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Reflux Still Design 101

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  • Tony & Elle Ackland
    Say you want to make a reflux still, capable of making 90%+ purity, to handle say 20L of wash within 6 hours. The following is a basic primer on how to go
    Message 1 of 15 , Jun 26, 2001
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      Say you want to make a reflux still, capable of making 90%+ purity, to
      handle say 20L of wash within 6 hours. The following is a basic primer on
      how to go about it . For more details, see
      http://www.geocities.com/kiwi_distiller/refluxdesign.htm

      For those of you who have been down this path - what other comments, advice
      can you offer to those who are just starting out ? Which bits of this post
      are bollocks ?

      Pot

      To hold 20L you want at least another 1/4 spare for foam, etc. So go for
      something in the 25-30L range. I'd suggest something where you can easily
      lock the lid down, but also be able to get into it fully to clean it out.
      Suggestions include paint tins as seen in :
      http://www.geocities.com/kiwi_distiller/image/walt_pot.jpg or
      http://www.geocities.com/kiwi_distiller/image/AV25Lpot.jpg or a preserving
      pad with a clipped lid like Teds at http://mwci.s5.com/

      These all have pretty thin lids, so to support the column, you may need a
      small flange to help hold it all up, or a stiffening plate/oversized washer
      to help strengthen the lid.

      Heating Element

      Probably in the 1000-1500 W size. Whats cost-effective for you ? A 1500W
      element will heat up the contents to begin in around 65 minutes, but a
      1000W will take 98 minutes. If time is crucial, you could add a second
      element to act as a boost during the initial heat up.

      Column Sizing

      The diameter is based on the amount of heat you're using, whereas its
      length determines what purity you'll get. Its a hobby still, so I've
      assumed that the packing will be stainless steel or copper scourers - they
      only take about 1/2 the height that marbles do to get the same purity. You
      will also need to insulate the whole length of column too - plumbing
      suppliers sell slip-on piping insulation for around NZ$8/m

      Diameter : 1inch is too narrow for a 1380W element, but 1.5 inch is fine
      with a 1800W element. Roughly, lets say to use 1.25 inch for 1000W, 1.5
      inch for 1500W and 1.75 inch for 2000W. If in doubt, go up in size by say
      0.25 inch. Too narrow will lead to all manner of problems & difficult
      operation, but too wide will only give a minimal reduction in purity.

      Height : This is the purity. Use the wee interactive applet at the start
      of
      http://www.geocities.com/kiwi_distiller/refluxdesign.htm to see how the
      number of stages or HETP's improves the purity. Its easy to get the first
      gains up to 90%, but then more difficult to squeeze out the last
      improvements towards 95%+ Lets assume (we'll come back to this) that each
      HETP for scrubbing pads is around 15cm... then for a 15% wash,
      No packing, purity = 62% , 15cm packing = 82%, 30cm = 88%, 45cm = 90%, 60cm
      = 92%, 75cm = 92.8%, 90cm = 93.4%, 105cm = 93.9%. These won't be exact,
      and depend on a number of different factors, but it shouldn't be too far
      off. So, if height is a problem, and you're happy with low 90's, then 60cm
      should do ya. If you want to make a perfect vodka, go for 120cm. Normally
      I'd recommend at least 100cm, but the choice is yours, as it depends on the
      type of product you want to make.

      These numbers assume that we've reached equilbrium nicely for each 15cm of
      packing. To do so, we need to provide heaps of surface area for the liquid
      and vapour to mingle over (done - using scrubbers), and that we're
      refluxing a large proportion of the vapour back down as liquid, rather than
      keeping it. But this means that our take-off will be rather slow.

      Eg we may be able to start out with a reflux ratio of say 3-4 (ie return
      30-40mL for every 10 mL we keep) when the pot is very rich in alcohol, but
      later on, when its getting down in alcohol, we may need to increase this up
      to 5-10 to keep the high purity.

