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Closure: Upgrade to 750GB disk

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  • Ben Formesyn
    OK, I m relieved to say that I ve got upgrade from a 300GB disk to a 750 disk done and working - as a Linux newbie, here s a walkthough of how I did it -though
    Message 1 of 5 , Aug 16, 2008
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      OK, I'm relieved to say that I've got upgrade from a 300GB disk to a 750
      disk done and working - as a Linux newbie, here's a walkthough of how I did
      it -though I'm sure there may be plenty that may be of use to others in
      future.



      Aim was to swap out the 300GB disk I was currently using for a larger 750GB
      disk, in order to keep the power consumption down as I have the slug running
      24x7.



      The plan for the upgrade was to attach the old 300GB and new 750GB disk to a
      PC booted from a Knoppix CD, clone the 300GB disk to the 750GB disk, and
      then move and expand the partitions on the 750GB disk to make use of the new
      space.



      So, in a little more detail ..



      - Hardware : New HDD is a 750GB WD 'Green Power' SATA 3.5" disk
      (chosen for low power consumption and low noise ) in an Asaka Integral 3.5"
      SATA to USB enclosure. They're more expensive than other enclosures, but
      i've had problems in the past with cheaper enclosures and corrupt data.

      - Downloaded the Knoppix 5.3.1 Live distribution and burnt to DVD.
      Then booted a PC using it - (FWIW an old Centrino laptop didn't like the
      Distro).

      - Once at the desktop, attached both USB disk enclosures to the PC

      - Work out which drive was which ( sdc, sdd etc ) using Gparted
      (Partition Manager in the System Utilities menu)

      - Next, time to clone the old disk to the new



      dd if=/dev/sdd of=/dev/sdc



      And sit back and wait, the flickering access lights on the enclosures the
      only sign of any activity. I had ~270GB of data to move between disks, and
      in the end it took about 18 hours at a rate of 4.5 MB/s. (On reflection, it
      probably would have taken less time if I'd specified larger blocks to be
      transferred by adding bs=4k to the end of this command, as whilst waiting I
      found that dd defaults to just 512bytes which slows things down ..)



      Now, with the duplicated disk I could see everything had been copied
      successfully across to the new 750GB disk - but I could see that the extra
      space available was not being used.



      Now time to move the Partitions around and expand them using the Partition
      Manager (Gparted)



      First up was the swap partition - that was moved to the end of the disk, and
      increased in size to 1GB (to allow other future 'large' disks to be
      formatted )

      Second was the system partition - moved to the end of the disk, alongside
      the swap partition.

      Finally, the Data partition was expanded to fill the remaining space.



      With all that done, I committed the changes and Gparted got to work.



      During the process, I got popups offering to open the partitions that were
      'found' as they are moved/expanded - cancel these (as otherwise the
      partitions are mounted and the other ongoing Gparted actions will then fail
      ..)



      About 25 minutes later, after the partitions had been checked for errors and
      then expanded, all is done.



      I then plugged the 750GB disk back into the Slug, and booted - and all came
      up fine.



      Hope this guide is useful to anyone else looking to do a similar disk
      upgrade.



      Cheers,



      Ben.





      [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
    • Jim
      Whew! That sounds like a lot of work. Are you running a filesystem other than EXT3? Here s what I do when bringing a new disk online. Keep in mind two things:
      Message 2 of 5 , Aug 17, 2008
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        Whew! That sounds like a lot of work. Are you running a filesystem
        other than EXT3?

        Here's what I do when bringing a new disk online. Keep in mind two things:

        - I'm using Linksys' embedded firmware V2.3R76.
        - I have 3 NSLU2's. They're so cheap why own just one :)

        1) If my 'old' drive is not online as 'Disk 1' I connect it to a slug
        as Disk1 & power-up the drive.

        2) Connect the 'new' drive to 'Disk 2' and power up the drive.

        3) Power up the slug.

        4) Startup the web interface & verify I can browse Disk 1.

        5) Select the 'Administration' tab, signin, and select the 'disk' submenu.

        6) Verify Disk 2 shows up as either 'not formatted' or shows it's
        native format.

        7) Click 'format disk 2' to EXT3 & verify upon completion.

        8) Click the 'backup' submenu and choose the 'Enable drive backup from
        Disk 1 to Disk 2' option. IMPORTANT: click the SAVE button.

        9) Click 'Start Backup Now'. My slug transfers ~70GB/hour; since the
        slug can perform this operation in a hands-off state I can disconnect
        my client PC and use it to perform other tasks.

        Happy SLUGging :) Jim
      • docbillnet
        ... larger 750GB ... running ... lvm2 is your friend. I recommend reading up on it. ... Integral 3.5 ... enclosures, but ... Good choice. Cheap hardware
        Message 3 of 5 , Aug 18, 2008
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          --- In nslu2-general@yahoogroups.com, "Ben Formesyn" <ben@...> wrote:
          > Aim was to swap out the 300GB disk I was currently using for a
          larger 750GB
          > disk, in order to keep the power consumption down as I have the slug
          running
          > 24x7.

          lvm2 is your friend. I recommend reading up on it.

