- I am trying to read Ragnarsdr�pa. I have found it to be rather difficult
but what I have been able to read is quite lovely. The eleventh verse is
the first place I encountered difficulty. Could anyone clarify this part?
Vili� Hrafnketill heyra,
hv� hreingr�it steini
�r��ar skalk auk �engil
�j�fs ilja bla� leyfa!
Nema sv�t g�� ens gjalla
gj�ld baugnafa�s vildi
meyjar hj�ls enn m�ri
m�gr Sigur�ar H�gna.
Kn�tti e�r vi� illan
J�rmunrekr at vakna
me� dreyrf�ar dr�ttir
draum � sver�a flaumi.
R�sta var� � ranni
��s er hrafnbl�ir hefndu
harma Erps of barmar.
Flaut of set vi� sveita
s�knar �lfs, � golfi,
hr�va d�gg, �ars h�ggnar
hendr sem f�tr of kendu.
Fell � bl��i blandinn
brunn �lsk�kki runna
- �at 's � Leifa landa
laufi f�tt - at hauf�i.
�ar, sv�t ger�u gyr�an
golfh�lkvis s� fylkis,
segls Naglfara siglur
saums andvana standa.
Ur�u snemst auk S�rli
samr��a �eir Ham�ir
Hergauts vinu bar�ir.
Mj�k l�t st�la st�kkvir
sty�ja Gj�ka ni�ja
flaums, ��s fj�rvi n�ma
Foglhildar mun vildu,
auk bl�serkjar birkis
ballf�gr g�tu allir
ennih�gg auk eggjar
J�nakrs sonum launa.
�at segik fall � f�grum
flotna randar botni.
R�s g�fumk rei�ar m�na
Ragnarr auk fj�l� sagna.
Auk of �erris ��a
�sk-R�n at �at s�num
til f�rhuga f�ri
fe�r ve�rbo�a hug�i,
��s hristi-Sif hringa
hals en b�ls of fyllda,
bar til byrjar dr�sla
baug �rlygis draugi.
Bau�a s � til bley�i
b�ti-�r��r at m�ti
malma m�tum hilmi
men dreyrugra benja.
Sv� l�t ey, ��tt etti,
sem orrostu letti
jofrum, ulfs at sinna
me� alg�fris lifru.
Letrat l��a stillir
landa vanr � sandi
- �� svall heipt � H�gna -
h��glamma mun st��va,
es �rymregin �remja
�r�ttig He�in s�ttu,
heldr an Hildar sv�ra
hringa �eir of fingi.
Auk fyr h�nd � holmi
hve�ru brynju Vi�ris
ford��a nam r��a.
Allr gekk herr und hur�ir
Hjarranda fram kyrrar
rei�r at Reifnis skei�i
ra�alfs af mari br��um.
�� m� s�kn � Sv�lnis
R�s gofumk rei�ar m�na
Ragnarr auk fjol� sagna.
Gefjon dr� fr� Gylfa
gl�� dj�pr��uls, au�la,
sv�t af rennirauknum
rauk, Danmarkar auka.
B�ru �xn auk �tta
ennitungl, �ars gingu
fyr vinjeyjar vi�ri
vallrauf, fj�gur haufu�.
�at erum s�nt, at snimma
sonr Aldaf��rs vildi
afls vi� �ri ��f�an
jar�ar reist of freista.
Hamri f�rsk � h�gri
h�nd, ��s allra landa,
endisei�s of kendi.
Va�r l� Vi�ris arfa
vilgi slakr, es rak�isk
� Eyn�fis �ndri,
J�rmungandr, at sandi.
Auk bor�r�ins bar�a
brautar �vengr enn lj�ti
� haussprengi Hrungnis
har�ge�r ne�an star�i.
��s forns Litar flotna
� fangbo�a �ngli
hr�kkvi�ll of hrokkinn
hekk V�lsunga drekku.
Vildit vr�ngum ofra
v�gs byrsendir �gi,
hinns m�tygil m�va
m�rar skar fyr ��ri.
Hinn es varp � vi�a
of manna sj�t margra
mundlaug f��ur augum.
