of England Committee set up
            by Archbishop of Canterbury, Dr. Cosmo Lang. (It's subsequent
            favourable report was suppressed but leaked to "Psychic News").

            1939 Ministers begin to be appointed by the Spiritualists' National
            Union.

            1940 Spiritualists National Union gains Government
            sanction/certificate to act as a Trust Corporation.

            1944 Helen Duncan on trial in London.

            1950 The Spiritualists' National Union recognised as the Official
            Spiritualists' body.

            1951 The Lyceum Department received a letter from the Spiritualists
            National Union stating that henceforth it would be known as "The
            Spiritualists' Lyceum Union" (in 1948 the British Spiritualists'
            Lyceum Union was incorporated into the Spiritualists' National Union).

            1963 A motion showing that there was a need for a Guild of
            Spiritualist Healers was put to the Spiritualists' nation Union's
            Annual General Meeting at Worthing and was held to be proven,
            although nothing could be done at the meeting, it was an ideal only.

            1964 Proposals were put to the Spiritualists' National Union's
            Annual General Meeting at Manchester for the formation of such a
            Guild. Stansted Hall bequeathed to the Spiritualists' National Union
            by Arthur Findlay to be used as a College for the advancement of
            Psychic Science.

            1966 Arthur Findlay College (Stansted Hall) opens in September.

            1968 Tom Henwood and Bill Tyler, members of the Healing Committee,
            ask for closer contact with the District Councils, this helped to
            increase membership.

            1969 The League of Friends of Stansted Hall was inaugurated.

            1970 The Northern, Sheffield, Southern, Yorkshire, East Midlands and
            London Guilds had been formed and the first meeting of the Guild of
            Spiritualist Healers took place in Stansted Hall.

            1972 First National Conference of the Guild was also held in
            Stansted Hall.

            1973 A set of Bye-Laws was set up for the administration of the
            Guild, these to be known as By-Laws "H".

            1975 At the S.N.U. Annual General Meeting, members voted in favour
            of adopting a new set of Articles of Association which were
            circulated prior to the meeting. This resulted in bringing into
            force the three tier system of administration.

            1976 The three tier system came into effect immediately after the
            S.N.U. Annual General Meeting marking a new phase in the history of
            the S.N.U.

            1979 At the Spiritualists' National Union's Annual General Meeting
            at Manchester it was agreed that the Guild would administer its own
            funds and its chief officers would be known as President and Vice-
            President, these arrangements took effecct in January 1980.

            1981 The Guild became one of the Founder Members of the
            Confederation of
            Healing Organisations.

            1990 The S.N.U. Centenary celebrated by holding Publicity Meetings
            in every District Council area - National celebration at Wembley,
            London on 31st March, date of the Hydesville event in 1848.

            PROMINENT MEDIUMS OF MODERN SPIRITUALISM

            The following are some of the prominent mediums of the early days:-

            Daniel Douglas Home (1833-1886) one of the greatest physical mediums
            in whose presence almost all types of physical phenomena occurred.
            Born in Edinburgh, his powers were discovered whilst he was living
            in America. On his return to England in 1855 the remarkable
            phenomena aroused great interest.

            David Duguid (1832-1907), this Glasgow medium was perhaps most
            famous for spirit oil paintings of landscapes, produced in total
            darkness at an amazing speed, and independently of his hands. In his
            presence were produced all kinds of phenomena, and through him was
            dictated a remarkable book, the well known "Hafed, Prince of Persia".

            Dr. Henry Slade, an American medium famous for slate-writing
            mediumship, in which messages were written on sealed slates. He was
            thoroughly tested by several eminent investigators, and pronounced
            genuine.

            William Eglington, noted for outdoor and daylight materialisations
            and also for slate-writing mediumship. Questions put in Spanish,
            French and Greek were answered in the same languages. Gladstone,
            after sitting with him, was sufficiently impressed to join the
            Society for Psychical Research.

            Florence Cook (1856-1904), outstanding for the wonderful
            materialisation of Katie King, investigated by Sir William Crookes.
            He proved this spirit to be entirely separate and distinct from the
            medium.

            Leonore E Piper of Boston, USA, allowed herself to be subjected to
            the most exacting scientific investigation of her mediumship for a
            period of 45 years. This great medium was instrumental in converting
            many eminent people to believe in a spirit agency operating through
            her trance mediumship.

            Eusapia Palladino (1854-1918), the famous physical medium was
            subjected to scientific investigation all over Europe and America,
            and brought home the reality of physical phenomena to many
            outstanding scientists.

