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flashing apex from redboot

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  • Philipp Hofmann
    hi, i m trying to *nfsroot* my debianed slug. unfortunately it seems to me that i haven t read enough, before my first attempt to flash an modified apex in
    Message 1 of 16 , Apr 27, 2007
      hi,

      i'm trying to *nfsroot* my debianed slug. unfortunately it seems to me
      that i haven't read enough, before my first attempt to flash an
      modified apex in order to change the kernels cmdline. so i'm stuck now
      with an apex that doesn't work.

      is it possible to telnet into redboot and flash only apex? can someone
      provide me with the offset to flash apex to?

      i built apex 1.4.18 according to
      http://www.nslu2-linux.org/wiki/Debian/ChangeKernelCommandLine
      may i use this one?

      also i wonder, if it is correct that the two apex builds (mine and the
      one extracted from di-nslu2.bin) differ so much in size.

      -rw-r--r-- 1 phil phil 45724 Apr 27 21:40 new_mtd2.bin
      -rw-r--r-- 1 phil phil 131040 Apr 27 19:41 apex.bin

      thanks in advance
      phil
    • Rod Whitby
      [BTW, Debian questions on debian-arm mailing list please.] ... It s at the normal kernel area offset (it replaces the normal nslu2 kernel). Don t forget the
      Message 2 of 16 , Apr 27, 2007
        [BTW, Debian questions on debian-arm mailing list please.]

        Philipp Hofmann wrote:
        > i'm trying to *nfsroot* my debianed slug. unfortunately it seems to me
        > that i haven't read enough, before my first attempt to flash an
        > modified apex in order to change the kernels cmdline. so i'm stuck now
        > with an apex that doesn't work.
        >
        > is it possible to telnet into redboot and flash only apex? can someone
        > provide me with the offset to flash apex to?

        It's at the normal kernel area offset (it replaces the normal nslu2
        kernel). Don't forget the length header prepended to it.

        The easiest way to do this is backup your existing flash, then unpack it
        with slugimage, then repack it with the new apex, and use upslug2 to
        reflash it.

        > i built apex 1.4.18 according to
        > http://www.nslu2-linux.org/wiki/Debian/ChangeKernelCommandLine
        > may i use this one?

        Probably.

        > also i wonder, if it is correct that the two apex builds (mine and the
        > one extracted from di-nslu2.bin) differ so much in size.
        >
        > -rw-r--r-- 1 phil phil 45724 Apr 27 21:40 new_mtd2.bin
        > -rw-r--r-- 1 phil phil 131040 Apr 27 19:41 apex.bin

        My guess is that the second one is padded to the 128KiB block size. The
        first one is the normal Apex size unpadded.

        -- Rod
      • Gordon Farquharson
        Hi Philipp ... You are brave doing this without a serial port attached to your NSLU2 ;-) You should be able to recover to a bootable system by flashing your
        Message 3 of 16 , Apr 27, 2007
          Hi Philipp

          On 4/27/07, Philipp Hofmann <jo@...> wrote:

          > i'm trying to *nfsroot* my debianed slug. unfortunately it seems to me
          > that i haven't read enough, before my first attempt to flash an
          > modified apex in order to change the kernels cmdline. so i'm stuck now
          > with an apex that doesn't work.

          You are brave doing this without a serial port attached to your NSLU2
          ;-) You should be able to recover to a bootable system by flashing
          your NSLU2 with
          http://cyrius.com/debian/nslu2/files/sda1-2.6.18-4.bin. Once your
          system boot again, run flash-kernel as root. In the future, it always
          a good idea to make a backup of your flash before attempting to modify
          it. See the NSLU2-Linux Debian FAQ [1].

          > http://www.nslu2-linux.org/wiki/Debian/ChangeKernelCommandLine

          I updated this Wiki page last night. It now contains a link to a copy
          of a 0xff padded APEX MTD block for etch that is compatible with
          apex-env, and instructions on how to install this file on your NSLU2.

          BTW, I have moved Phil's text on how to compile APEX to
          http://www.nslu2-linux.org/wiki/Debian/CompileApex.

