Closure: Upgrade to 750GB disk
- OK, I'm relieved to say that I've got upgrade from a 300GB disk to a 750
disk done and working - as a Linux newbie, here's a walkthough of how I did
it -though I'm sure there may be plenty that may be of use to others in
Aim was to swap out the 300GB disk I was currently using for a larger 750GB
disk, in order to keep the power consumption down as I have the slug running
The plan for the upgrade was to attach the old 300GB and new 750GB disk to a
PC booted from a Knoppix CD, clone the 300GB disk to the 750GB disk, and
then move and expand the partitions on the 750GB disk to make use of the new
So, in a little more detail ..
- Hardware : New HDD is a 750GB WD 'Green Power' SATA 3.5" disk
(chosen for low power consumption and low noise ) in an Asaka Integral 3.5"
SATA to USB enclosure. They're more expensive than other enclosures, but
i've had problems in the past with cheaper enclosures and corrupt data.
- Downloaded the Knoppix 5.3.1 Live distribution and burnt to DVD.
Then booted a PC using it - (FWIW an old Centrino laptop didn't like the
- Once at the desktop, attached both USB disk enclosures to the PC
- Work out which drive was which ( sdc, sdd etc ) using Gparted
(Partition Manager in the System Utilities menu)
- Next, time to clone the old disk to the new
dd if=/dev/sdd of=/dev/sdc
And sit back and wait, the flickering access lights on the enclosures the
only sign of any activity. I had ~270GB of data to move between disks, and
in the end it took about 18 hours at a rate of 4.5 MB/s. (On reflection, it
probably would have taken less time if I'd specified larger blocks to be
transferred by adding bs=4k to the end of this command, as whilst waiting I
found that dd defaults to just 512bytes which slows things down ..)
Now, with the duplicated disk I could see everything had been copied
successfully across to the new 750GB disk - but I could see that the extra
space available was not being used.
Now time to move the Partitions around and expand them using the Partition
First up was the swap partition - that was moved to the end of the disk, and
increased in size to 1GB (to allow other future 'large' disks to be
Second was the system partition - moved to the end of the disk, alongside
the swap partition.
Finally, the Data partition was expanded to fill the remaining space.
With all that done, I committed the changes and Gparted got to work.
During the process, I got popups offering to open the partitions that were
'found' as they are moved/expanded - cancel these (as otherwise the
partitions are mounted and the other ongoing Gparted actions will then fail
About 25 minutes later, after the partitions had been checked for errors and
then expanded, all is done.
I then plugged the 750GB disk back into the Slug, and booted - and all came
Hope this guide is useful to anyone else looking to do a similar disk
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- Whew! That sounds like a lot of work. Are you running a filesystem
other than EXT3?
Here's what I do when bringing a new disk online. Keep in mind two things:
- I'm using Linksys' embedded firmware V2.3R76.
- I have 3 NSLU2's. They're so cheap why own just one :)
1) If my 'old' drive is not online as 'Disk 1' I connect it to a slug
as Disk1 & power-up the drive.
2) Connect the 'new' drive to 'Disk 2' and power up the drive.
3) Power up the slug.
4) Startup the web interface & verify I can browse Disk 1.
5) Select the 'Administration' tab, signin, and select the 'disk' submenu.
6) Verify Disk 2 shows up as either 'not formatted' or shows it's
7) Click 'format disk 2' to EXT3 & verify upon completion.
8) Click the 'backup' submenu and choose the 'Enable drive backup from
Disk 1 to Disk 2' option. IMPORTANT: click the SAVE button.
9) Click 'Start Backup Now'. My slug transfers ~70GB/hour; since the
slug can perform this operation in a hands-off state I can disconnect
my client PC and use it to perform other tasks.