            Elizabeth D'Esperance (1855-1919), redenowned for extraordinary
            apports, materialisations and sketches made in complete darkness, of
            spirit relatives of her friends.

            PROMINENT SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATORS

            So great was the impact of "other-world" manifestations and
            materialisations that some promenent scientists were drawn to make a
            thorough investigation of the subject. Listed below are some who
            require mention:

            Dr. A Russel Wallace, (1823-1903). Co-discoverer with Charles Darwin
            of the Theory of Evolution. He painstakingly investigated
            Spiritualism over a number of years, eventually stating quite
            fearlessly that its phenomena were proved quite as well as the facts
            of any other science.

            Sir William Crookes (1832-1919). An outstanding physicist who began
            his investigations into Spiritualism with the avowed intent of
            exposing it as nonsense. The facts, however, (particularly his
            investigation of Katie King through the mediumship of Florence Cook)
            was too overwhelming, and to the end of his life he remained
            completely convinced of the truth of Spirit communication.

            Sir William F. Barrett (1845-1926). Made searching enquiries both in
            this country and in the USA. His summing up was that there is
            evidence for the existence of a spirit world for survival after
            death, and for occasional communication with those passed over.

            Lord Rayleigh (1842-1919). Made prolonged investigatins, and
            although he made no public pronouncement, he contributed to the work
            of the Society for Psychical Research, becoming the President in
            1919.
          • Paulo
            Lord Rayleigh (1842-1919). Made prolonged investigatins, and although he made no public pronouncement, he contributed to the work of the Society for Psychical
            Message 5 of 6 , Mar 16, 2011
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              Lord Rayleigh (1842-1919). Made prolonged investigatins, and
              although he made no public pronouncement, he contributed to the work
              of the Society for Psychical Research, becoming the President in
              1919.

              THE SOCIETY FOR PSYCHICAL RESEARCH

              Despite the pioneer work of Wallace, Crookes and Barrett, orthodox
              science remained antagonistic to the facts of physical phenomena.
              Similarly the orthodox Churches were opposed to the teachings of
              Spiritualism. the time, therefore, was ripe for the establishment of
              an independent body to further scientific knowledge in the direction
              of psychical research and in 1882 Sir William Barrett gathered
              together a group of people capable of developing this idea. This
              group formed themselves into the Society for Psychical Research with
              the objects of "furthering scientific knowledge of telepathy,
              hypnotism, mediumship, apparitions, physical phenomena of
              mediumship, etc."

              The original body consisted of Professor Henry Sidgwick (President);
              F.W. Myers, Edmund Furney, Professor Balfour Steward, Rev. Stainton
              Moses, Dawson Rogers and Doctor George Wyld. Some of these made
              important individual contributions to psychical research, notably:

              F.W.H. Myers (1834-1901) whose celebrated book "Human Personality
              and its Survival of Bodily Death" is acknowledge as a classic, and
              has established psychical research as an organised science. All
              students of Spiritualism should read this book.

              Edmund Gurney (1847-1888) studied the psychological aspect of
              Hypnotism in this country.

              Henry Sidgwick (1838-1900) took an active part in the work of the
              Society until his death, and contributed largely to the "Proceeding
              of the S.P.R." He investigated the work of many mediums but kept his
              personal convictions private.

              Dr Richard Hodgson. An early member of the Society soon became noted
              as a competent and critical investigator. He made a systematic study
              of the mediumship of Mrs. Leonore Piper, through which he became
              completely convinced of the reality of spirit return. The
              development of his own mediumistic powers late in life brought to
              him an even deeper conviction.
              PROMINENT SPIRITUALISTS

              Organisation of the Spiritualist Movement in Great Britain began in
              the latter half of the 19th Century. Many Churches and societies
              were formed throughout the country, and it became desirable to unite
              these isolated bodies into some kind of Federation. After several
              attempts to do this,
              the National Federation of Spiritualists was formed in 1890 as the
              result of preliminary meetings called by:-

              Emma Hardinge Britten (1823-1899). Mrs Britten was the natural
              leader of the new Movement. She launched the journal "The Two
              Worlds" and was editor for five years. A gifted orator and writer,
              she was largely responsible for the philosophical outlook of
              Spiritualists. Through her mediumship the Principles of Spiritualism
              were given.

              Other prominent figures in the vanguard of Spiritualist
              organisations were:-

              William Stainton Moses (1839-1892). An Oxford M.A. and a clergyman
              of the Church of England. He was the leading light in promoting the
              London Spiritualist Alliance, and became its first President and the
              first Editor of "Light". High great contributions were the teachings
              produced through him by means of spirit controlled writing and
              published as "Spirit teachings" and "More Spirit Teachings".