          Gordon

          [1] http://www.nslu2-linux.org/wiki/Debian/FAQ

          --
          Gordon Farquharson
        • Philipp Hofmann
          hi gordon, thanks for your support. concerning the sda1-2.6.18-4.bin you offered to flash my slug with, i ve done that but it doesn t seem to access the disk.
          Message 4 of 16 , Apr 28, 2007
            hi gordon,

            thanks for your support. concerning the sda1-2.6.18-4.bin you offered
            to flash my slug with, i've done that but it doesn't seem to access
            the disk. it blinks red once and than stays amber while ethernet is
            green. if i push the button it reboots.

            there is only one disk attached and i tried it on both usb ports
            although i guess that shouldn't make a difference anyway.

            any suggestion, or should i start over?

            g phil

            ps.: i'll make a backup next time, i promise. ;)


            On Fri, Apr 27, 2007 at 10:53:15PM -0600, Gordon Farquharson wrote:
            > Hi Philipp
            >
            > On 4/27/07, Philipp Hofmann <jo@...> wrote:
            >
            > > i'm trying to *nfsroot* my debianed slug. unfortunately it seems to me
            > > that i haven't read enough, before my first attempt to flash an
            > > modified apex in order to change the kernels cmdline. so i'm stuck now
            > > with an apex that doesn't work.
            >
            > You are brave doing this without a serial port attached to your NSLU2
            > ;-) You should be able to recover to a bootable system by flashing
            > your NSLU2 with
            > http://cyrius.com/debian/nslu2/files/sda1-2.6.18-4.bin. Once your
            > system boot again, run flash-kernel as root. In the future, it always
            > a good idea to make a backup of your flash before attempting to modify
            > it. See the NSLU2-Linux Debian FAQ [1].
            >
            > > http://www.nslu2-linux.org/wiki/Debian/ChangeKernelCommandLine
            >
            > I updated this Wiki page last night. It now contains a link to a copy
            > of a 0xff padded APEX MTD block for etch that is compatible with
            > apex-env, and instructions on how to install this file on your NSLU2.
            >
            > BTW, I have moved Phil's text on how to compile APEX to
            > http://www.nslu2-linux.org/wiki/Debian/CompileApex.
            >
            > Gordon
            >
            > [1] http://www.nslu2-linux.org/wiki/Debian/FAQ
            >
          • Martin Michlmayr
            ... Can you try http://cyrius.com/debian/nslu2/files/sda1-2.6.18.dfsg.1-12.bin instead please. -- Martin Michlmayr http://www.cyrius.com/
            Message 5 of 16 , Apr 28, 2007
              * Philipp Hofmann <jo@...> [2007-04-28 16:28]:
              > thanks for your support. concerning the sda1-2.6.18-4.bin you offered
              > to flash my slug with, i've done that but it doesn't seem to access
              > the disk. it blinks red once and than stays amber while ethernet is
              > green. if i push the button it reboots.
              >
              > there is only one disk attached and i tried it on both usb ports
              > although i guess that shouldn't make a difference anyway.
              >
              > any suggestion, or should i start over?

              Can you try
              http://cyrius.com/debian/nslu2/files/sda1-2.6.18.dfsg.1-12.bin instead
              please.
              --
              Martin Michlmayr
              http://www.cyrius.com/
            • Gordon Farquharson
              Hi Philipp ... Hmm... it should have worked - I did test it on an etch system last night. Try the one that Martin suggested. Gordon -- Gordon Farquharson
              Message 6 of 16 , Apr 28, 2007
                Hi Philipp

                On 4/28/07, Philipp Hofmann <jo@...> wrote:

                > thanks for your support. concerning the sda1-2.6.18-4.bin you offered
                > to flash my slug with, i've done that but it doesn't seem to access
                > the disk. it blinks red once and than stays amber while ethernet is
                > green. if i push the button it reboots.

                Hmm... it should have worked - I did test it on an etch system last
                night. Try the one that Martin suggested.