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> I am trying to read Ragnarsdrápa. I have found it to be rather difficultIf you could read the first ten stanzas of Ragnarsdrápa
> but what I have been able to read is quite lovely. The eleventh verse is
> the first place I encountered difficulty. Could anyone clarify this part?
without encountering difficulty then it's probably you who
should be giving lessons :) But let's have a look-see.
Auk fyr hönd í holmi
hveðru brynju Viðris
fordæða nam ráða.
Allr gekk herr und hurðir
Hjarranda fram kyrrar
reiðr at Reifnis skeiði
raðalfs af mari bróðum.
I'm guessing this is Kock's version - I don't have
it at hand. Let's look at what Finnur Jónsson has
FJ manuscript version:
Oc firir hond iholmi
hveðro bryniv viðris
feng eyþande flioþa
for dæþa nam raþa;
allr geck heR vnd hurþir
hiarranda fram kyrrar
reiðr at reifnis skeiþi
raðalfr of mar braþvm.
FJ received version:
Ok fyr hönd í holmi
hveðru brynju Viðris
fordæða nam ráða;
allr gekk herr und hurðir
Hjarranda framm kyrrar
reiðr af Reifnis skeiði
raðaralfs mari bráðum.
We can see that the two editors are in
complete agreement on the first part.
Indeed the manuscript version seems to
be fairly lucid and in no need of correction.
I'll try to muddle through it.
brynja = armour
hveðra = giantess
hveðra brynju = giantess of armour -> axe
Viðrir = Óðinn
Viðrir hveðru brynju -> Óðinn of the axe -> warrior
So that's "of the warrior" there in line two.
The subject seems to be 'for-dæða fljóða' meaning
something like "a witch of women" or perhaps
"a witch among women".
The most difficult word is probably 'feng-eyðandi'.
Usually 'fengr' means something like "booty" but I'm
not quite sure what's implied here.
Let's try something like a literal translation:
"And by the hand of the Óðinn of the giantess of
the armour the booty-destroying witch among women
ruled in the island."
Or, if we replace the kenning:
"And by the hand of the warrior the booty-destroying
witch among women ruled in the island."
But what does "fyr hönd" (by hand) mean? In the modern
language it means "on behalf of". Looking at Finnur Jónsson's
translation I see that's what it takes it to mean here:
"Og heksen blandt kvinder, sejrhindrersken (?), rådede
på øen på krigerens vegne."
(For the Danish impaired this means something like:
"And the witch among women, the female preventer of victory (?),
ruled on the island on behalf of the warrior.")
This seems to make perfectly good sense.
The "victory-preventing" part is probably
a guess based on later accounts of Hildr
and the gang.
Here is what Faulkes seems to have come up with:
"And on the island,
instead of the Vidrir [warrior]
of the mail-coat's [warrior's] troll-wife [axe],
the victory-preventing witch of a woman had her way."
He accepts Finnur's "victory-preventing" for 'feng-eyðandi'
but seems to understand 'firir hond' as "instead of".
I don't know the argument for that but I'm not saying
it's wrong. Faulkes is someone to reckon with.
- - -
The second half seems much more difficult. Finnur and
Kock propose quite different versions and neither can
apparently hammer sense into the manuscript text.
The text, as preserved, may be corrupt.
- --- In email@example.com, "William Calhoun"
>difficult but what I have been able to read is quite lovely. The
> I am trying to read Ragnarsdrápa. I have found it to be rather
eleventh verse is the first place I encountered difficulty. Could
anyone clarify this part?
You must have better sources than I, given that you made it to the
eleventh stanza without having to ask any questions ;) Here are a
select few insights and thoughts about these verses, mostly from a
phonological and language-history perspective.
> RagnarsdrápaIt could just be *hrafnkell, later corrected to the full edition of
> Vilið Hrafnketill heyra,
> hvé hreingróit steini
> Þrúðar skalk auk þengil
> þjófs ilja blað leyfa!
the name. 'hreingróit steini' could refer to the precess whereby a
metal is extracted 'from stone' - that is, if the shield was made of
metal, or mostly metal, and not of wood. Keep in mind, however, that
I can barely read Danish and am not aware of any explanations by the
likes of Finnur Jónsson or others here. On a more positive note, the
word þjófr is from *þeubaz. The change from *þiúfr to þiófr is very
typically West Norse. Depending on the dating of Bragi, we could be
looking at *þiúfr here, in which case the verb leyfa (=lofa) could
have assonated with *þiúfr (i.e.*liúfa, compare adj. liúfr). Bragi
is usually dated to the 9th century, somewhere in Norway. Arinbjörn,
Egils Norwegian friend in Egils saga, claims to be related to Bragi.
