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Mars Exploration: 'Something Wonderful Is About To Happen'

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    NHNE News List Current Members: 982 Subscribe/unsubscribe/archive info at the bottom of this message. ... MARS: A WATER WORLD? EVIDENCE MOUNTS, BUT SCIENTISTS
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      MARS: A WATER WORLD? EVIDENCE MOUNTS, BUT SCIENTISTS REMAIN TIGHT-LIPPED
      By Leonard David
      Space.Com
      February 29, 2004

      http://www.space.com/scienceastronomy/opportunity_evidence_040229.html

      PASADENA, California - Evidence that suggests Mars was once a water-rich
      world is mounting as scientists scrutinize data from the Mars Exploration
      rover, Opportunity, busily at work in a small crater at Meridiani Planum.
      That information may well be leading to a biological bombshell of a finding
      that the red planet has been, and could well be now, an extraterrestrial
      home for life.

      There is a palpable buzz here at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in
      Pasadena, California that something wonderful is about to happen in the
      exploration of Mars.

      There is no doubt that the Opportunity Mars rover is relaying a mother lode
      of geological data. Using an array of tools carried by the golf cart-sized
      robot -- from spectrometers, a rock grinder, cameras and powerful
      microscopic imager -- scientists are carefully piecing together a compelling
      historical portrait of a wet and wild world.

      Where Opportunity now roves, some scientists here suggest, could have been
      underneath a huge ocean or lake. But what has truly been uncovered by the
      robot at Meridiani Planum is under judicious and tight-lipped review.

      Those findings and their implications are headed for a major press
      conference, rumored to occur early next week -- but given unanimity among
      rover scientists and agreement on how and who should unveil the dramatic
      findings. Turns out, even on Mars, a political and ego outcrop hangs over
      science.

      Scientific bulls-eye

      It is clear that Opportunity's Earth-to-Mars hole in one -- bouncing into a
      small crater complete with rock outcrop -- has also proven to be a
      scientific bulls-eye. The robot is wheeling about the crater that is some 70
      feet (22 meters) across and 10 feet (3 meters) deep.

      It is also apparent that there is a backlog of scientific measurements that
      Mars rover scientists working Opportunity have pocketed and kept close to
      their lab coats.

      For one, the rover found the site laden with hematite -- a mineral that
      typically, but not always -- forms in the presence of water. Then there are
      the puzzling spherules found in the soil and embedded in rock. They too
      might be water-related, but also could be produced by the actions of a
      meteor impact or a spewing volcano.

      A few spheres have been sliced in half and their insides imaged. Patches of
      these spherules, or "berries" as some call them, have undergone spectrometer
      exam to discern their mineral and chemistry makeup. Close-up photos of soil
      and rock have also shown thread-like features and even an oddly shaped
      object that looks like Rotini pasta.

      Brew of dissolved salts

      There is speculation that the soil underneath the wheels of both Spirit and
      Opportunity rovers contains small amounts of water mixed with salt in a
      brine. That brew of dissolved salts keeps the mixture well below the
      freezing point of pure water, permitting it to exist in liquid form.

      Opportunity has revisited select spots in the outcrop, drawn there, in part,
      to look for cross-beds -- sedimentary deposits that are formed in beach,
      river and sand-dune environments. Using its Rock Abrasion Tool (RAT), the
      rover has carried out several cleaning and grinding sessions on exposed rock
      outcrop.

      Cross-beds are patterns of curving lines or traces found within the strata
      of sandstone and other sedimentary rocks. Cross-bedding indicates the
      general direction and force of the wind or water that originally laid down
      the sediments.

      Right around the corner

      Opportunity's research is a "work in progress", said Ray Arvidson, deputy
      principal investigator for the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) project from
      Washington University in St. Louis. Data is being gathered to present "a
      coherent story", he said during a press briefing last Thursday.

      "That story is right around the corner," Arvidson told SPACE.com . "But we
      need to finish this work in progress, finish the set of experiments, get the
      data down from the spacecraft, processed and analyzed. Then I think that the
      story will be known," he said.