                Gordon

                --
                Gordon Farquharson
              • Rob Lockhart
                ... Hi, Gordon. Those wiki instructions (Debian/CompileApex) are very dated indeed - referring to a very old version of Apex. The current version is 1.4.18,
                Message 7 of 16 , Apr 28, 2007
                  On 4/28/2007 12:53 AM EST, Gordon Farquharson wrote:
                  > Hi Philipp
                  >
                  > On 4/27/07, Philipp Hofmann <jo@...> wrote:
                  >
                  >
                  >> http://www.nslu2-linux.org/wiki/Debian/ChangeKernelCommandLine
                  >>
                  >
                  > I updated this Wiki page last night. It now contains a link to a copy
                  > of a 0xff padded APEX MTD block for etch that is compatible with
                  > apex-env, and instructions on how to install this file on your NSLU2.
                  >
                  > BTW, I have moved Phil's text on how to compile APEX to
                  > http://www.nslu2-linux.org/wiki/Debian/CompileApex.
                  >
                  > Gordon
                  >
                  Hi, Gordon. Those wiki instructions (Debian/CompileApex) are very dated
                  indeed - referring to a very old version of Apex. The current version
                  is 1.4.18, and even the build instructions aren't complete. Since the
                  makefile specifies whether Apex is LE or BE, I am not even sure if the
                  endianness swapping (per the wiki) is even necessary anymore.
                  Furthermore, there are a bunch of new stuff in the menuconfig (i.e.,
                  ping, DHCP, TFTP, enable IXP4xx ethernet, FAT/EXT2/JFFS filesystem,
                  etc.). Not sure if all of this works (since IXP4xx ethernet depends on
                  microcode) so I'm not sure if Apex has network support yet. But if so,
                  there would truly be no reason now to even consider RedBoot limitations.

                  I do agree that boot loader mucking should be accompanied by serial port
                  mods. I certainly an not so brave to do it w/o a serial port.

                  Apologize for hijacking your thread but since we're on the topic of
                  Apex... :-)

                  Regards,
                  -Rob
                • Gordon Farquharson
                  Hi Rob ... I agree. The instructions should be updated. I initially created the new page as a placeholder for Phil s instructions because I was axing them from
                  Message 8 of 16 , Apr 28, 2007
                    Hi Rob

                    On 4/28/07, Rob Lockhart <rlockhar@...> wrote:

                    > Hi, Gordon. Those wiki instructions (Debian/CompileApex) are very dated
                    > indeed - referring to a very old version of Apex. The current version

                    I agree. The instructions should be updated. I initially created the
                    new page as a placeholder for Phil's instructions because I was axing
                    them from the page on changing the kernel command line. I plan to
                    supplement the APEX compilation page with instructions on building
                    apex natively on the NSLU2 from the apex-nslu2 package source (which
                    is usually how I do it). When I get the chance, I'll try to update the
                    Phil's original instructions.

                    > Apologize for hijacking your thread but since we're on the topic of
                    > Apex... :-)

                    Not a problem at all - I'm not even sure it was my thread ;-)

                    Gordon

                    --
                    Gordon Farquharson
                  • Philipp Hofmann
                    hi, tried it. the problem persists. the pwr led flashes red, then stays amber while network stays green. after some time (half a minute or so) there seems to
                    Message 9 of 16 , Apr 28, 2007
                      hi,

                      tried it. the problem persists. the pwr led flashes red, then stays
                      amber while network stays green. after some time (half a minute or so)
                      there seems to be some activity on the disk. but for a bootup its far
                      too less.

                      whether it uses dhcp or not usualy only depends on
                      /etc/network/interfaces on the disk right?

                      i think i'll flash it with the debian installer to see if i can access
                      the disk. let me know if you want have any information i can retrieve
                      with the installer.

                      g phil





                      On Sat, Apr 28, 2007 at 05:25:20PM +0200, Martin Michlmayr wrote:
                      > * Philipp Hofmann <jo@...> [2007-04-28 16:28]:
                      > > thanks for your support. concerning the sda1-2.6.18-4.bin you offered
                      > > to flash my slug with, i've done that but it doesn't seem to access
                      > > the disk. it blinks red once and than stays amber while ethernet is
                      > > green. if i push the button it reboots.
                      > >
                      > > there is only one disk attached and i tried it on both usb ports
                      > > although i guess that shouldn't make a difference anyway.
                      > >
                      > > any suggestion, or should i start over?
                      >
                      > Can you try
                      > http://cyrius.com/debian/nslu2/files/sda1-2.6.18.dfsg.1-12.bin instead
                      > please.
                    • Rod Whitby
                      ... You can compile Apex in an endian-aware way such that you don t need to do any swapping of the kernel. ... Marc is looking into ixp4xx ethernet support.
                      Message 10 of 16 , Apr 29, 2007
                        Rob Lockhart wrote:
                        > Hi, Gordon. Those wiki instructions (Debian/CompileApex) are very dated
                        > indeed - referring to a very old version of Apex. The current version
                        > is 1.4.18, and even the build instructions aren't complete. Since the
                        > makefile specifies whether Apex is LE or BE, I am not even sure if the
                        > endianness swapping (per the wiki) is even necessary anymore.

