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Using for the opening and closing tags with xhtml

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  • Mike Breiding - Morgantown WV
    Greetings, The page : http://www.w3schools.com/xhtml/xhtml_html.asp states: XHTML Documents Must Have One Root Element All XHTML elements must be nested
    Message 1 of 9 , Oct 1, 2006
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      Greetings,

      The page : http://www.w3schools.com/xhtml/xhtml_html.asp states:

      XHTML Documents Must Have One Root Element

      "All XHTML elements must be nested within the <html> root element. All
      other elements can have sub (children) elements. Sub elements must be in
      pairs and correctly nested within their parent element. The basic document
      structure is:

      <html>
      <head> ... </head>
      <body> ... </body>
      </html>"

      However, when I use <html> </html> tags for the opeing and closing tags for
      the page below it does not validate. What am I missing now?

      <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0
      Strict//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-strict.dtd"><html
      xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml">

      <head>
      <meta name="DESCRIPTION" content="" />
      <meta name="keywords" content="" />
      <meta http-equiv="content-type" content="text/html; charset=us-ascii" />

      <title>Images</title>
      <link rel="stylesheet" href="sampler.css" type="text/css" />
      <!--[if IE]><style type="text/css">html .wrapper, html .columns-float,html
      .menu, html .content,html h2 {p\osition: relative;}</style>
      <![endif]-->
      </head>
      <body>
      <div id="wrapper">
      <div id="header">
      <h1>**H1**</h1>
      <h2>**H2**</h2>
      <h3>**H3**</h3>
      </div>

      <div id="gallery">
      <div id="content">
      <img src="004_dolly_sods_2006.jpg" width="360" height="480" title=""
      alt="" /><p>004_dolly_sods_2006.jpg (360x480; 30266 bytes)</p>
      </div>
      </div>

      <div id="footer">
      Photos and text © <a
      href="mailto:%6d%69%6b%65%40%6d%62%72%65%69%64%69%6e%67%2e%75%73">Mike
      Breiding</a> September 30, 2006 -- 7:24:52 AM
      </div></div></body>
      </html>


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    • loro
      ... I wouldn t trust w3schools too much. They aren t always accurate. The only thing that s true in the above is the first sentence. Not all other elements can
      Message 2 of 9 , Oct 1, 2006
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        Mike Breiding - Morgantown WV wrote:
        >The page : http://www.w3schools.com/xhtml/xhtml_html.asp states:
        >
        >XHTML Documents Must Have One Root Element
        >
        >"All XHTML elements must be nested within the <html> root element. All
        >other elements can have sub (children) elements. Sub elements must be in
        >pairs and correctly nested within their parent element. The basic document
        >structure is:

        I wouldn't trust w3schools too much. They aren't always accurate. The only
        thing that's true in the above is the first sentence. Not all other
        elements can have children and HTML certainly can. (They make it sound like
        it can't, don't they?)


        >However, when I use <html> </html> tags for the opeing and closing tags for
        >the page below it does not validate. What am I missing now?

        The HTML you posted does validate. Congratulations, no errors!. ;-)

        Lotta
      • Mike Breiding - Morgantown WV
        ... Thanks, Lotta. So, would you leave or remove the tags in an xhtml document? Does it matter? -Mike ... EpicRoadTrips.us ... Check it out:
        Message 3 of 9 , Oct 1, 2006
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          At 07:56 AM 10/1/2006 , you wrote:
          >Mike Breiding - Morgantown WV wrote:
          > >The page : http://www.w3schools.com/xhtml/xhtml_html.asp states:
          > >
          > >XHTML Documents Must Have One Root Element
          > >
          > >"All XHTML elements must be nested within the <html> root element. All
          > >other elements can have sub (children) elements. Sub elements must be in
          > >pairs and correctly nested within their parent element. The basic document
          > >structure is:
          >
          >I wouldn't trust w3schools too much. They aren't always accurate. The only
          >thing that's true in the above is the first sentence. Not all other
          >elements can have children and HTML certainly can. (They make it sound like
          >it can't, don't they?)
          >
          >
          > >However, when I use <html> </html> tags for the opeing and closing tags for
          > >the page below it does not validate. What am I missing now?
          >
          >The HTML you posted does validate. Congratulations, no errors!. ;-)
          >Lotta
          -----------
          Thanks, Lotta.
          So, would you leave or remove the <html> </html> tags in an xhtml document?
          Does it matter?

          -Mike
          ----------
          EpicRoadTrips.us


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          www.EpicRoadTrips.us

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        • loro
          ... Leave them. ... Yes. In XHTML HTML and BODY are required. In HTML they are optional. Actually TITLE is the only required element in HTML. You write HTML so
          Message 4 of 9 , Oct 1, 2006
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            Mike Breiding - Morgantown WV wrote:
            >So, would you leave or remove the <html> </html> tags in an xhtml document?

            Leave them.

            >Does it matter?

