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Re: Errata (Orð Hervarar) - about K KK 1 & 2 NK G GG 1 & 2 NG

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  • konrad_oddsson <konrad_oddsson@yahoo.com>
    Heilir Chris og Gunner! Heilir góðir nemendur! ... ... the way you spell akantiuR with no n before the k. Whats the reason? Is n just a
    Message 1 of 4 , Feb 28 8:35 PM
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      Heilir Chris og Gunner!
      Heilir góðir nemendur!

      --- In norse_course@yahoogroups.com, "Christian Johnson
      <christian1080@y...>" <christian1080@y...> wrote:
      > --- In norse_course@yahoogroups.com, "gunnerwold
      <gunnerwold@y...>"
      > <gunnerwold@y...> wrote:
      > > I noticed how they spelled konungr something like kunugr, like
      the way you spell akantiuR with no n before the k. Whats the reason?
      Is n just a later Norse thing?

      > Hi!
      >
      > Because there weren't as many runes as sounds in the language, one
      rune can often be read in several different ways. The g in "konungr"
      is therefore spelled k. For some reason an n-rune is usually not
      written before the k-rune (this seems to be a general rule, although
      there are exceptions). Therefore a k-rune can be read k, n, nk or
      ng. Likewise the t-rune can be read t, d, nt or nd. Which makes
      reading runes really hard...

      Precisely. That is why I employ a standardized system of punctuation
      in writing 'rýniska', which is my name for Viking Age Old Norse when
      punctuated to very Old Icelandic pronounciation. By using the same
      system of punctuation, I can punctuate to other dialects as well. I
      almost never have to change, add or eliminate an actual rune - the
      punctuation does most of the work. In the pages Haukur posted, you
      can see a diagram of the basic vowel system. There are, however, a
      few things about the vowel system which are not included in these
      pages, which I plan to discuss later. The consonant system is more
      complicated than the vowel system, so for now we can just learn it
      as we go from actual texts. About 'k' 'kk' 'nk' 'g' 'gg' 'ng' let me
      say this: einfalt K (simple K from *K or *G) is drawn K (1 K-rune),
      einfalt G (simple G from *G or *K) is drawn K (1 K-rune w/ a single
      dot in the upper enclosed part of the K 1/4 right on the vertical
      line & 1/6 down from the upper cross bar), eðlilegt tvöfalt K (double
      KK from *KK) is drawn K (1 K-rune w/ a single dot 1/4 to the left of
      the K-rune & 1/2 down from the upper cross bar), eðlilegt tvöfalt G
      (double G from *GG) is drawn the same as eðlilegt tvöfalt K except
      that we punctuate to G as in einfalt G, NK (where 'n' is not made by
      the tongue touching the teeth, but is a pure nasal) is drawn K (1 K-
      rune w/ a single dot to the left of the vertical line 1/6 from the
      lower cross bar - this is the nasalization position for the K-rune),
      NG is drawn the same way as NK except that we also punctuate to G,
      óeðlilegt KK (KK from *NK or *NG) is drawn with both dots - medial
      reduplication dot as well as lower nasal dot (although it cannot be
      pronounced in this position, the lower nasal dot is still written to
      show the derivation of KK from *NK or *NG), óeðlilegt GG (GG from
      *NG or *NK) is drawn the same as óeðlilegt KK except that we also
      punctuate to G. Thus there are two ways of writing both KK and GG in
      the standardized system of punctuation I use for 'rýniska', each in
      accordance with its origin. The correct spelling is learned through
      practice. Finally, the the character for K (from *G) is simply K (1
      K-rune with no punctuation) and the character for G (from *K) is K
      as well - but punctuated to G. This is simple, as both sounds are
      represented by the same rune.


      > The exact reason why the n is not written is hard to find -- don't
      > know if anybody really knows, but runic inscriptions (especially
      the old ones, in stone) tend to be as economic as possible.
      >
      > Chris

      True. In standard 'rýniska' the N-rune is always written except
      before K or G (where the nasalization dot is used). N (where the
      tongue touches the teeth) is a different sound. 'Aingi'/'eingi'/
      'angi'/'engi' in the meaning 'no one' is, however, always written
      with the N-rune. The reason is that the word is a compound from *AIN
      plus -GI - the 'g' is not part of the root. How we pronounce this
      sound depends on whether we are using the standard Modern Icelandic
      pronounciation for 'rýniska' or a standard Old Norse one. A text can
      be read either way. More about this later.

      Regards,
      Konrad.
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