                        You can compile Apex in an endian-aware way such that you don't need to
                        do any swapping of the kernel.

                        > Furthermore, there are a bunch of new stuff in the menuconfig (i.e.,
                        > ping, DHCP, TFTP, enable IXP4xx ethernet, FAT/EXT2/JFFS filesystem,
                        > etc.). Not sure if all of this works (since IXP4xx ethernet depends on
                        > microcode) so I'm not sure if Apex has network support yet. But if so,
                        > there would truly be no reason now to even consider RedBoot limitations.

                        Marc is looking into ixp4xx ethernet support. He has read through the
                        open source driver code, and says that there should be no impediment
                        other than his available time.

                        -- Rod
                      • Phil Endecott
                        ... They re about 6 months old. I promise you there is a lot of much older and more out of date stuff on the nslu2 Wiki! As far as I can see nothing much has
                        Message 11 of 16 , Apr 29, 2007
                          Rob wrote:
                          > Those wiki instructions (Debian/CompileApex) are very dated
                          > indeed - referring to a very old version of Apex.

                          They're about 6 months old. I promise you there is a lot of much older
                          and more out of date stuff on the nslu2 Wiki!

                          As far as I can see nothing much has changed i.e. all of the commands
                          are still correct (apart from the version number in wget of course).
                          If you disagree please let me know and/or fix the page.

                          > Since the
                          > makefile specifies whether Apex is LE or BE, I am not even sure if the
                          > endianness swapping (per the wiki) is even necessary anymore.

                          Can you elaborate on that a bit? Which makefile? Do you mean in the configuration?

                          Remember that APEX is still being loaded by the big-endian Redboot. I
                          think this is why we need to byte-swap it. But the endianness of the
                          NSLU2 boot process and the content of its flash is just a bit to
                          tortured for me to understand properly.

                          > Furthermore, there are a bunch of new stuff in the menuconfig (i.e.,
                          > ping, DHCP, TFTP, enable IXP4xx ethernet, FAT/EXT2/JFFS filesystem,
                          > etc.). Not sure if all of this works (since IXP4xx ethernet depends on
                          > microcode) so I'm not sure if Apex has network support yet.

                          It won't even compile if you enable the DHCP or BOOTP options. I have
                          not yet discovered whether any other networking stuff works. I suspect
                          not. Anyone wanting to "net boot" i.e. to load the kernel by TFTP
                          would be best advise to use a full version of Redboot. However, APEX
                          does work for a flash-resident kernel and NFS root filesystem (I have
                          done this).

                          > But if so,
                          > there would truly be no reason now to even consider RedBoot limitations.
                          >
                          > I do agree that boot loader mucking should be accompanied by serial port
                          > mods. I certainly an not so brave to do it w/o a serial port.

                          Absolutely. Only a masochist would try to mess with this stuff without
                          a serial console.....


                          Phil.
                        • Rod Whitby
                          ... Rob is probably referring to http://svn.nslu2-linux.org/svnroot/kernel/trunk/Makefile which is the Makefile (and svn repository) that the nslu2-linux core
                          Message 12 of 16 , Apr 29, 2007
                            Phil Endecott wrote:
                            > Rob wrote:
                            >> Since the makefile specifies whether Apex is LE or BE, I am not even sure if the
                            >> endianness swapping (per the wiki) is even necessary anymore.
                            >
                            > Can you elaborate on that a bit? Which makefile? Do you mean in the configuration?

                            Rob is probably referring to

                            http://svn.nslu2-linux.org/svnroot/kernel/trunk/Makefile

                            which is the Makefile (and svn repository) that the nslu2-linux core
                            team uses to test new kernel versions and new Apex versions.

                            That Makefile can build the latest Apex version for both SlugOS and
                            Debian and as big or little endian. It also builds Apex for a number of
                            other machines (like the IOMega NAS100d and the D-Link DSMG600).

                            -- Rod
                          • Gordon Farquharson
                            Hi Philipp Sorry for not responding you you earlier. ... Unfortunately, one really needs a serial cable to debug problems like this one. It is really tricky,
                            Message 13 of 16 , Apr 29, 2007
                              Hi Philipp

                              Sorry for not responding you you earlier.

                              On 4/28/07, Philipp Hofmann <jo@...> wrote:

                              > tried it. the problem persists. the pwr led flashes red, then stays
                              > amber while network stays green. after some time (half a minute or so)
                              > there seems to be some activity on the disk. but for a bootup its far
                              > too less.