            Yes. In XHTML HTML and BODY are required. In HTML they are optional.
            Actually TITLE is the only required element in HTML. You write HTML so you
            need them. Find out what in the original document makes it not validate.
            Something must be different from the code you posted. Or you didn't use a
            validator but a lint of some kind and it nags about something irrelevant
            for validity. Did you use a validator? What was the error?

            Lotta
          • Mike Breiding - Morgantown WV
            ... ======================================= ...
            Message 5 of 9 , Oct 1, 2006
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              At 08:48 AM 10/1/2006 , you wrote:

              >Mike Breiding - Morgantown WV wrote:
              > >So, would you leave or remove the <html> </html> tags in an xhtml document?
              >
              >Leave them.
              >
              > >Does it matter?
              >
              >Yes. In XHTML HTML and BODY are required. In HTML they are optional.
              >Actually TITLE is the only required element in HTML. You write HTML so you
              >need them. Find out what in the original document makes it not validate.
              >Something must be different from the code you posted. Or you didn't use a
              >validator but a lint of some kind and it nags about something irrelevant
              >for validity. Did you use a validator? What was the error?
              >
              >Lotta

              =======================================
              I used http://validator.w3.org/ to Validate this:
              ---
              <html>
              <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0
              Strict//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-strict.dtd"><html
              xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml">

              <head>
              <meta name="DESCRIPTION" content="" />
              <meta name="keywords" content="" />
              <meta http-equiv="content-type" content="text/html; charset=us-ascii" />

              <title>TITLE GOES HERE</title>
              <link rel="stylesheet" href="sampler.css" type="text/css" />
              <!--[if IE]><style type="text/css">html .wrapper, html .columns-float,html
              .menu, html .content,html h2 {p\osition: relative;}</style>
              <![endif]-->
              </head>
              <body>
              <div id="wrapper">
              <div id="header">
              <h1>**H1**</h1>
              <h2>**H2**</h2>
              <h3>**H3**</h3>
              </div>

              <div id="gallery">
              <div id="content">
              <img src="portrait_mike_breiding.jpg" width="237" height="300" title=""
              alt="" /><p>portrait_mike_breiding.jpg (237x300; 44552 bytes)</p>
              </div>
              </div>

              <div id="footer">
              Photos and text © <a
              href="mailto:%6d%69%6b%65%40%6d%62%72%65%69%64%69%6e%67%2e%75%73">Mike
              Breiding</a> October 01, 2006 -- 9:25:27 AM
              </div></div></body>
              </html>
              ----

              This was the error report generated:


              Result: Failed validation, 8 errors
              File: upload://Form Submission
              Encoding: utf-8
              Doctype: (no Doctype found)
              Root Namespace: http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml

              No DOCTYPE found! Attempting validation with HTML 4.01 Transitional.

              The DOCTYPE Declaration was not recognized or is missing. This
              probably means that the Formal Public Identifier contains a spelling error,
              or that the Declaration is not using correct syntax. Validation has been
              performed using a default "fallback" Document Type Definition that closely
              resembles "HTML 4.01 Transitional", but the document will not be Valid
              until you have corrected this problem with the DOCTYPE Declaration.

              Learn how to add a doctype to your document from our FAQ.
              Namespace Found in non-XML Document

              Namespace "" found, but document type is not XML!

              This page is not Valid (no Doctype found)!

              Below are the results of attempting to parse this document with an SGML parser.

              1. Error Line 1 column 0: no document type declaration; implying
              "<!DOCTYPE HTML SYSTEM>".

              <html>

              The checked page did not contain a document type ("DOCTYPE")
              declaration. The Validator has tried to validate with a fallback DTD, but
              this is quite likely to be incorrect and will generate a large number of
              incorrect error messages. It is highly recommended that you insert the
              proper DOCTYPE declaration in your document -- instructions for doing this
              are given above -- and it is necessary to have this declaration before the
              page can be declared to be valid.

              ?
              2. Error Line 2 column 2: "DOCTYPE" declaration not allowed in instance.

              <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0
              Strict//EN" "http://www.w3.org/T

              ?
              3. Error Line 2 column 124: there is no attribute "XMLNS".

              ...1/DTD/xhtml1-strict.dtd"><html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml">

              You have used the attribute named above in your document, but the
              document type you are using does not support that attribute for this
              element. This error is often caused by incorrect use of the "Strict"
              document type with a document that uses frames (e.g. you must use the
              "Transitional" document type to get the "target" attribute), or by using
              vendor proprietary extensions such as "marginheight" (this is usually fixed
              by using CSS to achieve the desired effect instead).

              This error may also result if the element itself is not supported in
              the document type you are using, as an undefined element will have no
              supported attributes; in this case, see the element-undefined error message
              for further information.

              How to fix: check the spelling and case of the element and
              attribute, (Remember XHTML is all lower-case) and/or check that they are
              both allowed in the chosen document type, and/or use CSS instead of this
              attribute.

              ?
              4. Error Line 2 column 154: document type does not allow element "HTML"
              here.

              ... xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml">

              The element named above was found in a context where it is not
              allowed. This could mean that you have incorrectly nested elements -- such
              as a "style" element in the "body" section instead of inside "head" -- or
              two elements that overlap (which is not allowed).

              One common cause for this error is the use of XHTML syntax in HTML
              documents. Due to HTML's rules of implicitly closed elements, this error
              can create cascading effects. For instance, using XHTML's "self-closing"
              tags for "meta" and "link" in the "head" section of a HTML document may
              cause the parser to infer the end of the "head" section and the beginning
              of the "body" section (where "link" and "meta" are not allowed; hence the
              reported error).

              ?
              5. Error Line 5 column 65: character data is not allowed here.

              ...ESCRIPTION" content="content secription goes here" />

              You have used character data somewhere it is not permitted to
              appear. Mistakes that can cause this error include putting text directly in
              the body of the document without wrapping it in a container element (such
              as a <p>aragraph</p>) or forgetting to quote an attribute value (where
              characters such as "%" and "/" are common, but cannot appear without
              surrounding quotes).

              ?
              6. Error Line 13 column 6: end tag for element "HEAD" which is not open.

              </head>

              The Validator found an end tag for the above element, but that
              element is not currently open. This is often caused by a leftover end tag
              from an element that was removed during editing, or by an implicitly closed
              element (if you have an error related to an element being used where it is
              not allowed, this is almost certainly the case). In the latter case this
              error will disappear as soon as you fix the original problem.

              If this error occured in a script section of your document, you
              should probably read this FAQ entry.

              ?
              7. Error Line 14 column 5: document type does not allow element "BODY"
              here.

              <body>

              ?
              8. Error Line 31 column 7: "HTML" not finished but document ended.

              </html>



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              Check it out:
              www.EpicRoadTrips.us

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            • loro
              ... OK, but this isn t the code you posted earlier. In this version you have an extra BEFORE the doctype. Lotta
              Message 6 of 9 , Oct 1, 2006
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                Mike Breiding - Morgantown WV wrote:
                >I used http://validator.w3.org/ to Validate this:
                >---
                ><html>
                ><!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0
                >Strict//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-strict.dtd"><html
                >xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml">

                OK, but this isn't the code you posted earlier. In this version you have an
                extra <html> BEFORE the doctype.

                Lotta
              • loro
                ... OK, I think I get what you are after now. All XHTML elements must be nested within the root element . The doctype isn t an element. It should
                Message 7 of 9 , Oct 1, 2006
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                  loro wrote:
                  >Mike Breiding - Morgantown WV wrote:
                  > >I used http://validator.w3.org/ to Validate this:
                  > >---
                  > ><html>
                  > ><!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0
                  > >Strict//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-strict.dtd"><html
                  > >xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml">
                  >
                  >OK, but this isn't the code you posted earlier. In this version you have an
                  >extra <html> BEFORE the doctype.

                  OK, I think I get what you are after now. "All XHTML elements must be
                  nested within the <html> root element". The doctype isn't an element. It
                  should always be the very first thing. Except in XHTML it should really be
                  the second thing, preceded by an XML declaration, but everyone leaves that
                  out anyway.

                  Lotta
                • Mike Breiding - Morgantown WV
                  ... Hmmm... I think I get it. The XML declaration ( version, etc) should precede the doctype. I fell into using XHTML by accident and have not really taken
                  Message 8 of 9 , Oct 1, 2006
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                    At 10:05 AM 10/1/2006 , you wrote:
                    >OK, I think I get what you are after now. "All XHTML elements must be
                    >nested within the <html> root element". The doctype isn't an element. It
                    >should always be the very first thing. Except in XHTML it should really be
                    >the second thing, preceded by an XML declaration, but everyone leaves that
                    >out anyway.
                    >
                    >Lotta

                    Hmmm...
                    I think I get it. The XML declaration ( version, etc) should precede the
                    doctype.
                    I fell into using XHTML by accident and have not really taken much time to
                    learn the basics.

                    These helped:
                    http://webdesign.about.com/od/xml/a/aa062501a.htm
                    http://www.wdvl.com/Authoring/Languages/XML/Tutorials/Intro/declare.html

                    Thanks!
                    -Mike



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                    Check it out:
                    www.EpicRoadTrips.us

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                  • loro
                    ... Yes, should. But you mustn t. No one uses it because it puts IE in Quirks Mode. You are fine without as long as you keep to Ascii characters (if you don t
                    Message 9 of 9 , Oct 1, 2006
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                      Mike Breiding - Morgantown WV wrote:
                      >I think I get it. The XML declaration ( version, etc) should precede the
                      >doctype.

                      Yes, should. But you mustn't. No one uses it because it puts IE in Quirks
                      Mode. You are fine without as long as you keep to Ascii characters (if you
                      don't use a UTF-8 capable editor).
                      http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/#C_1


                      >I fell into using XHTML by accident and have not really taken much time to
                      >learn the basics.

                      Fall out again. It won't hurt a bit. ;-o)

                      Lotta
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