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New Distillers FAQ

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  • Tony & Elle Ackland
    NEW DISTILLERS Frequently Asked Questions (Sept 00) Posted near the 1st of each month, to the NEW_DISTILLERS newsgroup at www.egroups.com Please email any
    Message 1 of 29 , Jan 5, 2001
      "NEW DISTILLERS" Frequently Asked Questions (Sept'00)

      Posted near the 1st of each month, to the NEW_DISTILLERS newsgroup at
      www.egroups.com

      Please email any additions, corrections, clarifications required, etc
      regarding the FAQ to Tony Ackland (ackland@...), however please
      direct any general questions to the newsgroup itself.

      *******************************************************************

      1) Is distilling hard to do ?
      2) Is it legal ?
      3) Will it make me blind ?
      4) Whats the difference between a pot still, reflux still, and
      fractionating column ?
      5) How do I get or make a still ?
      6) How do I make a whisky / rum / vodka / gin ?
      7) Should I use sugar or grains ?
      8) Can I use fruit wine ?
      9) How do I get rid of that "off-taste" ?
      10) How do I measure the strength of it & dilute it ?
      11) How do I flavour/turn the vodka's into something else ?
      12) What web resources are there ?
      13) How do I contact the NEW DISTILLERS news group ?
      14) Can I run my car on it ?
      15) How do I convert between gallons and litres and ....
      16) What is a "Thumper" ?

      **********************************************************************
      1) Is distilling hard to do ?
      Nope - if you can follow instructions enough to bake scones, then you can
      sucessfully distil. To distil well however, will require you to understand
      what you're doing, so read around and get a bit of information under your
      belt before you begin.
      2) Is it legal ?
      Probably not. It is only legal in New Zealand, and some European countries
      turn a blind eye to it, but elsewhere it is illegal, with punishment
      ranging from fines to imprisonment or floggings. This action against it is
      usually the result of either religous beliefs (right or wrong), but more
      generally due to the great revenue base it provides Governements through
      excise taxes. So if you are going to distil, just be aware of the potential
      legal ramifications.
      3) Will it make me blind ?
      Not if you're careful. This pervasive question is due to moonshine lore,
      which abounds with myths of blindness, but few actual documented cases. The
      concern is due to the presence of methanol (wood alcohol), an optic nerve
      poison, which can be present in small amounts when fermenting grains or
      fruits high in pectin. This methanol comes off first from the still, so it
      is easily segregated and discarded. A simple rule of thumb for this is to
      throw away the first 50 mL you collect (per 20 L mash used). Probably the
      greatest risk to your health during distilling is the risk of fire -
      collecting a flammable liquid near a heat source. So keep a fire
      extinguisher nearby.
      4) Whats the difference between a pot still, reflux still, and
      fractionating column ?
      A pot still simply collects and condenses the alcohol vapours that come off
      the boiling mash. This will result in an alcohol at about 40-60% purity,
      with plenty of flavour in it. If this distillate were put through the pot
      still again, it would increase in purity to around 70-85% purity, and lose
      a bit of its flavour.

      A reflux still does these multiple distillations in one single go, by
      having some packing in a column between the condensor & the pot, and
      allowing some of the vapour to condense and trickle back down through the
      packing. This "reflux" of liquid helps clean the rising vapour and increase
      the % purity. The taller the packed column, and the more reflux liquid, the
      purer the product will be. The advantage of doing this is that it will
      result in a clean vodka, with little flavour to it - ideal for mixing with
      flavours etc.

      A fractionating column is a pure form of the reflux still. It will condense
      all the vapour at the top of the packing, and return about 9/10 back down
      the column. The column will be quite tall - say 600-1200mm (2-4 foot), and
      packed with a material high in surface area, but which takes up little
      space (pot scrubbers are good for this). It will result in an alcohol 95%+
      pure (the theoretical limit without using a vacuum is 95.6%), with no other
      tastes or impurities in it.
      5) How do I get or make a still ?
      If you're after a pot still, these are generally home made using what-ever
      you have at hand - say copper tubing and old water heaters or pressure
      cookers. Reflux stills can be made from plans on the net, or bought from
      several manufacturers. For reflux stil plans see Stillmakers :
      http://stillmaker.dreamhost.com/ (free!) or Gert Strands :
      http://partyman.se/Engelsk/default.htm (US$5), or for a fractionating
      column see Nixon & Stones : http://www.gin-vodka.com/ (US$8). See the list
      of "web resources" below for links to sites selling ready-made stills.

      Regarding the choice of heating for the still - if you have 240V available
      it is usually easiest to control & safer (particularly with internal
      elements). Gas can be used, but more care is needed to keep the collection
      container further away and not letting it overfill.
      6) How do I make a whisky / vodka / rum / gin ?
      Whiskey : Heat 4 kg cracked or crushed malt with 18 L of water to 63-65C,
      and hold there for 1-1.5 hours. Heat to 73-75C, then strain off and keep
      liquid, using 250 mL of hot water to rinse the grains. Cool to below 30C
      (should have an initial specific gravity of 1.050). Add hydrated yeast &
      leave to ferment (maintain at 26C) until airlock stops bubbling and final
      SG of around 1.010. Let settle for a day, then syphon carefully into a pot
      still. Discard the first 50 mL's, collect the next 2-3L of distillate or
      until you start noticing the tails coming through.

      Vodka : dissolve 5 kg of sugar & 60g of nutrients in 20L of water, cool to
      below 30C and add hydrated yeast. Leave to ferment at 25C until below an SG
      of around 0.990, then settle for a day. Syphon into a reflux or
      fractionating still, and collect as per usual.

      Rum : as per vodka, but use some brown sugar or mollasses, to give an
      initial specific gravity (SG) of around 1.06 - 1.07. Run through either a
      pot still, or a not-so-great reflux still.

      Gin : make a very pure vodka, then add the following essence. Simmer 35g of
      juniper berries in 350 mL of 50% vodka for ten minutes with the lid on, let
      cool overnight, then filter through coffee filters. Use 5-10 mL of this
      essence per bottle of vodka.