                              Unfortunately, one really needs a serial cable to debug problems like
                              this one. It is really tricky, if not impossible otherwise.

                              > whether it uses dhcp or not usualy only depends on
                              > /etc/network/interfaces on the disk right?

                              The installer uses the settings that exist in the flash, but once
                              Debian is installed, then yes, the system should use
                              /etc/network/interfaces.

                              > i think i'll flash it with the debian installer to see if i can access
                              > the disk. let me know if you want have any information i can retrieve
                              > with the installer.

                              You could try accessing the disk on any other Linux box. However, I
                              think that reinstalling may be the easiest thing to do.

                              Gordon

                              --
                              Gordon Farquharson
                            • Philipp Hofmann
                              ... No problem. I ve plenty other things to work on. ;) ... Btw. the two images i tried are axactly the same. I ran a diff. Anyway I ll go for a reinstall. I
                              Message 14 of 16 , Apr 30, 2007
                                On Sun, Apr 29, 2007 at 09:35:18PM -0600, Gordon Farquharson wrote:
                                > Hi Philipp
                                >
                                > Sorry for not responding you you earlier.

                                No problem. I've plenty other things to work on. ;)

                                > On 4/28/07, Philipp Hofmann <jo@...> wrote:
                                >
                                > > tried it. the problem persists. the pwr led flashes red, then stays
                                > > amber while network stays green. after some time (half a minute or so)
                                > > there seems to be some activity on the disk. but for a bootup its far
                                > > too less.
                                >
                                > Unfortunately, one really needs a serial cable to debug problems like
                                > this one. It is really tricky, if not impossible otherwise.
                                >
                                > > whether it uses dhcp or not usualy only depends on
                                > > /etc/network/interfaces on the disk right?
                                >
                                > The installer uses the settings that exist in the flash, but once
                                > Debian is installed, then yes, the system should use
                                > /etc/network/interfaces.
                                >
                                > > i think i'll flash it with the debian installer to see if i can access
                                > > the disk. let me know if you want have any information i can retrieve
                                > > with the installer.
                                >
                                > You could try accessing the disk on any other Linux box. However, I
                                > think that reinstalling may be the easiest thing to do.

                                Btw. the two images i tried are axactly the same. I ran a diff. Anyway
                                I'll go for a reinstall.

                                I tried to shortcut the installation process, for there is a system
                                installed allready, but the installer doesn't seem to like
                                that. Jumping to the option *flashing* right after *loading modules*
                                and *mounting partitions* leads me to *installing the base
                                system*. What a pitty.

                                g phil
                              • Rob Lockhart
                                ... Yes I agree. It wasn t a slam on you guys by any means... it was more an appeal for those of us that can t recompile LE/BE/etc. with our eyes closed
                                Message 15 of 16 , May 1, 2007
                                  On 4/29/2007 7:16 AM EST, Phil Endecott wrote:
                                  > Rob wrote:
                                  >
                                  >> Those wiki instructions (Debian/CompileApex) are very dated
                                  >> indeed - referring to a very old version of Apex.
                                  >>
                                  >
                                  > They're about 6 months old. I promise you there is a lot of much older
                                  > and more out of date stuff on the nslu2 Wiki!
                                  >
                                  > As far as I can see nothing much has changed i.e. all of the commands
                                  > are still correct (apart from the version number in wget of course).
                                  > If you disagree please let me know and/or fix the page.
                                  >

                                  Yes I agree. It wasn't a "slam" on you guys by any means... it was more
                                  an appeal for those of us that can't recompile LE/BE/etc. with our eyes
                                  closed (like me), that sometimes we need explicit instructions, until we
                                  get comfortable enough in doing it. It seems that the "make menuconfig"
                                  options I see are different than the options given in the Wiki. It
                                  shows me such things as "Enable Experimental Features", "CPU
                                  endian-ness", "IXP42X Implementations (Linksys NSLU2)". I didn't see
                                  any such options as:
                                  . change CROSS_COMPILE to arm-linux-gnu- (looks like it is missing a
                                  parameter?)
                                  . change default kernel command line as required (example would be
                                  helpful here)

                                  I could always try every option, build hundreds of APEX versions, and
                                  then reboot until I'm blue in the face until I realize what does or
                                  doesn't work. I guess I'm a little spoiled by the official linux
                                  (x86-based) in that when you build a kernel, most everything works and
                                  what isn't working is fairly well-documented in the "make menuconfig"
                                  help function on every item. But in the case of Apex for ARM, lots of
                                  this is unknown to newbies like me. :-) I really do appreciate your
                                  help as well as Gordon and others in demystifying this (and helping of
                                  course to update the Wiki).