      A reflux ratio of 4, with a 1500W element means that we're collecting at
      around 20 mL/min. Thus a 20L 15% wash will take a minimum of 2.5 hours to
      collect (20 mL/min), up to 5 hours at a reflux ratio of 8 (10 mL/min). The
      actual time will be somewhere between these, depending on what ratio you
      end up needing in order to deliver the purity you're after

      If the distilling time is taking too long, we can make the column taller,
      and then run at a slightly smaller reflux ratio, to get the same purity.

      The collection rate is directly proportional to the element size, so if a
      1500W element with reflux ratio of 4 takes 3 hours to distill, then 1000W
      will take 4.5 hours, or a 2000W 2.25 hours.

      Making the Reflux

      Theres a couple of different options for how to provide the refluxing
      liquid. The choices come down to how much control you want over it. See
      the attached sketch.



      The first, simplest and cheapest, is just to have a cooling coil in the
      head of the column, which is fed cooling water direct from the condensor.
      This is the type of still where you just turn it on, and basically leave
      it. Very little control. The amount of reflux will basically be a design
      feature based on how much cooling surface area you provide via the coil.
      You'll be able to up it slightly by increasing the water flowrate, but it
      won't be huge, as you're limited by surface area of the cooling coil. This
      is fine if you want a simple to operate still, but with mediocre purity
      resulting. You'll taper off towards the tails earlier in the run, rather
      than being able to up the reflux to drive towards a very clean cut between
      the middle run and the tails. Fine for say the whiskies & rums, and if
      carbon polishing, but not so good for vodka.

      Second - plumb the cooling coil with its own water supply - say a T joint
      off the main line, with a couple of valves to be able to regulate the water
      to the coil seperately from the main condensor. Slightly more control, but
      not a drastic improvement. But would allow you to say turn off the coil if
      you want to do a stripping run, without affecting the performance of the
      main condensor.

      For excellent instruction on fitting a coil, see Homers diagram :
      http://www.geocities.com/kiwi_distiller/image/homer_coil.jpg or Phils
      method (a couple of photos at
      http://www.geocities.com/kiwi_distiller/others.htm.)

      If the main column is too narrow to have a coiling coil inside it, you can
      always use a cold collar around the outside of it.

      There are excellent instructions for making the external condensor in the
      "StillMaker" pdf book : http://www.geocities.com/kiwi_distiller/still.pdf
      or at http://stillmaker.dreamhost.com Basically just use a couple of T
      fittings, or if you're a dab hand at welding, just build it up yourself.
      Another (easier) option is the "Euro" still condensor, where the cooling
      water is simply fed in a tube up through the outlet pipe. See
      http://www.geocities.com/kiwi_distiller/others3.htm for a photo of it.

      Third (my preferred option) is to do the Nixon style of condensor, as seen
      at http://www.geocities.com/kiwi_distiller/others.htm , where all the
      vapour is condensed (with an oversized coil - thus minimal water required),
      and then you proportion off the amount of liquid you keep vs return. This
      gives you maximum control over the reflux ratio, being able to dial it up
      from "total reflux", essential for getting a column into equilbrium before
      taking off the heads, through to "no reflux" if you want to do a stripping
      run, or only a low reflux run say for a flavourful rum or the like. The
      disadvantage of this design is that it adds to the height - say another 30
      cm. But I reckon well worth it.

      Controls

      I prefer to only control the reflux ratio. If the column is wide enough,
      then you don't need to worry about metering the heat input via the element.
      Either up the water flowrate, or close down the take-off valve, in
      response to the vapour temperature measured at the top of the column. Use
      http://www.geocities.com/kiwi_distiller/image/vapour_purity.gif to compare
      temperature to purity. Cheap (NZ$28 at www.dse.co.nz ) digital
      thermometers are excellent for reading this temperature.


      Summary

      So, in summary, to make a very cheap, short still, how about a 1500W
      element, with a 1.5 inch by 60-70cm column, scrubber packing, and simple
      external condensor (Euro style) & internal cooling coil of say 4-5 turns,
      directly plumbed between the two.