      When doing any fermenting, take a lot of care to ensure that any items used
      are clean/sterile (soaking them in a water + bleach (10 mL per litre) ), or
      else the wash can start growing other things. Use a closed fermenter with
      an airlock too, to let the CO2 out without letting wild yeasts, bugs etc
      in. For more information about fermenting, see beer or wine homebrewing
      sites.
      7) Should I use sugar or grains ?
      It depends on what sort of still you have, and what you are trying to make.
      If you have a reflux or fractionating still, only use whatever is cheapest
      (usually sugar), as the refluxing will strip out all the flavours anyhow.
      If you have a pot still, and are after a bourban or whiskey, then you need
      to go the grain route, or mollasses if after a rum. If you are trying to
      make a neutral spirit for flavouring, go for sugar.
      8) Can I use fruit wine ?
      Sure, if you have it available. Again, using a pot still will result in a
      brandy/grappa/schnapps, whereas a reflux still will just strip it down to
      neutral spirit.
      9) How do I get rid of that "off-taste" ?
      That "rough moonshine edge" or "off-taste / wet cardboard smell" is due to
      impurities such as the higher order alcohols, known as cogeners or fusel
      oils. These will be present more when using a pot still, less if using a
      reflux still, and just about absent if using a fractionating column. So one
      way is to use a taller packed column and increase the amount of reflux
      occuring. They can also indicate that you've tried to collect too much of
      the alcohol, and have run into the "tails"; so finish collecting a little
      bit earlier next time. Soaking tainted alcohol with activated carbon for a
      week (or even months) will help remove some of this flavour - this is known
      as "polishing" the spirit.
      10) How do I measure the strength of it & dilute it ?
      You need a hydrometer. This is a wee float, with a scale inside it. The
      more alcohol that is present, the lighter the density of the liquid, so the
      hydrometer sinks a bit lower. You then just read off the scale how much
      alcohol is present. You need a seperate hydrometer for measuring the
      density of the mash, as this is generally > 1.0, whereas the spirit is <
      1.0, and they can't accurately do both ends of the scale.
      11) How do I flavour/turn the vodka's into something else ?
      There are now many commercial flavourings available, which turn vodka or
      neutral alcohol into pretty decent gin or whiskey, or all manor of
      liqueurs. See the commercial sites, like Des Zines
      http://homepages.ihug.co.nz/~topkiwi or Ray Toms http://moonshine.co.nz/
      for details.Or you can soak it with oak chips and make whiskey, or soak
      fruits in it to make your own liqueurs.
      12) What web resources are there ?
      For more details, see :
      Tony Ackland's http://www.geocities.com/kiwi_distiller
      Aaron Smiths's http://www.go.to/distillation
      Steve Spence's http://www.webconx.com/ethanol.htm
      13) How do I contact the NEW DISTILLERS news group ?
      Both the NEW DISTILLERS and the DISTILLERS news groups are available via
      Egroups, at http://www.egroups.com . NEW DISTILLERS is, as the name
      suggests, intended for those of you new to distilling and after simple,
      straight-forward discussions, whereas the DISTILLERS group is a bit more
      advanced, throwing in bits of design philosophy, theory, and alternative
      ways of achieving the results. Both tend to overlap to some extent.
      14) Can I run my car on it ?
      You can run your car on alcohol over about 80% purity. See Steve Spences
      site for more details. In addition, in the USA, you can get a "small fuel
      producer" permit, which allows small scale distilling for "motor fuel"
      purposes. A nice advantage is that they don't require denaturing for "fuel"
      used on the premises. The regulations are posted at
      http://www.webconx.com/ethanolusaregs.htm
      15) How do I convert between gallons and litres and ....
      To convert between SI & Imperial units, multiply the first unit by the
      conversion factor to get the second. Divide back to do it in reverse .eg 1L
      = 0.264 US gal, so 20 L = 20 x 0.264 = 5.28 US gal, and 20 US gal / 0.264 =
      75.76 L

      1 L = 0.264 US gal = 0.221 UK gal
      1 L = 1.057 US qt = 0.880 UK qt
      1 kg = 2.204 lbm = 32.15 oz (troy) = 35.27 oz (av)
      deg F = ((9/5) x deg C )+ 32
      1m = 1000 mm = 39.37 inch = 3.28 ft = 1.09 yd
      16) What is a "Thumper" ?
      A "thumper" is an extra chamber sometimes fitted to a pot still. It can be
      as simple as a glass jar with two holes in the lid. The off-take from the
      still is fed into it, with the pipe running almost all the way to the
      bottom of the jar; the jar is half filled with liquid (water or mash or
      tails) so that the vapour from the still will bubble up through it; then
      the vapour coming off it is collected & cooled as per normal. It acts as a
      second distilling chamber using just the heat from the vapour, and lifts
      the purity from 50-60% to 70-80%, hence improving what might otherwise be a
      very mediocre design.
    • Tony & Elle Ackland
      New Distillers FAQ ****************************************************************** NEW DISTILLERS Frequently Asked Questions (Sept 00) Posted near the 1st
      Message 2 of 29 , Mar 3, 2001
        New Distillers FAQ
        ******************************************************************
        "NEW DISTILLERS" Frequently Asked Questions (Sept'00)

        Posted near the 1st of each month, to the NEW_DISTILLERS newsgroup at
        www.egroups.com

        Please email any additions, corrections, clarifications required, etc
        regarding the FAQ to Tony Ackland (ackland@...), however please
        direct any general questions to the newsgroup itself.

        *******************************************************************

        1) Is distilling hard to do ?
        2) Is it legal ?
        3) Will it make me blind ?
        4) Whats the difference between a pot still, reflux still, and
        fractionating column ?
        5) How do I get or make a still ?
        6) How do I make a whisky / rum / vodka / gin ?
        7) Should I use sugar or grains ?
        8) Can I use fruit wine ?
        9) How do I get rid of that "off-taste" ?
        10) How do I measure the strength of it & dilute it ?
        11) How do I flavour/turn the vodka's into something else ?
        12) What web resources are there ?
        13) How do I contact the NEW DISTILLERS news group ?
        14) Can I run my car on it ?
        15) How do I convert between gallons and litres and ....
        16) What is a "Thumper" ?