Happy SLUGging :) Jim
- --- In firstname.lastname@example.org, "Ben Formesyn" <ben@...> wrote:
> Aim was to swap out the 300GB disk I was currently using for alarger 750GB
> disk, in order to keep the power consumption down as I have the slugrunning
> 24x7.lvm2 is your friend. I recommend reading up on it.
> - Hardware : New HDD is a 750GB WD 'Green Power' SATA 3.5" diskIntegral 3.5"
> (chosen for low power consumption and low noise ) in an Asaka
> SATA to USB enclosure. They're more expensive than otherenclosures, but
> i've had problems in the past with cheaper enclosures and corrupt data.Good choice. Cheap hardware will often byte you later. My favorite
enclosures are the NexStar Vantec. I have an MX series plugged into
one of my NSLU2's 24x7 with two 750 GB hard drives. However, two
drives requires a fan, which is probably more noise than you wanted.
> - Downloaded the Knoppix 5.3.1 Live distribution and burntto DVD.
> Then booted a PC using it - (FWIW an old Centrino laptop didn't like theYou might want to investigate using network booting. It saves you
from having to burn those shinny things.
> dd if=/dev/sdd of=/dev/sdcA bit lucky this works. If the sector layout of the two drives is
different, this won't work. Fortunately this does work between
practically all SATA drives. However, if you going this route it
is better to partition the new hard drive and move each partition
dd if=/dev/sdd1 of=/dev/sdc1 bs=4M
dd if=/dev/sdd2 of=/dev/sdc2 bs=4M
and of course your boot sector:
dd if=/dev/sdd of=/dev/sdc bs=446 count=1
The new partitions can be larger than the old partitions, but not smaller.
Once this is done, just resize each partition to fill the hard drive.
> And sit back and wait, the flickering access lights on theenclosures the
> only sign of any activity. I had ~270GB of data to move betweendisks, and
> in the end it took about 18 hours at a rate of 4.5 MB/s. (Onreflection, it
> probably would have taken less time if I'd specified larger blocks to bewaiting I
> transferred by adding bs=4k to the end of this command, as whilst
> found that dd defaults to just 512bytes which slows things down ..)Try a larger number like bs=4M. It actually works best if the block
size is on the order of the same size as the hard drive cache.
> Now time to move the Partitions around and expand them using thePartition
> Manager (Gparted)Unfortunately, this means if your partitions are not in a logical
order you will spend many hours moving disk around on the hard drive.
Also, you probably want to reboot prior to running gparted, because
the Linux kernel might not have read the new partition table for /dev/sdc.
> First up was the swap partition - that was moved to the end of thedisk, and
> increased in size to 1GB (to allow other future 'large' disks to beI'm still not sure why people want so much swap on their NSLU2's...
> formatted )
With 512M I had no problem formatting 1.5TB. I suspect 256MB would
have done just fine. If you temporarily need more swap space you can
always create a swap file...
Anyway, I am glad it worked out for you. 25 minutes is fairly fast.
So perhaps my tips don't matter speed wise...
Of course my preferred method to copy data between hard drives without
lvm2 is to use "rsync -aHS". "rsync" is slower, but there is no
fragmentation in the new filesystem.
- Is it possible to hang a powered USB hub off the back of an Unslung (latest firmware) and then have a couple of memory sticks connected to the hub? Does the Slug pick the two devices up?
Make a mini you on Windows Live Messenger!
[Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
- On Mon, Aug 18, 2008 at 10:49 AM, Tim Wiser <tim_wiser@...> wrote:
> Is it possible to hang a powered USB hub off the back of an Unslung (latest firmware) and then have a couple of memory sticks connected to the hub? Does the Slug pick the two devices up?
this should work for Unslung 6.x. Keep your boot drive (hard disk or
flash) connected to port 2 (yes, port 2 is the recommended one for
your boot drive) and connect your hub to port 1. I have helped a
friend with a similar setup (memory stick on port 2, two hard disks
connected to a hub on port 1) without problems.
"Ignore the noise. Make some signal" -- Nathan Torkington