      To make a more high performance still with more options on how to run it &
      what products you can make from it, first make it taller, and then consider
      using the nixon condensor



      Tony

      http://www.geocities.com/kiwi_distiller
    • al lewis
      Hi friends, I will shortly be sendin in pictures of my The Man Who Has Nothing Still I hope ot will encourage others like my self who are not it a posiotion
      Message 2 of 15 , Jun 26, 2001
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        Hi friends, I will shortly be sendin in pictures of my 'The Man Who Has
        Nothing Still' I hope ot will encourage others like my self who are not
        it a posiotion to go out and buy all the requierments of the designed
        stills. I have not completed mine as yet so do not know how it will
        perform!!! Hopefully if it will perform adequatly to the sum, of money put
        in.al


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      • mud !
        Dear Tony & Elle, I was considering modifing my stills reflux colum. From your prior advice you said my tower was too wide and short. The question I am posing
        Message 3 of 15 , Jun 27, 2001
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          Dear Tony & Elle,
          I was considering modifing my stills reflux colum. From your
          prior advice you said my tower was too wide and short.
          The question I am posing is that. Can I use the recommended colum
          size below if, I use a 1700w element and a 50lt still to do 40lt batches?
          Do I need to increase the size if my batch size is bigger?
          I look forward to your helpful advice,

          Cheers!
          Mud.