        **********************************************************************
        1) Is distilling hard to do ?
        Nope - if you can follow instructions enough to bake scones, then you can
        sucessfully distil. To distil well however, will require you to understand
        what you're doing, so read around and get a bit of information under your
        belt before you begin.
        2) Is it legal ?
        Probably not. It is only legal in New Zealand, and some European countries
        turn a blind eye to it, but elsewhere it is illegal, with punishment
        ranging from fines to imprisonment or floggings. This action against it is
        usually the result of either religous beliefs (right or wrong), but more
        generally due to the great revenue base it provides Governements through
        excise taxes. So if you are going to distil, just be aware of the potential
        legal ramifications.
        3) Will it make me blind ?
        Not if you're careful. This pervasive question is due to moonshine lore,
        which abounds with myths of blindness, but few actual documented cases. The
        concern is due to the presence of methanol (wood alcohol), an optic nerve
        poison, which can be present in small amounts when fermenting grains or
        fruits high in pectin. This methanol comes off first from the still, so it
        is easily segregated and discarded. A simple rule of thumb for this is to
        throw away the first 50 mL you collect (per 20 L mash used). Probably the
        greatest risk to your health during distilling is the risk of fire -
        collecting a flammable liquid near a heat source. So keep a fire
        extinguisher nearby.
        4) Whats the difference between a pot still, reflux still, and
        fractionating column ?
        A pot still simply collects and condenses the alcohol vapours that come off
        the boiling mash. This will result in an alcohol at about 40-60% purity,
        with plenty of flavour in it. If this distillate were put through the pot
        still again, it would increase in purity to around 70-85% purity, and lose
        a bit of its flavour.

        A reflux still does these multiple distillations in one single go, by
        having some packing in a column between the condensor & the pot, and
        allowing some of the vapour to condense and trickle back down through the
        packing. This "reflux" of liquid helps clean the rising vapour and increase
        the % purity. The taller the packed column, and the more reflux liquid, the
        purer the product will be. The advantage of doing this is that it will
        result in a clean vodka, with little flavour to it - ideal for mixing with
        flavours etc.

        A fractionating column is a pure form of the reflux still. It will condense
        all the vapour at the top of the packing, and return about 9/10 back down
        the column. The column will be quite tall - say 600-1200mm (2-4 foot), and
        packed with a material high in surface area, but which takes up little
        space (pot scrubbers are good for this). It will result in an alcohol 95%+
        pure (the theoretical limit without using a vacuum is 95.6%), with no other
        tastes or impurities in it.
        5) How do I get or make a still ?
        If you're after a pot still, these are generally home made using what-ever
        you have at hand - say copper tubing and old water heaters or pressure
        cookers. Reflux stills can be made from plans on the net, or bought from
        several manufacturers. For reflux stil plans see Stillmakers :
        http://stillmaker.dreamhost.com/ (free!) or Gert Strands :
        http://partyman.se/Engelsk/default.htm (US$5), or for a fractionating
        column see Nixon & Stones : http://www.gin-vodka.com/ (US$8). See the list
        of "web resources" below for links to sites selling ready-made stills.

        Regarding the choice of heating for the still - if you have 240V available
        it is usually easiest to control & safer (particularly with internal
        elements). Gas can be used, but more care is needed to keep the collection
        container further away and not letting it overfill.
        6) How do I make a whisky / vodka / rum / gin ?
        Whiskey : Heat 4 kg cracked or crushed malt with 18 L of water to 63-65C,
        and hold there for 1-1.5 hours. Heat to 73-75C, then strain off and keep
        liquid, using 250 mL of hot water to rinse the grains. Cool to below 30C
        (should have an initial specific gravity of 1.050). Add hydrated yeast &
        leave to ferment (maintain at 26C) until airlock stops bubbling and final
        SG of around 1.010. Let settle for a day, then syphon carefully into a pot
        still. Discard the first 50 mL's, collect the next 2-3L of distillate or
        until you start noticing the tails coming through.

        Vodka : dissolve 5 kg of sugar & 60g of nutrients in 20L of water, cool to
        below 30C and add hydrated yeast. Leave to ferment at 25C until below an SG
        of around 0.990, then settle for a day. Syphon into a reflux or
        fractionating still, and collect as per usual.

        Rum : as per vodka, but use some brown sugar or mollasses, to give an
        initial specific gravity (SG) of around 1.06 - 1.07. Run through either a
        pot still, or a not-so-great reflux still.

        Gin : make a very pure vodka, then add the following essence. Simmer 35g of
        juniper berries in 350 mL of 50% vodka for ten minutes with the lid on, let
        cool overnight, then filter through coffee filters. Use 5-10 mL of this
        essence per bottle of vodka.

