Re: Errata (Orð Hervarar) - about K KK 1 & 2 NK G GG 1 & 2 NG
- Heilir Chris og Gunner!
Heilir góðir nemendur!
--- In email@example.com, "Christian Johnson
<christian1080@y...>" <christian1080@y...> wrote:
> --- In firstname.lastname@example.org, "gunnerwold<gunnerwold@y...>"
> <gunnerwold@y...> wrote:the way you spell akantiuR with no n before the k. Whats the reason?
> > I noticed how they spelled konungr something like kunugr, like
Is n just a later Norse thing?
> Hi!rune can often be read in several different ways. The g in "konungr"
> Because there weren't as many runes as sounds in the language, one
is therefore spelled k. For some reason an n-rune is usually not
written before the k-rune (this seems to be a general rule, although
there are exceptions). Therefore a k-rune can be read k, n, nk or
ng. Likewise the t-rune can be read t, d, nt or nd. Which makes
reading runes really hard...
Precisely. That is why I employ a standardized system of punctuation
in writing 'rýniska', which is my name for Viking Age Old Norse when
punctuated to very Old Icelandic pronounciation. By using the same
system of punctuation, I can punctuate to other dialects as well. I
almost never have to change, add or eliminate an actual rune - the
punctuation does most of the work. In the pages Haukur posted, you
can see a diagram of the basic vowel system. There are, however, a
few things about the vowel system which are not included in these
pages, which I plan to discuss later. The consonant system is more
complicated than the vowel system, so for now we can just learn it
as we go from actual texts. About 'k' 'kk' 'nk' 'g' 'gg' 'ng' let me
say this: einfalt K (simple K from *K or *G) is drawn K (1 K-rune),
einfalt G (simple G from *G or *K) is drawn K (1 K-rune w/ a single
dot in the upper enclosed part of the K 1/4 right on the vertical
line & 1/6 down from the upper cross bar), eðlilegt tvöfalt K (double
KK from *KK) is drawn K (1 K-rune w/ a single dot 1/4 to the left of
the K-rune & 1/2 down from the upper cross bar), eðlilegt tvöfalt G
(double G from *GG) is drawn the same as eðlilegt tvöfalt K except
that we punctuate to G as in einfalt G, NK (where 'n' is not made by
the tongue touching the teeth, but is a pure nasal) is drawn K (1 K-
rune w/ a single dot to the left of the vertical line 1/6 from the
lower cross bar - this is the nasalization position for the K-rune),
NG is drawn the same way as NK except that we also punctuate to G,
óeðlilegt KK (KK from *NK or *NG) is drawn with both dots - medial
reduplication dot as well as lower nasal dot (although it cannot be
pronounced in this position, the lower nasal dot is still written to
show the derivation of KK from *NK or *NG), óeðlilegt GG (GG from
*NG or *NK) is drawn the same as óeðlilegt KK except that we also
punctuate to G. Thus there are two ways of writing both KK and GG in
the standardized system of punctuation I use for 'rýniska', each in
accordance with its origin. The correct spelling is learned through
practice. Finally, the the character for K (from *G) is simply K (1
K-rune with no punctuation) and the character for G (from *K) is K
as well - but punctuated to G. This is simple, as both sounds are
represented by the same rune.
> The exact reason why the n is not written is hard to find -- don'tthe old ones, in stone) tend to be as economic as possible.
> know if anybody really knows, but runic inscriptions (especially
>True. In standard 'rýniska' the N-rune is always written except
before K or G (where the nasalization dot is used). N (where the
tongue touches the teeth) is a different sound. 'Aingi'/'eingi'/
'angi'/'engi' in the meaning 'no one' is, however, always written
with the N-rune. The reason is that the word is a compound from *AIN
plus -GI - the 'g' is not part of the root. How we pronounce this
sound depends on whether we are using the standard Modern Icelandic
pronounciation for 'rýniska' or a standard Old Norse one. A text can
be read either way. More about this later.