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Interview With A Humanoid

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    NHNE News List Current Members: 660 Subscribe/unsubscribe/archive info at the bottom of this message. ... INTERVIEW WITH A HUMANOID By Nicholas D. Kristof New
    Message 1 of 1 , Jul 25, 2002
      NHNE News List
      Current Members: 660
      Subscribe/unsubscribe/archive info at the bottom of this message.


      By Nicholas D. Kristof
      New York Times


      DEFOREST, Wis. ‹ In a secret, locked barn near DeForest, five
      black-and-white calves look up from their hay with huge, friendly eyes. No.
      313 approaches, as if to grant an interview, for these are not the ordinary
      bovines they seem -- all five are part human.

      The five calves are clones, which is eerie enough. In addition, human DNA
      was added to their genetic makeup when they were embryos.

      Their DNA is still more than 99.9 percent bovine, less than 0.1 percent
      human, but the human component means that they are expected to produce a
      human protein, C-1 Esterase Inhibitor, in their milk. That could treat
      humans suffering from angioedema, an ailment that arises from a lack of C-1.

      These humanoid calves offer a window into a future in which lines are
      blurred between humans and other species. Biotechnology is transforming the
      world around us, far more quickly than we can build a regulatory structure
      to accommodate it. Human cloning gets the attention, but for the next 15
      years the greater impact will arise from the genetic manipulation of

      Infigen, a biotech company in DeForest, near Madison, has itself cloned 193
      cattle and 125 pigs. Jenny Endres, the manager in one of Infigen's barns,
      last week showed off a line of cow clones that all look alike. "These clones
      have the same personalities," she said, beaming.

      Cows? Personalities?

      "They bellow all the time," she insisted. "They're hungry all the time.
      They're easygoing, friendly."

      Later this year the Food and Drug Administration may lift its ban on the
      sale of milk and meat from cloned animals. In the interests of science, I
      took a sip of cloned milk to see what might happen. Fresh from the udder,
      the raw milk was warm and tasted excellent. (Then I took another sip with
      each of my three new heads.)

      The possibilities are dizzying. Michael Bishop, Infigen's president, says
      that cows could be engineered to produce extra beta casein, which would make
      them ideal for producing mozzarella cheese. Other cows could specialize in
      producing infant formula or even, by splicing in human DNA, someday be made
      to produce torrents of genuine human breast milk from their udders.

      Infigen is already cloning cows with human DNA to produce products such as
      human collagen (cosmetic surgeons now use animal collagen to create fuller
      lips); human fibrinogen, used to treat wounds; and human factor VIII, used
      for blood clotting.

      In a pig barn nearby, Mr. Bishop showed off his pride: a piglet bred to be
      perfect for producing organs for humans who need transplants. The piglet has
      had a gene knocked out to reduce the chance that the human body will reject
      organs from it.

      Biotechnology faces crippling obstacles, including a drought of venture
      capital that will kill off plenty of companies. But eventually, genetically
      modified pigs (perhaps slightly human in their genetics) will be able to
      produce livers, kidneys, hearts and pancreases for ailing patients.

      These technologies could help the 80,000 Americans now on waiting lists for
      organ transplants. But there are also ethical and philosophical questions
      about whether it is wise to blur the distinction between what is human and
      what is not.

      Francis Fukuyama, in his brilliant new book on cloning, "Our Post-Human
      Future," warns that we could face a future "in which any notion of 'shared
      humanity' is lost, because we have mixed human genes with those of so many
      other species that we no longer have a clear idea of what a human being is."

      My instinct is that the benefit in saving lives outweighs the risks. But Mr.
      Fukuyama is right that if we are to embrace this future, we must do so with
      eyes wide open. A first step would be to establish a cabinet-level Science
      Department (replacing the dinosaur of an Agriculture Department, which
      should be downgraded to an agency).

      The Science Department would regulate biotechnology, but would also be
      charged with puzzling through its philosophical implications and educating
      the public about our choices, acting as a sounding board for the nation. We
      must ensure that we consciously choose our future, rather than let advancing
      science drive us into one by default.

      I sought a comment from Ms. 313. (In this newspaper even part-humans get
      honorifics.) After a moment's reflection, she put it this way: "Moo."


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