Enough on this half-verse for now.
> 2.Bragi would have said *SigvarðaR in the genitive, not *Sigurðar. A
> Nema svát góð ens gjalla
> gjöld baugnafaðs vildi
> meyjar hjóls enn mæri
> mögr Sigurðar Högna.
note about R: R disappears in West Norse by about 900. There is only
one example of R in a clearly West Norse area from after 900, and it
is highly controversial. However, Bragi is usually dated to pre-900,
opening up the possibility of R in his language. Notice that the u
causing u-mutation has disappeared in both mögr and Högna, from the
eariler *maguz and *Haguna, likewise in the plural gjöld.
> 3.Short on time, so a few quotes more only:
> Knátti eðr við illan - Bragi would have had *viðr
> Jörmunrekr at vakna - '-rekr' probably not e yet (from *rîkaz)
> með dreyrfáar dróttir - fáðar
> draum í sverða flaumi. -
> Rósta varð í ranni
> Randvés haufuðniðja, - masc. names in -vér? Examine -vir and viðr.
> þás er hrafnbláir hefndu - just 'þás, no 'er'; hefnðu
> harma Erps of barmar.
> Flaut of set við sveita - again, viðr
> sóknar álfs, í golfi, - alfs
> hræva dögg, þars höggnar
> hendr sem ftr of kendu. +sk, or where is the subject?
> Fell í blóði blandinn
> brunn ölskákki runna - no comment
> - þat 's á Leifa landa
> laufi fátt - at haufði.
> 7.This section thus beginning was in all likelihood the first section
> Þat segik fall á fögrum - sék
> flotna randar botni.
> Ræs göfumk reiðar mána - no comment
> Ragnarr auk fjölð sagna.
> bti-Þrúðr at móti - examine *bóti at this stage
> hringa þeir of fingi. - notice fingi, see below
> fordæða nam ráða. - examine *fordáðja at thi stage
> raðalfs af mari bróðum. - ráð?; bráðum by retained u at this stage.
> glöð djúpröðuls, auðla, - djúpröðul accus.
> ennitungl, þars gingu - see fingi above
> fyr vinjeyjar viðri - vineyjar
> vallrauf, fjögur haufuð. - valrauf
> Þat erum sýnt, at snimma - es + (u)mk (from *original dat. mez)
> sonr Aldaföðrs vildi - Bragi would have had sunr, not sonr
> afls við úri þfðan - viðr
> jarðar reist of freista.
of the drápa, not the last. Compare the first words of each of the 3
> 17.Although the runic spelling could not show it (fik = fink or fekk),
> brautar þvengr enn ljóti - examine the braut-from-brjóta issue.
> hekk Völsunga drekku. - Bragi would have said 'hink' and 'drinku'.
even in the 10th century *ink was still in use. See also above.
> 19.forms like the *faikian on the Rök stone, etc.. Bragi would be even
> mrar skar fyr Þóri. - examine gen. mórjar. About + j, compare
older, if the usual dating is correct.
> Thank you,Interesting topic, William. Unfortunately, I am short on time and
> William Calhoun
have to run. This will have to do for now. Bragi interests me very
much, though, as he is the oldest identifiable nordic poet (Eddic
verse being older, but common/traditional. Bragi must have been
greatly admired by his many successors ;)
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> Here is what Faulkes seems to have come up with:An afterthought here. Translating 'nam ráða' as
> "And on the island,
> instead of the Vidrir [warrior]
> of the mail-coat's [warrior's] troll-wife [axe],
> the victory-preventing witch of a woman had her way."
"had her way" rather than "ruled" brings the stanza
even more into line with Snorri's account. The thing
the witch (Hildr) had her way about is then presumably
the battle - which Héðinn (the warrior) wanted to avoid.
So, ignoring petty insignificant details like the fact
that 'fengr' doesn't mean "victory" and 'eyða' doesn't
mean "prevent" I'd say this is a pretty good translation :)