          >From: Tony & Elle Ackland <Tony.Ackland@...>
          >Reply-To: new_distillers@yahoogroups.com
          >To: 'New Distillers newsgroup' <new_distillers@yahoogroups.com>
          >Subject: [new_distillers] Reflux Still Design 101
          >Date: Wed, 27 Jun 2001 06:39:15 +1200
          >
          >Say you want to make a reflux still, capable of making 90%+ purity, to
          >handle say 20L of wash within 6 hours. The following is a basic primer on
          >how to go about it . For more details, see
          >http://www.geocities.com/kiwi_distiller/refluxdesign.htm
          >
          >For those of you who have been down this path - what other comments, advice
          >can you offer to those who are just starting out ? Which bits of this post
          >are bollocks ?
          >
          >Pot
          >
          >To hold 20L you want at least another 1/4 spare for foam, etc. So go for
          >something in the 25-30L range. I'd suggest something where you can easily
          >lock the lid down, but also be able to get into it fully to clean it out.
          >Suggestions include paint tins as seen in :
          >http://www.geocities.com/kiwi_distiller/image/walt_pot.jpg or
          >http://www.geocities.com/kiwi_distiller/image/AV25Lpot.jpg or a preserving
          >pad with a clipped lid like Teds at http://mwci.s5.com/
          >
          >These all have pretty thin lids, so to support the column, you may need a
          >small flange to help hold it all up, or a stiffening plate/oversized washer
          >to help strengthen the lid.
          >
          >Heating Element
          >
          >Probably in the 1000-1500 W size. Whats cost-effective for you ? A 1500W
          >element will heat up the contents to begin in around 65 minutes, but a
          >1000W will take 98 minutes. If time is crucial, you could add a second
          >element to act as a boost during the initial heat up.
          >
          >Column Sizing
          >
          >The diameter is based on the amount of heat you're using, whereas its
          >length determines what purity you'll get. Its a hobby still, so I've
          >assumed that the packing will be stainless steel or copper scourers - they
          >only take about 1/2 the height that marbles do to get the same purity. You
          >will also need to insulate the whole length of column too - plumbing
          >suppliers sell slip-on piping insulation for around NZ$8/m
          >
          >Diameter : 1inch is too narrow for a 1380W element, but 1.5 inch is fine
          >with a 1800W element. Roughly, lets say to use 1.25 inch for 1000W, 1.5
          >inch for 1500W and 1.75 inch for 2000W. If in doubt, go up in size by say
          >0.25 inch. Too narrow will lead to all manner of problems & difficult
          >operation, but too wide will only give a minimal reduction in purity.
          >
          >Height : This is the purity. Use the wee interactive applet at the start
          >of
          >http://www.geocities.com/kiwi_distiller/refluxdesign.htm to see how the
          >number of stages or HETP's improves the purity. Its easy to get the first
          >gains up to 90%, but then more difficult to squeeze out the last
          >improvements towards 95%+ Lets assume (we'll come back to this) that each
          >HETP for scrubbing pads is around 15cm... then for a 15% wash,
          >No packing, purity = 62% , 15cm packing = 82%, 30cm = 88%, 45cm = 90%, 60cm
          >= 92%, 75cm = 92.8%, 90cm = 93.4%, 105cm = 93.9%. These won't be exact,
          >and depend on a number of different factors, but it shouldn't be too far
          >off. So, if height is a problem, and you're happy with low 90's, then 60cm
          >should do ya. If you want to make a perfect vodka, go for 120cm. Normally
          >I'd recommend at least 100cm, but the choice is yours, as it depends on the
          >type of product you want to make.
          >
          >These numbers assume that we've reached equilbrium nicely for each 15cm of
          >packing. To do so, we need to provide heaps of surface area for the liquid
          >and vapour to mingle over (done - using scrubbers), and that we're
          >refluxing a large proportion of the vapour back down as liquid, rather than
          >keeping it. But this means that our take-off will be rather slow.
          >
          >Eg we may be able to start out with a reflux ratio of say 3-4 (ie return
          >30-40mL for every 10 mL we keep) when the pot is very rich in alcohol, but
          >later on, when its getting down in alcohol, we may need to increase this up
          >to 5-10 to keep the high purity.
          >
          >A reflux ratio of 4, with a 1500W element means that we're collecting at
          >around 20 mL/min. Thus a 20L 15% wash will take a minimum of 2.5 hours to
          >collect (20 mL/min), up to 5 hours at a reflux ratio of 8 (10 mL/min). The
          >actual time will be somewhere between these, depending on what ratio you
          >end up needing in order to deliver the purity you're after
          >
          >If the distilling time is taking too long, we can make the column taller,
          >and then run at a slightly smaller reflux ratio, to get the same purity.
          >
          >The collection rate is directly proportional to the element size, so if a
          >1500W element with reflux ratio of 4 takes 3 hours to distill, then 1000W
          >will take 4.5 hours, or a 2000W 2.25 hours.
          >
          >Making the Reflux
          >
          >Theres a couple of different options for how to provide the refluxing
          >liquid. The choices come down to how much control you want over it. See
          >the attached sketch.
          >
          >
          >
          >The first, simplest and cheapest, is just to have a cooling coil in the
          >head of the column, which is fed cooling water direct from the condensor.
          > This is the type of still where you just turn it on, and basically leave
          >it. Very little control. The amount of reflux will basically be a design
          >feature based on how much cooling surface area you provide via the coil.
          > You'll be able to up it slightly by increasing the water flowrate, but
          >it
          >won't be huge, as you're limited by surface area of the cooling coil. This
          >is fine if you want a simple to operate still, but with mediocre purity
          >resulting. You'll taper off towards the tails earlier in the run, rather
          >than being able to up the reflux to drive towards a very clean cut between
          >the middle run and the tails. Fine for say the whiskies & rums, and if
          >carbon polishing, but not so good for vodka.
          >
          >Second - plumb the cooling coil with its own water supply - say a T joint
          >off the main line, with a couple of valves to be able to regulate the water
          >to the coil seperately from the main condensor. Slightly more control, but
          >not a drastic improvement. But would allow you to say turn off the coil if
          >you want to do a stripping run, without affecting the performance of the
          >main condensor.
          >
          >For excellent instruction on fitting a coil, see Homers diagram :
          >http://www.geocities.com/kiwi_distiller/image/homer_coil.jpg or Phils
          >method (a couple of photos at
          >http://www.geocities.com/kiwi_distiller/others.htm.)
          >
          >If the main column is too narrow to have a coiling coil inside it, you can
          >always use a cold collar around the outside of it.
          >
          >There are excellent instructions for making the external condensor in the
          >"StillMaker" pdf book : http://www.geocities.com/kiwi_distiller/still.pdf
          >or at http://stillmaker.dreamhost.com Basically just use a couple of T
          >fittings, or if you're a dab hand at welding, just build it up yourself.
          > Another (easier) option is the "Euro" still condensor, where the cooling
          >water is simply fed in a tube up through the outlet pipe. See
          >http://www.geocities.com/kiwi_distiller/others3.htm for a photo of it.
          >
          >Third (my preferred option) is to do the Nixon style of condensor, as seen
          >at http://www.geocities.com/kiwi_distiller/others.htm , where all the
          >vapour is condensed (with an oversized coil - thus minimal water required),
          >and then you proportion off the amount of liquid you keep vs return. This
          >gives you maximum control over the reflux ratio, being able to dial it up
          >from "total reflux", essential for getting a column into equilbrium before
          >taking off the heads, through to "no reflux" if you want to do a stripping
          >run, or only a low reflux run say for a flavourful rum or the like. The
          >disadvantage of this design is that it adds to the height - say another 30
          >cm. But I reckon well worth it.
          >
          >Controls
          >
          >I prefer to only control the reflux ratio. If the column is wide enough,
          >then you don't need to worry about metering the heat input via the element.
          > Either up the water flowrate, or close down the take-off valve, in
          >response to the vapour temperature measured at the top of the column. Use
          >http://www.geocities.com/kiwi_distiller/image/vapour_purity.gif to compare
          >temperature to purity. Cheap (NZ$28 at www.dse.co.nz ) digital
          >thermometers are excellent for reading this temperature.
          >
          >
          >Summary
          >
          >So, in summary, to make a very cheap, short still, how about a 1500W
          >element, with a 1.5 inch by 60-70cm column, scrubber packing, and simple
          >external condensor (Euro style) & internal cooling coil of say 4-5 turns,
          >directly plumbed between the two.
          >
          >To make a more high performance still with more options on how to run it &
          >what products you can make from it, first make it taller, and then consider
          >using the nixon condensor
          >
          >
          >
          >Tony
          >
          >http://www.geocities.com/kiwi_distiller
          ><< condensors.gif >>