          > - Hardware : New HDD is a 750GB WD 'Green Power' SATA 3.5" disk
          > (chosen for low power consumption and low noise ) in an Asaka
          Integral 3.5"
          > SATA to USB enclosure. They're more expensive than other
          enclosures, but
          > i've had problems in the past with cheaper enclosures and corrupt data.

          Good choice. Cheap hardware will often byte you later. My favorite
          enclosures are the NexStar Vantec. I have an MX series plugged into
          one of my NSLU2's 24x7 with two 750 GB hard drives. However, two
          drives requires a fan, which is probably more noise than you wanted.

          > - Downloaded the Knoppix 5.3.1 Live distribution and burnt
          to DVD.
          > Then booted a PC using it - (FWIW an old Centrino laptop didn't like the
          > Distro).

          You might want to investigate using network booting. It saves you
          from having to burn those shinny things.

          > dd if=/dev/sdd of=/dev/sdc

          A bit lucky this works. If the sector layout of the two drives is
          different, this won't work. Fortunately this does work between
          practically all SATA drives. However, if you going this route it
          is better to partition the new hard drive and move each partition
          individually. e.g.

          fdisk /dev/sdc
          dd if=/dev/sdd1 of=/dev/sdc1 bs=4M
          dd if=/dev/sdd2 of=/dev/sdc2 bs=4M
          ...

          and of course your boot sector:
          dd if=/dev/sdd of=/dev/sdc bs=446 count=1

          The new partitions can be larger than the old partitions, but not smaller.

          Once this is done, just resize each partition to fill the hard drive.

          resize2fs /dev/sdc1
          resize2fs /dev/sdc2
          ...

          > And sit back and wait, the flickering access lights on the
          enclosures the
          > only sign of any activity. I had ~270GB of data to move between
          disks, and
          > in the end it took about 18 hours at a rate of 4.5 MB/s. (On
          reflection, it
          > probably would have taken less time if I'd specified larger blocks to be
          > transferred by adding bs=4k to the end of this command, as whilst
          waiting I
          > found that dd defaults to just 512bytes which slows things down ..)

          Try a larger number like bs=4M. It actually works best if the block
          size is on the order of the same size as the hard drive cache.

          > Now time to move the Partitions around and expand them using the
          Partition
          > Manager (Gparted)

          Unfortunately, this means if your partitions are not in a logical
          order you will spend many hours moving disk around on the hard drive.

          Also, you probably want to reboot prior to running gparted, because
          the Linux kernel might not have read the new partition table for /dev/sdc.

          > First up was the swap partition - that was moved to the end of the
          disk, and
          > increased in size to 1GB (to allow other future 'large' disks to be
          > formatted )

          I'm still not sure why people want so much swap on their NSLU2's...
          With 512M I had no problem formatting 1.5TB. I suspect 256MB would
          have done just fine. If you temporarily need more swap space you can
          always create a swap file...

          Anyway, I am glad it worked out for you. 25 minutes is fairly fast.
          So perhaps my tips don't matter speed wise...

          Of course my preferred method to copy data between hard drives without
          lvm2 is to use "rsync -aHS". "rsync" is slower, but there is no
          fragmentation in the new filesystem.


          Bill
        • Tim Wiser
          Is it possible to hang a powered USB hub off the back of an Unslung (latest firmware) and then have a couple of memory sticks connected to the hub? Does the
          Message 4 of 5 , Aug 18, 2008
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            Is it possible to hang a powered USB hub off the back of an Unslung (latest firmware) and then have a couple of memory sticks connected to the hub? Does the Slug pick the two devices up?


            Cheers,
            Tim.

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            [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
          • Fernando Carolo
            ... Tim, this should work for Unslung 6.x. Keep your boot drive (hard disk or flash) connected to port 2 (yes, port 2 is the recommended one for your boot
            Message 5 of 5 , Aug 19, 2008
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              On Mon, Aug 18, 2008 at 10:49 AM, Tim Wiser <tim_wiser@...> wrote:
              >
              > Is it possible to hang a powered USB hub off the back of an Unslung (latest firmware) and then have a couple of memory sticks connected to the hub? Does the Slug pick the two devices up?
              >

              Tim,

              this should work for Unslung 6.x. Keep your boot drive (hard disk or
              flash) connected to port 2 (yes, port 2 is the recommended one for
              your boot drive) and connect your hub to port 1. I have helped a
              friend with a similar setup (memory stick on port 2, two hard disks
              connected to a hub on port 1) without problems.

              Regards,

              --
              Fernando Carolo
              "Ignore the noise. Make some signal" -- Nathan Torkington
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