              William T. Stead (1849-1912). In 1892 Stead discovered that he had
              the gifts of spirit-controlled handwriting. He became associated
              with the L.S.A. and was a fearless champion of Spiritualism. He was,
              of course, a well-known editor, and a nationally famous figure for
              his great fight against the White Slave Traffic and the prostitution
              of children. He passed to the Higher Life through the tragic sinking
              of the "Titanic" in 1912.

              Alfred Kitson (1855-1934). Lyceums were opened in 1870 at Keighley
              and Sowerby Bridge. Alfred kitson attended the first anniversary of
              the latter and thereafter devoted himself to this cause. He began to
              develop a system of Lyceum teaching here based upon the American
              model of Andrew Jackson Davis. Kitson was jointly responsible with
              Mr. Kersey and Mrs. Britten for the English Lyceum Manual.

              EUROPEAN SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATORS

              Meanwhile, Spiritualism was spreading rapidly on the continent of
              Europe. It gained a strong hold in France where many men of science
              investigated it's claims. Some of these, notably Dr. Gustave Geley,
              Dr. Charles Richet, Cable Flammarion, the famous astronomer, and Dr.
              Joire made important contributions to the literature of the subject.

              Allan Kardec (1804-1869) (France) expounded a system of Spiritualist
              philosophy based upon mediumistic communications. Reincarnation was
              a central doctrine of Kardec's teaching which became basic to the
              whole Latin world.

              Ernest Bozzano (1862-1943) (Italy). A brilliant scientist who was
              converted to the Spiritualist hypothesis through the mediumship of
              Eusapia Palladino. He wrote extensively on the subject.

              Dr Schrenck Notzing (1862-1929) (Germany). A scientist of great
              repute who made prolonged researches into physical phenomena,
              particularly the production of ectoplasmic formations, and recorded
              his observations in his book "Phenomena of Materialisation".

              Alexander N. Akaskof (1832-1903) (Russia). Spiritualism made little
              headway in Russia although some pioneering work was undertaken by
              Akaskof.

              SPIRITUALISTS' NATIONAL FEDERATION

              The Spiritualists' National Federation, formed in 1890, gathered
              many churches, societies and individual members under it's wing. It
              had, however, no legal status, and to remedy this state of affairs
              it was in 1902 merged into the Spiritualists National Union Limited,
              which had been incorporated under the companies Act in October 1901,
              and had power to hold properties, etc., as a Company limited by
              guarantee. the primary object of the Spiritualists' National Union
              is to promote the advancement and diffusion of the religion and
              religious philosophy of Spiritualism. The Movement sustained a
              severe blow in 1899 when Emma Hardinge Britten passed on.

              Sir Arthur Conan Doyle had in 1902 joined the Society for Psychical
              Research. As a result of prolonged investigation, Doyle openly
              championed the cause of Spiritualism by the publication of "The New
              Revelation". Due to the wide-spread sorrow after the 1914-18 war,
              Doyle decided to make Spiritualism his life's mission. He travelled
              very widely in his missionary zeal and became known as "The St. Paul
              of Spiritualism". He hasx been regarded since his transition as the
              Honorary President of the S.N.U. in Spirit.

              Ernest Oaten was Doyle's tour organiser and right-hand man, but
              years peior to this he had devoted his life to the building up of
              the S.N.U. In 1919 he became editor of "The Two Worlds" and was
              rightly recognised as a leader of Spiritualist thought. Spiritualism
              is indebted to him beyond measure for his efforts on its behalf.

              Hannen Swaffer. Author, journalist and socialist, created a
              sensation when he made public his conversion to spiritualism in
              1924, in his book "Northcliffe's return". He was a great
              propagandist through the spoken and written word.

              Lord Dowding came into prominence as a champion of Spiritualism
              after the 1939-45 war. Lord Dowding was in command of the R.A.F.
              during the Battle of Britain and, through a medium friend, many of
              the airmen who had passed over were able to give their former Chief
              convincing evidence of their survival. Since then Lord Dowding spoke
              and wrote indefatigably on his convictions regarding the continuity
              of life.

              PROMINENT AUTHORS

              A great feature of the 20th Century Spiritualism in this country has
              been the wealth of excellent writers on the subject, far beyond
              anything produced in any other country. Four writers deserve special
              mention:

              Rev G. Vale Owen (1869-1931). A Church of England clergyman who
              developed spirit-controlled writing. A whole series of articles
              produced in this manner was published in the "Weekly Dispatch" in
              1920 and made a profound impression. In consequence of this
              publicity he was persecuted
              by his Ecclesiastical superiors and resigned from the Church. He
              conducted lecture tours of Britain and America. His "Life Beyond the
              Veil" (five volumes) has become a Spiritualist classic.