          _________________________________________________________________________
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        • Tony & Elle Ackland
          Mud, For a 1700W element you re probably looking to use a 1.5 to 2 inch diameter column if using stainless steel or copper scouring pads for column packing
          Message 4 of 15 , Jun 27, 2001
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            Mud,

            For a 1700W element you're probably looking to use a 1.5 to 2 inch diameter
            column if using stainless steel or copper scouring pads for column packing
            (best for purity). I find 1.5 inch is fine for my 1800W element. You may
            need to go slightly larger if using small marbles or the like, as they have
            less voidage than scrubbers (you'll need to double the height to get the
            same purity too).

            The column diameter is directly related to the amount of vapour & liquid
            going through it, which in turn are directly related to the amount of heat
            you're putting in. Eg 1700W will generate approx 89 mL/min (when
            condensed) of vapour off a 15% wash, regardless of how big the pot
            underneath is (provided you don't have huge amounts of waste heat lost).
            Calculate this yourself with
            http://www.geocities.com/kiwi_distiller/dtw.htm#use_fract

            The difference with a larger pot is that a 40L will take approx 110 minutes
            to heat up to distilling temperature, but 20L will be there in approx 55
            minutes with 1700W. So if this is too long, maybe you want a second
            element to help get the temperature up, but then turn it off when actually
            distilling. Calculate this yourself with the top bit of
            http://www.geocities.com/kiwi_distiller/pot_calc

            Tony
          • mastat04@aol.com
            i was planning on using just a 5 gallon plastic bucket from home depot as a boiler, but i cant seem to figure out how to keep the copper tubing of the column
            Message 5 of 15 , Jun 27, 2001
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              i was planning on using just a 5 gallon plastic bucket from home depot as a
              boiler, but i cant seem to figure out how to keep the copper tubing of the
              column to stay in the hole id drill in the top of the bucket with a tight
              seal, if anyone has any ideas id appreciate the help.
            • Tony & Elle Ackland
              Walter has used rubber grommets (like those in fermentors) sucessfully - see http://www.geocities.com/kiwi_distiller/designs.htm#make_pot for instructions and
              Message 6 of 15 , Jun 27, 2001
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                Walter has used rubber grommets (like those in fermentors) sucessfully -
                see http://www.geocities.com/kiwi_distiller/designs.htm#make_pot for
                instructions and photos

                They offer no support to the tubing, so you'll need to get the balance
                right etc, but they're a starting point.