                                  >> Since the
                                  >> makefile specifies whether Apex is LE or BE, I am not even sure if the
                                  >> endianness swapping (per the wiki) is even necessary anymore.
                                  >>
                                  >
                                  > Can you elaborate on that a bit? Which makefile? Do you mean in the configuration?
                                  >
                                  > Remember that APEX is still being loaded by the big-endian Redboot. I
                                  > think this is why we need to byte-swap it. But the endianness of the
                                  > NSLU2 boot process and the content of its flash is just a bit to
                                  > tortured for me to understand properly.
                                  >
                                  >

                                  I think Rod hit the nail on the head when he said the master Makefile
                                  (in another email in this thread). That is what I had downloaded in
                                  ~slug/kernel directory. I am not sure if that makefile somehow
                                  overwrote the makefile in the extracted ~slug/kernel/apex-1.4.18
                                  directory but with "make menuconfig", some of the assumptions and/or
                                  work-arounds might not even be necessary anymore. Specifically, you can
                                  compile Apex for LE or BE. I think I compiled it for LE, unless I'm
                                  mistaken.


                                  >> Furthermore, there are a bunch of new stuff in the menuconfig (i.e.,
                                  >> ping, DHCP, TFTP, enable IXP4xx ethernet, FAT/EXT2/JFFS filesystem,
                                  >> etc.). Not sure if all of this works (since IXP4xx ethernet depends on
                                  >> microcode) so I'm not sure if Apex has network support yet.
                                  >>
                                  >
                                  > It won't even compile if you enable the DHCP or BOOTP options. I have
                                  > not yet discovered whether any other networking stuff works. I suspect
                                  > not. Anyone wanting to "net boot" i.e. to load the kernel by TFTP
                                  > would be best advise to use a full version of Redboot. However, APEX
                                  > does work for a flash-resident kernel and NFS root filesystem (I have
                                  > done this).
                                  >
                                  >
                                  Thanks - saves me the effort of trying it! It would be nice, but for
                                  now using the ENV options are certainly sufficient. Main thing is
                                  getting it to a point when we can do everything RedBoot can do, so then
                                  we can gracefully think of RedBoot workarounds as "those things we had
                                  to do in the past."

                                  Regards,
                                  -Rob
                                • Phil Endecott
                                  ... It looks as if CROSS_COMPILE is no longer in the config file. It s now more like the kernel; you just specify CROSS_COMPILE=arm-linux-gnu- on the make
                                  Message 16 of 16 , May 2, 2007
                                    > It seems that the "make menuconfig"
                                    > options I see are different than the options given in the Wiki. It
                                    > shows me such things as "Enable Experimental Features", "CPU
                                    > endian-ness", "IXP42X Implementations (Linksys NSLU2)". I didn't see
                                    > any such options as:
                                    > . change CROSS_COMPILE to arm-linux-gnu- (looks like it is missing a
                                    > parameter?)

                                    It looks as if CROSS_COMPILE is no longer in the config file. It's now
                                    more like the kernel; you just specify CROSS_COMPILE=arm-linux-gnu- on
                                    the make command line. I've updated the Wiki to indicate this.

                                    > . change default kernel command line as required (example would be
                                    > helpful here)

                                    Well, originally this description was part of a page telling you how to
                                    change the kernel command line. So if you were reading the page in the
                                    first place it would kind of imply that you knew what you wanted to
                                    change it to. If you are compiling APEX for some other reason then you
                                    probably don't need to change it. I think.

                                    > I could always try every option, build hundreds of APEX versions, and
                                    > then reboot until I'm blue in the face until I realize what does or
                                    > doesn't work.

                                    Please post a list of the remaining options that you are unsure of and
                                    we will try to suggest what you should do with them. But if you
                                    started by doing "make debian-nslu2-arm_config" then you should have
                                    sensible defaults for everything.

                                    > I guess I'm a little spoiled by the official linux (x86-based)

                                    ARM and the other architectures are no less official than x86.



                                    Regards,

                                    Phil.
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