        When doing any fermenting, take a lot of care to ensure that any items used
        are clean/sterile (soaking them in a water + bleach (10 mL per litre) ), or
        else the wash can start growing other things. Use a closed fermenter with
        an airlock too, to let the CO2 out without letting wild yeasts, bugs etc
        in. For more information about fermenting, see beer or wine homebrewing
        sites.
        7) Should I use sugar or grains ?
        It depends on what sort of still you have, and what you are trying to make.
        If you have a reflux or fractionating still, only use whatever is cheapest
        (usually sugar), as the refluxing will strip out all the flavours anyhow.
        If you have a pot still, and are after a bourban or whiskey, then you need
        to go the grain route, or mollasses if after a rum. If you are trying to
        make a neutral spirit for flavouring, go for sugar.
        8) Can I use fruit wine ?
        Sure, if you have it available. Again, using a pot still will result in a
        brandy/grappa/schnapps, whereas a reflux still will just strip it down to
        neutral spirit.
        9) How do I get rid of that "off-taste" ?
        That "rough moonshine edge" or "off-taste / wet cardboard smell" is due to
        impurities such as the higher order alcohols, known as cogeners or fusel
        oils. These will be present more when using a pot still, less if using a
        reflux still, and just about absent if using a fractionating column. So one
        way is to use a taller packed column and increase the amount of reflux
        occuring. They can also indicate that you've tried to collect too much of
        the alcohol, and have run into the "tails"; so finish collecting a little
        bit earlier next time. Soaking tainted alcohol with activated carbon for a
        week (or even months) will help remove some of this flavour - this is known
        as "polishing" the spirit.
        10) How do I measure the strength of it & dilute it ?
        You need a hydrometer. This is a wee float, with a scale inside it. The
        more alcohol that is present, the lighter the density of the liquid, so the
        hydrometer sinks a bit lower. You then just read off the scale how much
        alcohol is present. You need a seperate hydrometer for measuring the
        density of the mash, as this is generally > 1.0, whereas the spirit is <
        1.0, and they can't accurately do both ends of the scale.
        11) How do I flavour/turn the vodka's into something else ?
        There are now many commercial flavourings available, which turn vodka or
        neutral alcohol into pretty decent gin or whiskey, or all manor of
        liqueurs. See the commercial sites, like Des Zines
        http://homepages.ihug.co.nz/~topkiwi or Ray Toms http://moonshine.co.nz/
        for details.Or you can soak it with oak chips and make whiskey, or soak
        fruits in it to make your own liqueurs.
        12) What web resources are there ?
        For more details, see :
        Tony Ackland's http://www.geocities.com/kiwi_distiller
        Aaron Smiths's http://www.go.to/distillation
        Steve Spence's http://www.webconx.com/ethanol.htm
        13) How do I contact the NEW DISTILLERS news group ?
        Both the NEW DISTILLERS and the DISTILLERS news groups are available via
        Egroups, at http://www.egroups.com . NEW DISTILLERS is, as the name
        suggests, intended for those of you new to distilling and after simple,
        straight-forward discussions, whereas the DISTILLERS group is a bit more
        advanced, throwing in bits of design philosophy, theory, and alternative
        ways of achieving the results. Both tend to overlap to some extent.
        14) Can I run my car on it ?
        You can run your car on alcohol over about 80% purity. See Steve Spences
        site for more details. In addition, in the USA, you can get a "small fuel
        producer" permit, which allows small scale distilling for "motor fuel"
        purposes. A nice advantage is that they don't require denaturing for "fuel"
        used on the premises. The regulations are posted at
        http://www.webconx.com/ethanolusaregs.htm
        15) How do I convert between gallons and litres and ....
        To convert between SI & Imperial units, multiply the first unit by the
        conversion factor to get the second. Divide back to do it in reverse .eg 1L
        = 0.264 US gal, so 20 L = 20 x 0.264 = 5.28 US gal, and 20 US gal / 0.264 =
        75.76 L

        1 L = 0.264 US gal = 0.221 UK gal
        1 L = 1.057 US qt = 0.880 UK qt
        1 kg = 2.204 lbm = 32.15 oz (troy) = 35.27 oz (av)
        deg F = ((9/5) x deg C )+ 32
        1m = 1000 mm = 39.37 inch = 3.28 ft = 1.09 yd
        16) What is a "Thumper" ?
        A "thumper" is an extra chamber sometimes fitted to a pot still. It can be
        as simple as a glass jar with two holes in the lid. The off-take from the
        still is fed into it, with the pipe running almost all the way to the
        bottom of the jar; the jar is half filled with liquid (water or mash or
        tails) so that the vapour from the still will bubble up through it; then
        the vapour coming off it is collected & cooled as per normal. It acts as a
        second distilling chamber using just the heat from the vapour, and lifts
        the purity from 50-60% to 70-80%, hence improving what might otherwise be a
        very mediocre design.
      • janpam ooms
        Can anyone tell me where to buy nutrients and the proper yeasts for distilling in Australia. Thank you. Jan. ...
        Message 3 of 29 , Mar 28, 2001
          Can anyone tell me where to buy nutrients and the proper yeasts for
          distilling in Australia. Thank you. Jan.