                Tony
              • al lewis
                Hi I m going to use a similar bucket my intention is to rienforce the lid with a couple of thicknes of wood. The first one weill be cut circular to cover the
                Message 7 of 15 , Jun 28, 2001
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                  Hi I'm going to use a similar bucket my intention is to rienforce the lid
                  with a couple of thicknes of wood. The first one weill be cut circular to
                  cover the whole lid with a smaller one fixed to its center. A hole will be
                  cut throught the timber and plastic lid to exactly fit the copper pipe. hope
                  that give some idea of my way of going about it. arthu

                  >From: mastat04@...
                  >Reply-To: new_distillers@yahoogroups.com
                  >To: new_distillers@yahoogroups.com
                  >Subject: Re: [new_distillers] Reflux Still Design 101
                  >Date: Wed, 27 Jun 2001 23:41:51 EDT
                  >
                  >i was planning on using just a 5 gallon plastic bucket from home depot as a
                  >boiler, but i cant seem to figure out how to keep the copper tubing of the
                  >column to stay in the hole id drill in the top of the bucket with a tight
                  >seal, if anyone has any ideas id appreciate the help.

                  _________________________________________________________________________
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                • mastat04@aol.com
                  are you planning on using anything to make sure the fit with the lid and pipe is air tight, or just drill it close and make it as tight as possible? thanks for
                  Message 8 of 15 , Jun 28, 2001
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                    are you planning on using anything to make sure the fit with the lid and pipe
                    is air tight, or just drill it close and make it as tight as possible? thanks
                    for the input.
                  • mastat04@aol.com
                    if i use a 1.5 inch column for a reflux still how do i fit an internal cooling coil with 4-5 turns inside of that? thanks for the help.
                    Message 9 of 15 , Jun 28, 2001
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                      if i use a 1.5 inch column for a reflux still how do i fit an internal
                      cooling coil with 4-5 turns inside of that? thanks for the help.
                    • Ackland, Tony (CALNZAS)
                      Phil has done it for a 2 inch column - you can see the photos at http://www.geocities.com/kiwi_distiller/others.htm
                      Message 10 of 15 , Jun 28, 2001
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                        Phil has done it for a 2 inch column - you can see the photos at
                        http://www.geocities.com/kiwi_distiller/others.htm
                        <http://www.geocities.com/kiwi_distiller/others.htm>

                        Maybe he can share his technique with us in "new_distillers" ?

                        The way its done for the Nixon condensor is to use soft 3/16 copper tubing,
                        forming it around a 1 inch diameter length of pipe (with the return up the
                        center of it). The difficult bit is the really tight corner at the very
                        bottom - must take care not to crimp the tube there.

                        If you want enough cooling to be able to do a greater amount of reflux (e.g.
                        to be able to get high purity, and be able to put the column into total
                        reflux (so that you can equilibriate it at the start)), you may require more
                        than 4-5 turns. Maybe more like 12 inches of tightly coiled coil ?

                        Tony


                        -----Original Message-----
                        From: mastat04@... [mailto:mastat04@...]
                        Sent: Friday, 29 June 2001 13:59
                        To: new_distillers@yahoogroups.com
                        Subject: Re: [new_distillers] Reflux Still Design 101


                        if i use a 1.5 inch column for a reflux still how do i fit an internal
                        cooling coil with 4-5 turns inside of that? thanks for the help.
                      • mastat04@aol.com
                        if im making a reflux still what temperature can the water be that is flowing through the condenser? bc the only real access to water i would have would be
                        Message 11 of 15 , Jun 29, 2001
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                          if im making a reflux still what temperature can the water be that is flowing
                          through the condenser? bc the only real access to water i would have would be
                          from a faucet outside so it wouldnt be too cold. will that work? thanks for
                          the input
                        • Tony & Elle Ackland
                          ... The colder the water is, the more efficient the condensor will operate. But provided it is below the dewpoint of the vapour (eg 78C) it will work. Its just
                          Message 12 of 15 , Jun 29, 2001
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                            >what temperature can the water be that is flowing
                            >through the condenser?