      Arvidson said multiple working hypotheses are still at play. Water is
      involved, but only on some of the hypotheses. Until coordinated experiments
      on the outcrop are completed, what the right hypothesis is remains unknown,
      he added.

      Severing the umbilical cord

      Mars exploration using the rovers has allowed on-the-spot "discovery driven
      science", said MER Deputy Project Scientist Albert Haldeman. He likened the
      Mars robot work now underway to deep ocean research using remotely operated
      submersibles.

      "It turns out that the best way to explore rocks [on Mars] is go look at
      craters. Mobility buys us the ability to do that. It was the right fit for
      looking at rocks," Haldeman told SPACE.com . "The discovery from the
      Microscopic Imager and seeing those spherulesŠand finding a larger
      population of spherules and seeing them in the rocks and the outcropŠthat
      progression of discovery influences our thinking."

      Haldeman said the next step will be severing the umbilical cord between
      Opportunity and the crater it's exploring. The robot would wheel itself out
      of that site and onto the expansive terrain of Meridiani Planum.

      "That umbilical cordŠthat's hard to break. It's more than even just a
      tension within the science team," Haldeman said.

      Tantalizing hints

      Scientists are carefully analyzing the rock data gleaned by the Opportunity
      rover. "We really want to understand that we've got those figured out
      right," Haldeman said. Up to now they have offered some "tantalizing hints",
      he said, that speak to a possible relationship with water.

      Piecing together the story of what Opportunity has found involves great care
      and deliberation, Haldeman said, based on a wide-range of viewpoints and
      levels of expertise. "We want to be cautious," he explained.

      More to the point, the science output from Mars must withstand scrutiny by
      experts outside the rover investigation teams.

      "There are lots of geologists out there who are looking at these pictures
      and they are starting to drool," Haldeman said. "The American taxpayer that
      spent $800 million on this deserves a thorough analysis," Haldeman said.

      Slippery slope leading to life

      One scientist eagerly awaiting the news from Mars, particularly from
      Opportunity, is Gilbert Levin. He is Chairman of the Board and Executive
      Officer for Science of Spherix Incorporated in Beltsville, Maryland.

      Levin is a former Viking Mars lander investigator. He has long argued that
      his 1976 Viking Labeled Release (LR) life detection experiment found living
      microorganisms in the soil of Mars.

      In 1997, Levin reported that simple laws of physics require water to occur
      as a liquid on the surface of Mars. Subsequent experiments and research have
      bolstered this view, he said, and reaffirms his Viking LR data regarding
      microbial life on Mars.

      Levin detailed his Mars views in a SPACE.com phone interview and via email.

      "It's hard to image why such bullet-proof evidence was denied for such a
      long time, and why those so vigorously denying it never did so by meeting
      the science, but merely by brushing it away," Levin said.

      "Of course, now that it must be acknowledged by all that there is liquid
      water on the surface of Mars," Levin added, "this starts those denying the
      validity of the Mars LR data down the slippery slope leading to life."

      Mars mud

      Levin points to Opportunity imagery that offers conclusive proof of standing
      liquid water and running water on a cold Mars. 

      Other images show the rover tracks clearly are being made in "mud", with
      water being pressed out of that material, Levin said. "That water promptly
      freezes and you can see reflecting ice. That's clearly ice. It could be
      nothing else," he said, "and the source is the water that came out of the
      mud."

      As for the spherical objects found at the Opportunity site, Levin has a
      thought.

      "I wonder on Mars if it can rain upwards," he said. The idea is that
      subsurface water comes up through the soils and then freezes when it gets to
      the surface.

      "Maybe these little spherules form just like raindrops form up above," Levin
      explained.

      Levin said that brine on Mars is a code word for liquid water. He senses
      that great care is being taken by rover scientists because the liquid water
      issue starts the road to life.

      "That's the monument that they are afraid to erect without real due
      process," Levin concluded.

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