          >From: Tony & Elle Ackland <Tony.Ackland@...>
          >Reply-To: new_distillers@yahoogroups.com
          >To: 'New Distillers newsgroup' <new_distillers@yahoogroups.com>
          >CC: 'Distillers newsgroup' <Distillers@yahoogroups.com>
          >Subject: [new_distillers] New Distillers FAQ
          >Date: Sun, 4 Mar 2001 12:26:41 +1300
          >
          >New Distillers FAQ
          >******************************************************************
          >"NEW DISTILLERS" Frequently Asked Questions (Sept'00)
          >
          >Posted near the 1st of each month, to the NEW_DISTILLERS newsgroup at
          >www.egroups.com
          >
          >Please email any additions, corrections, clarifications required, etc
          >regarding the FAQ to Tony Ackland (ackland@...), however please
          >direct any general questions to the newsgroup itself.
          >
          >*******************************************************************
          >
          >1) Is distilling hard to do ?
          >2) Is it legal ?
          >3) Will it make me blind ?
          >4) Whats the difference between a pot still, reflux still, and
          >fractionating column ?
          >5) How do I get or make a still ?
          >6) How do I make a whisky / rum / vodka / gin ?
          >7) Should I use sugar or grains ?
          >8) Can I use fruit wine ?
          >9) How do I get rid of that "off-taste" ?
          >10) How do I measure the strength of it & dilute it ?
          >11) How do I flavour/turn the vodka's into something else ?
          >12) What web resources are there ?
          >13) How do I contact the NEW DISTILLERS news group ?
          >14) Can I run my car on it ?
          >15) How do I convert between gallons and litres and ....
          >16) What is a "Thumper" ?
          >
          >**********************************************************************
          >1) Is distilling hard to do ?
          >Nope - if you can follow instructions enough to bake scones, then you can
          >sucessfully distil. To distil well however, will require you to understand
          >what you're doing, so read around and get a bit of information under your
          >belt before you begin.
          >2) Is it legal ?
          >Probably not. It is only legal in New Zealand, and some European countries
          >turn a blind eye to it, but elsewhere it is illegal, with punishment
          >ranging from fines to imprisonment or floggings. This action against it is
          >usually the result of either religous beliefs (right or wrong), but more
          >generally due to the great revenue base it provides Governements through
          >excise taxes. So if you are going to distil, just be aware of the potential
          >legal ramifications.
          >3) Will it make me blind ?
          >Not if you're careful. This pervasive question is due to moonshine lore,
          >which abounds with myths of blindness, but few actual documented cases. The
          >concern is due to the presence of methanol (wood alcohol), an optic nerve
          >poison, which can be present in small amounts when fermenting grains or
          >fruits high in pectin. This methanol comes off first from the still, so it
          >is easily segregated and discarded. A simple rule of thumb for this is to
          >throw away the first 50 mL you collect (per 20 L mash used). Probably the
          >greatest risk to your health during distilling is the risk of fire -
          >collecting a flammable liquid near a heat source. So keep a fire
          >extinguisher nearby.
          >4) Whats the difference between a pot still, reflux still, and
          >fractionating column ?
          >A pot still simply collects and condenses the alcohol vapours that come off
          >the boiling mash. This will result in an alcohol at about 40-60% purity,
          >with plenty of flavour in it. If this distillate were put through the pot
          >still again, it would increase in purity to around 70-85% purity, and lose
          >a bit of its flavour.
          >
          >A reflux still does these multiple distillations in one single go, by
          >having some packing in a column between the condensor & the pot, and
          >allowing some of the vapour to condense and trickle back down through the
          >packing. This "reflux" of liquid helps clean the rising vapour and increase
          >the % purity. The taller the packed column, and the more reflux liquid, the
          >purer the product will be. The advantage of doing this is that it will
          >result in a clean vodka, with little flavour to it - ideal for mixing with
          >flavours etc.
          >
          >A fractionating column is a pure form of the reflux still. It will condense
          >all the vapour at the top of the packing, and return about 9/10 back down
          >the column. The column will be quite tall - say 600-1200mm (2-4 foot), and
          >packed with a material high in surface area, but which takes up little
          >space (pot scrubbers are good for this). It will result in an alcohol 95%+
          >pure (the theoretical limit without using a vacuum is 95.6%), with no other
          >tastes or impurities in it.
          >5) How do I get or make a still ?
          >If you're after a pot still, these are generally home made using what-ever
          >you have at hand - say copper tubing and old water heaters or pressure
          >cookers. Reflux stills can be made from plans on the net, or bought from
          >several manufacturers. For reflux stil plans see Stillmakers :
          >http://stillmaker.dreamhost.com/ (free!) or Gert Strands :
          >http://partyman.se/Engelsk/default.htm (US$5), or for a fractionating
          >column see Nixon & Stones : http://www.gin-vodka.com/ (US$8). See the list
          >of "web resources" below for links to sites selling ready-made stills.
          >
          >Regarding the choice of heating for the still - if you have 240V available
          >it is usually easiest to control & safer (particularly with internal
          >elements). Gas can be used, but more care is needed to keep the collection
          >container further away and not letting it overfill.
          >6) How do I make a whisky / vodka / rum / gin ?
          >Whiskey : Heat 4 kg cracked or crushed malt with 18 L of water to 63-65C,
          >and hold there for 1-1.5 hours. Heat to 73-75C, then strain off and keep
          >liquid, using 250 mL of hot water to rinse the grains. Cool to below 30C
          >(should have an initial specific gravity of 1.050). Add hydrated yeast &
          >leave to ferment (maintain at 26C) until airlock stops bubbling and final
          >SG of around 1.010. Let settle for a day, then syphon carefully into a pot
          >still. Discard the first 50 mL's, collect the next 2-3L of distillate or
          >until you start noticing the tails coming through.
          >
          >Vodka : dissolve 5 kg of sugar & 60g of nutrients in 20L of water, cool to
          >below 30C and add hydrated yeast. Leave to ferment at 25C until below an SG
          >of around 0.990, then settle for a day. Syphon into a reflux or
          >fractionating still, and collect as per usual.
          >
          >Rum : as per vodka, but use some brown sugar or mollasses, to give an
          >initial specific gravity (SG) of around 1.06 - 1.07. Run through either a
          >pot still, or a not-so-great reflux still.
          >
          >Gin : make a very pure vodka, then add the following essence. Simmer 35g of
          >juniper berries in 350 mL of 50% vodka for ten minutes with the lid on, let
          >cool overnight, then filter through coffee filters. Use 5-10 mL of this
          >essence per bottle of vodka.
          >
          >When doing any fermenting, take a lot of care to ensure that any items used
          >are clean/sterile (soaking them in a water + bleach (10 mL per litre) ), or
          >else the wash can start growing other things. Use a closed fermenter with
          >an airlock too, to let the CO2 out without letting wild yeasts, bugs etc
          >in. For more information about fermenting, see beer or wine homebrewing
          >sites.
          >7) Should I use sugar or grains ?
          >It depends on what sort of still you have, and what you are trying to make.
          >If you have a reflux or fractionating still, only use whatever is cheapest
          >(usually sugar), as the refluxing will strip out all the flavours anyhow.
          >If you have a pot still, and are after a bourban or whiskey, then you need
          >to go the grain route, or mollasses if after a rum. If you are trying to
          >make a neutral spirit for flavouring, go for sugar.
          >8) Can I use fruit wine ?
          >Sure, if you have it available. Again, using a pot still will result in a
          >brandy/grappa/schnapps, whereas a reflux still will just strip it down to
          >neutral spirit.
          >9) How do I get rid of that "off-taste" ?
          >That "rough moonshine edge" or "off-taste / wet cardboard smell" is due to
          >impurities such as the higher order alcohols, known as cogeners or fusel
          >oils. These will be present more when using a pot still, less if using a
          >reflux still, and just about absent if using a fractionating column. So one
          >way is to use a taller packed column and increase the amount of reflux
          >occuring. They can also indicate that you've tried to collect too much of
          >the alcohol, and have run into the "tails"; so finish collecting a little
          >bit earlier next time. Soaking tainted alcohol with activated carbon for a
          >week (or even months) will help remove some of this flavour - this is known
          >as "polishing" the spirit.
          >10) How do I measure the strength of it & dilute it ?
          >You need a hydrometer. This is a wee float, with a scale inside it. The
          >more alcohol that is present, the lighter the density of the liquid, so the
          >hydrometer sinks a bit lower. You then just read off the scale how much
          >alcohol is present. You need a seperate hydrometer for measuring the
          >density of the mash, as this is generally > 1.0, whereas the spirit is <
          >1.0, and they can't accurately do both ends of the scale.
          >11) How do I flavour/turn the vodka's into something else ?
          >There are now many commercial flavourings available, which turn vodka or
          >neutral alcohol into pretty decent gin or whiskey, or all manor of
          >liqueurs. See the commercial sites, like Des Zines
          >http://homepages.ihug.co.nz/~topkiwi or Ray Toms http://moonshine.co.nz/
          >for details.Or you can soak it with oak chips and make whiskey, or soak
          >fruits in it to make your own liqueurs.
          >12) What web resources are there ?
          >For more details, see :
          >Tony Ackland's http://www.geocities.com/kiwi_distiller
          >Aaron Smiths's http://www.go.to/distillation
          >Steve Spence's http://www.webconx.com/ethanol.htm
          >13) How do I contact the NEW DISTILLERS news group ?
          >Both the NEW DISTILLERS and the DISTILLERS news groups are available via
          >Egroups, at http://www.egroups.com . NEW DISTILLERS is, as the name
          >suggests, intended for those of you new to distilling and after simple,
          >straight-forward discussions, whereas the DISTILLERS group is a bit more
          >advanced, throwing in bits of design philosophy, theory, and alternative
          >ways of achieving the results. Both tend to overlap to some extent.
          >14) Can I run my car on it ?
          >You can run your car on alcohol over about 80% purity. See Steve Spences
          >site for more details. In addition, in the USA, you can get a "small fuel
          >producer" permit, which allows small scale distilling for "motor fuel"
          >purposes. A nice advantage is that they don't require denaturing for "fuel"
          >used on the premises. The regulations are posted at
          >http://www.webconx.com/ethanolusaregs.htm
          >15) How do I convert between gallons and litres and ....
          >To convert between SI & Imperial units, multiply the first unit by the
          >conversion factor to get the second. Divide back to do it in reverse .eg 1L
          >= 0.264 US gal, so 20 L = 20 x 0.264 = 5.28 US gal, and 20 US gal / 0.264 =
          >75.76 L
          >
          >1 L = 0.264 US gal = 0.221 UK gal
          >1 L = 1.057 US qt = 0.880 UK qt
          >1 kg = 2.204 lbm = 32.15 oz (troy) = 35.27 oz (av)
          >deg F = ((9/5) x deg C )+ 32
          >1m = 1000 mm = 39.37 inch = 3.28 ft = 1.09 yd
          >16) What is a "Thumper" ?
          >A "thumper" is an extra chamber sometimes fitted to a pot still. It can be
          >as simple as a glass jar with two holes in the lid. The off-take from the
          >still is fed into it, with the pipe running almost all the way to the
          >bottom of the jar; the jar is half filled with liquid (water or mash or
          >tails) so that the vapour from the still will bubble up through it; then
          >the vapour coming off it is collected & cooled as per normal. It acts as a
          >second distilling chamber using just the heat from the vapour, and lifts
          >the purity from 50-60% to 70-80%, hence improving what might otherwise be a
          >very mediocre design.
          >