              W.H. Evans wrote extensively on the philosphy of Spiritualism and
              contributed regularly to the psychic press.

              J. Arthur Findlay, MBE. Author of the following widely read books on
              Spiritualism, "On the Edge of the Etheric"
              "The Rock of Truth"
              "The Unfolding Universe"
              "The Psychic Stream"
              "The Curse of Ignorance".
              He helped to found "The Psychic News" in 1932.

              Rev. C. Drayton Thomas whose works include descriptions of life in
              the Spirit World.

              MEDIUMS

              The quickening of the tempo of life has demanded a great increase in
              concentration upon earning a livelihood. Mass production methods are
              not conducive to the state of inner tranquility which is essential
              to good mediumship. Mediumship has therefore declined in quality as
              well as changed in character. Tom Tyrell, now passed on, was an
              exceptionally brilliant medium. His mediumship was notable for the
              fact that he always gave full names, ages and addresses, as well as
              other particulars of the spirit people whom he described. He seldom
              failed to bring complete conviction.

              Mrs Helen Hughes and Mrs Estelle Roberts are also noteworthy for
              their fine clairaudient work, being excellent mediums for propaganda
              purposes in large meetings.

              Another great medium Mrs Gladys Osborne Leonard has done excellent
              work for the S.P.R. and also with such investigators as Sir Oliver
              Lodge and Rev. C. Drayton Thomas who has permanently recorded the
              same in book form.

              There have been diverse types of mediumship in this century, each of
              which has brought a great deal of conviction.

              William Hope of Crewe was famous for his spirit photography, many
              competent investigators testifying to his genuine powers.

              Miss Geralding Cummins. Playwright and authoress. Has the gift of
              spirit controlled writing. Through her hand has been received a
              series of remarkable books dealing with the early days of
              Christianity. Despite her own lack of knowledge of the places dealt
              with in her books, or of theology, eminent authorities have
              acclaimed the merit and accuracy of her books.

              Frank Leah has given convincing evidence of survival by his gift of
              drawing the departed friends and relations of sitters. Many striking
              likenesses have been produced.

              Harold Sharp's particular form of mediumship enabled him to design
              what may be called an artistic diagram of the human aura. The so-
              called 'auragraph' was explained by the Chinese guide responsible,
              and was usually most enlightening and helpful regarding the inner
              naturee and psychic trends of the sitter.
              One of the new developments in 20th Century mediumship is direct
              voice phenomena. Admiral Usborne Moore, a well-known psychical
              researcher brought the powerful American Direct Voice medium Mrs
              Etta Wreidt to England in 1912 and 1913. She never sat in a cabinet,
              nor passed into trance, and often joined in the conversation when
              spirit voices spoke to sitters. This medium could only speak
              English, but the direct voices spoke in numerous languages. One of
              the most famous English direct voice mediums is Leslie Flint.

              George Valiantine also an American, was an outstanding Direct Voice
              medium. Many different languages were heard at his Seances, notably
              ancient Chinese, which was spoken in the presence of Dr. Wymant, an
              authority on the subject. Dennis Bradley wrote two forthright books
              on Valiantine's mediumship.

              Mrs Margery Crandon was also noted for Direct Voice phenomena and
              many other types of mediumship.

              Carol Mirabelli, the South American medium, was searchingly
              investigated and passed as a genuine medium, for the most astounding
              Direct Voice and Materialisation phenomena.
            • Paulo
              Emanuel Swedenborg (born Emanuel Swedberg; January 29, 1688[1] – March 29, 1772) was a Swedish scientist, philosopher, Christian mystic and theologian.
              Message 6 of 6 , Apr 6, 2011
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                Emanuel Swedenborg (born Emanuel Swedberg; January 29, 1688[1] – March 29, 1772) was a Swedish scientist, philosopher, Christian mystic and theologian. Swedenborg had a prolific career as an inventor and scientist. In 1741 at the age of fifty-three he entered into a spiritual phase in which he eventually began to experience dreams and visions beginning on Easter weekend April 6, 1744. This culminated in a spiritual awakening, whereupon he claimed he was appointed by the Lord to write a heavenly doctrine to reform Christianity. He claimed that the Lord had opened his spiritual eyes, so that from then on he could freely visit heaven and hell, and talk with angels, demons and other spirits.


                Links:

                http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emanuel_Swedenborg

                http://swedenborg.newearth.org

                paulo dias=
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