                            The colder the water is, the more efficient the condensor will operate.
                            But provided it is below the dewpoint of the vapour (eg 78C) it will work.
                            Its just that you'll need more water, the warmer it is.

                            See http://www.geocities.com/kiwi_distiller/cond_calc.htm for a calculator
                            you can use to see how the flowrate of water changes, and also then the
                            lenght of condensor / surface area also increases, depending on the inlet
                            temperature

                            Tony
                          • al lewis
                            Hi, regarding the rienforcing of the plastic bucket. My idea is to cut a piece of timber to fit inside the raised lip of the lid on the outside about 1/2
                            Message 13 of 15 , Jun 29, 2001
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                              Hi, regarding the rienforcing of the plastic bucket. My idea is to cut a piece of timber

                              to fit inside the raised lip of the lid on the outside about 1/2" thick. Then add another

                              smaller piece on top 1/2" thick; probably another smaller piece still will be required

                              to make the 2" stable. I have circular saw cutters, I have tried on a piece of scrap

                              wood and the 2" pipe is a very tight fit. Will probably need a lubricant to get it

                              throught  the lid. Hopefuly this arangement will sufice. If you can think of a better

                              arrangement please let me know as I am now up to the stage of braising the condenser

                              onto the coloum.  One thing I have had to change. I couldnt find any 1 1/2" cu pipe

                              for the condenser. After wearing my shoes out I found a piece of plastic pipe the

                              correct diameter. I appreciate that the heat conduction will not be as good as cu but

                              have to use what I can get hold of. I feel sure that the difference in heat conduction

                              can be made up by turning up the water supply. arthur  

                              >From: mastat04@...
                              >Reply-To: new_distillers@yahoogroups.com
                              >To: new_distillers@yahoogroups.com
                              >Subject: Re: [new_distillers] Reflux Still Design 101
                              >Date: Thu, 28 Jun 2001 19:08:32 EDT
                              >
                              >are you planning on using anything to make sure the fit with the lid and pipe
                              >is air tight, or just drill it close and make it as tight as possible? thanks
                              >for the input.


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                            • Tony & Elle Ackland
                              Al - are you talking about having the plastic in contact with the alcohol, or just as the outer casing on the condensor. If the first - you may need to be
                              Message 14 of 15 , Jun 30, 2001
                              • 0 Attachment
                                Al - are you talking about having the plastic in contact with the alcohol,
                                or just as the outer casing on the condensor. If the first - you may need
                                to be careful about the grade of plastic, to make sure that it won't be
                                affected/leach stuff into the hot alcohol. If the later, then you've still
                                got a metal tube carrying the vapour, so the heat transfer from the cooling
                                water to the vapour won't be affected would it ?

                                Tony
                              • al lewis
                                Hi Tony/Elle. thank you for your message. No I couldnt find any 1 1/2 copper pipe for the outer of the condenser that is where the plastic pipe will be, just
                                Message 15 of 15 , Jul 1, 2001
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                                  Hi Tony/Elle. thank you for your message. No I couldnt find any 1 1/2"
                                  copper pipe for the outer of the condenser that is where the plastic
                                  pipe will be, just for the water jacket. Thank you for your interest and
                                  taking the time to mail me. Its moving along now, hope to get a picture
                                  in when its completed. thanks agein al/

                                  >From: Tony & Elle Ackland Reply-To: new_distillers@yahoogroups.com To: 'New
                                  >Distillers newsgroup' Subject: RE: [new_distillers] Reflux Still Design 101
                                  >Date: Sun, 1 Jul 2001 15:02:19 +1200
                                  >
                                  >Al - are you talking about having the plastic in contact with the alcohol,
                                  >or just as the outer casing on the condensor. If the first - you may need

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