          _________________________________________________________________________
          Get Your Private, Free E-mail from MSN Hotmail at http://www.hotmail.com
        • Lynne
          ... Jan, I don t know if anyone replied to you offline, but just in case they didn t ... you could start looking for a source from this link:
          Message 4 of 29 , Apr 1, 2001
            At 05:00 AM 3/29/01 +1000, you wrote:
            >Can anyone tell me where to buy nutrients and the proper yeasts for
            >distilling in Australia. Thank you. Jan.
            >
            Jan,

            I don't know if anyone replied to you offline, but just in case they didn't ...
            you could start looking for a source from this link:
            http://www.stillspirits.com/storelocation.htm

            Cheers,
            Lynne
          • janpam ooms
            Thanks Lynne,i will try them too,but i like to experiment with some different combinations of yeast and nutrients.I am also going to have a try on this mixture
            Message 5 of 29 , Apr 2, 2001
              Thanks Lynne,i will try them too,but i like to experiment with some
              different combinations of yeast and nutrients.I am also going to have a try
              on this mixture of bakers yeast and tomatoe paste to get this so called
              good, triple distilled vodka Thanks again. jan


              >From: Lynne <ellemm@...>
              >Reply-To: new_distillers@yahoogroups.com
              >To: new_distillers@yahoogroups.com
              >Subject: Re: [new_distillers] New Distillers FAQ
              >Date: Mon, 02 Apr 2001 10:56:34 +1200
              >
              >At 05:00 AM 3/29/01 +1000, you wrote:
              > >Can anyone tell me where to buy nutrients and the proper yeasts for
              > >distilling in Australia. Thank you. Jan.
              > >
              >Jan,
              >
              >I don't know if anyone replied to you offline, but just in case they didn't
              >...
              >you could start looking for a source from this link:
              >http://www.stillspirits.com/storelocation.htm
              >
              >Cheers,
              >Lynne
              >

              _________________________________________________________________________
              Get Your Private, Free E-mail from MSN Hotmail at http://www.hotmail.com
            • Tony & Elle Ackland
              New Distillers FAQ ****************************************************************** NEW DISTILLERS Frequently Asked Questions (Sept 00) Posted near the 1st
              Message 6 of 29 , Apr 27, 2001
                New Distillers FAQ
                ******************************************************************
                "NEW DISTILLERS" Frequently Asked Questions (Sept'00)

                Posted near the 1st of each month, to the NEW_DISTILLERS newsgroup at
                www.yahoogroups.com

                Please email any additions, corrections, clarifications required, etc
                regarding the FAQ to Tony Ackland (ackland@...), however please
                direct any general questions to the newsgroup itself.

                *******************************************************************

                1) Is distilling hard to do ?
                2) Is it legal ?
                3) Will it make me blind ?
                4) Whats the difference between a pot still, reflux still, and
                fractionating column ?
                5) How do I get or make a still ?
                6) How do I make a whisky / rum / vodka / gin ?
                7) Should I use sugar or grains ?
                8) Can I use fruit wine ?
                9) How do I get rid of that "off-taste" ?
                10) How do I measure the strength of it & dilute it ?
                11) How do I flavour/turn the vodka's into something else ?
                12) What web resources are there ?
                13) How do I contact the NEW DISTILLERS news group ?
                14) Can I run my car on it ?
                15) How do I convert between gallons and litres and ....
                16) What is a "Thumper" ?

                **********************************************************************
                1) Is distilling hard to do ?
                Nope - if you can follow instructions enough to bake scones, then you can
                sucessfully distil. To distil well however, will require you to understand
                what you're doing, so read around and get a bit of information under your
                belt before you begin.
                2) Is it legal ?
                Probably not. It is only legal in New Zealand, and some European countries
                turn a blind eye to it, but elsewhere it is illegal, with punishment
                ranging from fines to imprisonment or floggings. This action against it is
                usually the result of either religous beliefs (right or wrong), but more
                generally due to the great revenue base it provides Governements through
                excise taxes. So if you are going to distil, just be aware of the potential
                legal ramifications.
                3) Will it make me blind ?
                Not if you're careful. This pervasive question is due to moonshine lore,
                which abounds with myths of blindness, but few actual documented cases. The
                concern is due to the presence of methanol (wood alcohol), an optic nerve
                poison, which can be present in small amounts when fermenting grains or
                fruits high in pectin. This methanol comes off first from the still, so it
                is easily segregated and discarded. A simple rule of thumb for this is to
                throw away the first 50 mL you collect (per 20 L mash used). Probably the
                greatest risk to your health during distilling is the risk of fire -
                collecting a flammable liquid near a heat source. So keep a fire
                extinguisher nearby.
                4) Whats the difference between a pot still, reflux still, and
                fractionating column ?
                A pot still simply collects and condenses the alcohol vapours that come off
                the boiling mash. This will result in an alcohol at about 40-60% purity,
                with plenty of flavour in it. If this distillate were put through the pot
                still again, it would increase in purity to around 70-85% purity, and lose
                a bit of its flavour.

                A reflux still does these multiple distillations in one single go, by
                having some packing in a column between the condensor & the pot, and
                allowing some of the vapour to condense and trickle back down through the
                packing. This "reflux" of liquid helps clean the rising vapour and increase
                the % purity. The taller the packed column, and the more reflux liquid, the
                purer the product will be. The advantage of doing this is that it will
                result in a clean vodka, with little flavour to it - ideal for mixing with
                flavours etc.

                A fractionating column is a pure form of the reflux still. It will condense
                all the vapour at the top of the packing, and return about 9/10 back down
                the column. The column will be quite tall - say 600-1200mm (2-4 foot), and
                packed with a material high in surface area, but which takes up little
                space (pot scrubbers are good for this). It will result in an alcohol 95%+
                pure (the theoretical limit without using a vacuum is 95.6%), with no other
                tastes or impurities in it.
                5) How do I get or make a still ?
                If you're after a pot still, these are generally home made using what-ever
                you have at hand - say copper tubing and old water heaters or pressure
                cookers. Reflux stills can be made from plans on the net, or bought from
                several manufacturers. For reflux stil plans see Stillmakers :
                http://stillmaker.dreamhost.com/ (free!) or Gert Strands :
                http://partyman.se/Engelsk/default.htm (US$5). See the list of "web
                resources" below for links to sites selling ready-made stills.

                Regarding the choice of heating for the still - if you have 240V available
                it is usually easiest to control & safer (particularly with internal
                elements). Gas can be used, but more care is needed to keep the collection
                container further away and not letting it overfill.
                6) How do I make a whisky / vodka / rum / gin ?
                Whiskey : Heat 4 kg cracked or crushed malt with 18 L of water to 63-65C,
                and hold there for 1-1.5 hours. Heat to 73-75C, then strain off and keep
                liquid, using 250 mL of hot water to rinse the grains. Cool to below 30C
                (should have an initial specific gravity of 1.050). Add hydrated yeast &
                leave to ferment (maintain at 26C) until airlock stops bubbling and final
                SG of around 1.010. Let settle for a day, then syphon carefully into a pot
                still. Discard the first 50 mL's, collect the next 2-3L of distillate or
                until you start noticing the tails coming through.

                Vodka : dissolve 5 kg of sugar & 60g of nutrients in 20L of water, cool to
                below 30C and add hydrated yeast. Leave to ferment at 25C until below an SG
                of around 0.990, then settle for a day. Syphon into a reflux or
                fractionating still, and collect as per usual.

                Rum : as per vodka, but use some brown sugar or mollasses, to give an
                initial specific gravity (SG) of around 1.06 - 1.07. Run through either a
                pot still, or a not-so-great reflux still.

                Gin : make a very pure vodka, then add the following essence. Simmer 35g of
                juniper berries in 350 mL of 50% vodka for ten minutes with the lid on, let
                cool overnight, then filter through coffee filters. Use 5-10 mL of this
                essence per bottle of vodka.

                When doing any fermenting, take a lot of care to ensure that any items used
                are clean/sterile (soaking them in a water + bleach (10 mL per litre) ), or
                else the wash can start growing other things. Use a closed fermenter with
                an airlock too, to let the CO2 out without letting wild yeasts, bugs etc
                in. For more information about fermenting, see beer or wine homebrewing
                sites.
                7) Should I use sugar or grains ?
                It depends on what sort of still you have, and what you are trying to make.
                If you have a reflux or fractionating still, only use whatever is cheapest
                (usually sugar), as the refluxing will strip out all the flavours anyhow.
                If you have a pot still, and are after a bourban or whiskey, then you need
                to go the grain route, or mollasses if after a rum. If you are trying to
                make a neutral spirit for flavouring, go for sugar.
                8) Can I use fruit wine ?
                Sure, if you have it available. Again, using a pot still will result in a
                brandy/grappa/schnapps, whereas a reflux still will just strip it down to
                neutral spirit.
                9) How do I get rid of that "off-taste" ?
                That "rough moonshine edge" or "off-taste / wet cardboard smell" is due to
                impurities such as the higher order alcohols, known as cogeners or fusel
                oils. These will be present more when using a pot still, less if using a
                reflux still, and just about absent if using a fractionating column. So one
                way is to use a taller packed column and increase the amount of reflux
                occuring. They can also indicate that you've tried to collect too much of
                the alcohol, and have run into the "tails"; so finish collecting a little
                bit earlier next time. Soaking tainted alcohol with activated carbon for a
                week (or even months) will help remove some of this flavour - this is known
                as "polishing" the spirit.
                10) How do I measure the strength of it & dilute it ?
                You need a hydrometer. This is a wee float, with a scale inside it. The
                more alcohol that is present, the lighter the density of the liquid, so the
                hydrometer sinks a bit lower. You then just read off the scale how much
                alcohol is present. You need a seperate hydrometer for measuring the
                density of the mash, as this is generally > 1.0, whereas the spirit is <
                1.0, and they can't accurately do both ends of the scale.
                11) How do I flavour/turn the vodka's into something else ?
                There are now many commercial flavourings available, which turn vodka or
                neutral alcohol into pretty decent gin or whiskey, or all manor of
                liqueurs. See the commercial sites, like Des Zines
                http://homepages.ihug.co.nz/~topkiwi or Ray Toms http://moonshine.co.nz/
                for details.Or you can soak it with oak chips and make whiskey, or soak
                fruits in it to make your own liqueurs.
                12) What web resources are there ?
                For more details, see :
                Tony Ackland's http://www.geocities.com/kiwi_distiller
                Aaron Smiths's http://www.go.to/distillation
                Steve Spence's http://www.webconx.com/ethanol.htm
                13) How do I contact the NEW DISTILLERS news group ?
                Both the NEW DISTILLERS and the DISTILLERS news groups are available via
                YahooGroups, at http://www.yahoogroups.com . NEW DISTILLERS is, as the name
                suggests, intended for those of you new to distilling and after simple,
                straight-forward discussions, whereas the DISTILLERS group is a bit more
                advanced, throwing in bits of design philosophy, theory, and alternative
                ways of achieving the results. Both tend to overlap to some extent.
                14) Can I run my car on it ?
                You can run your car on alcohol over about 80% purity. See Steve Spences
                site for more details. In addition, in the USA, you can get a "small fuel
                producer" permit, which allows small scale distilling for "motor fuel"
                purposes. A nice advantage is that they don't require denaturing for "fuel"
                used on the premises. The regulations are posted at
                http://www.webconx.com/ethanolusaregs.htm
                15) How do I convert between gallons and litres and ....
                To convert between SI & Imperial units, multiply the first unit by the
                conversion factor to get the second. Divide back to do it in reverse .eg 1L
                = 0.264 US gal, so 20 L = 20 x 0.264 = 5.28 US gal, and 20 US gal / 0.264 =
                75.76 L

                1 L = 0.264 US gal = 0.221 UK gal
                1 L = 1.057 US qt = 0.880 UK qt
                1 kg = 2.204 lbm = 32.15 oz (troy) = 35.27 oz (av)
                deg F = ((9/5) x deg C )+ 32
                1m = 1000 mm = 39.37 inch = 3.28 ft = 1.09 yd
                16) What is a "Thumper" ?
                A "thumper" is an extra chamber sometimes fitted to a pot still. It can be
                as simple as a glass jar with two holes in the lid. The off-take from the
                still is fed into it, with the pipe running almost all the way to the
                bottom of the jar; the jar is half filled with liquid (water or mash or
                tails) so that the vapour from the still will bubble up through it; then
                the vapour coming off it is collected & cooled as per normal. It acts as a
                second distilling chamber using just the heat from the vapour, and lifts
                the purity from 50-60% to 70-80%, hence improving what might otherwise be a
                very mediocre design.
              • Tony & Elle Ackland
                New Distillers FAQ ****************************************************************** NEW DISTILLERS Frequently Asked Questions (July 01) Posted near the 1st
                Message 7 of 29 , Jul 28, 2001
                  New Distillers FAQ
                  ******************************************************************
                  "NEW DISTILLERS" Frequently Asked Questions (July'01)

                  Posted near the 1st of each month, to the NEW_DISTILLERS newsgroup at
                  www.yahoogroups.com

                  Please email any additions, corrections, clarifications required, etc
                  regarding the FAQ to Tony Ackland (ackland@...), however please
                  direct any general questions to the newsgroup itself.

                  *******************************************************************

                  1) Is distilling hard to do ?
                  2) Is it legal ?
                  3) Will it make me blind ?
                  4) Whats the difference between a pot still, reflux still, and
                  fractionating column ?
                  5) How do I get or make a still ?
                  6) How do I make a whisky / rum / vodka / gin ?
                  7) Should I use sugar or grains ?
                  8) Can I use fruit wine ?
                  9) How do I get rid of that "off-taste" ?
                  10) How do I measure the strength of it & dilute it ?
                  11) How do I flavour/turn the vodka's into something else ?
                  12) What web resources are there ?
                  13) How do I contact the NEW DISTILLERS news group ?
                  14) Can I run my car on it ?
                  15) How do I convert between gallons and litres and ....
                  16) What is a "Thumper" ?
                  17) Can I use a reflux still to make rum or whisky ?

                  **********************************************************************

                  1) Is distilling hard to do ?

                  Nope - if you can follow instructions enough to bake scones, then you can
                  sucessfully distil. To distil well however, will require you to understand
                  what you're doing, so read around and get a bit of information under your
                  belt before you begin.

                  2) Is it legal ?

                  Probably not. It is only legal in New Zealand, and some European countries
                  turn a blind eye to it, but elsewhere it is illegal, with punishment
                  ranging from fines to imprisonment or floggings. This action against it is
                  usually the result of either religous beliefs (right or wrong), but more
                  generally due to the great revenue base it provides Governements through
                  excise taxes. So if you are going to distil, just be aware of the potential
                  legal ramifications.

                  3) Will it make me blind ?

                  Not if you're careful. This pervasive question is due to moonshine lore,
                  which abounds with myths of blindness, but few actual documented cases. The
                  concern is due to the presence of methanol (wood alcohol), an optic nerve
                  poison, which can be present in small amounts when fermenting grains or
                  fruits high in pectin. This methanol comes off first from the still, so it
                  is easily segregated and discarded. A simple rule of thumb for this is to
                  throw away the first 50 mL you collect (per 20 L mash used). Probably the
                  greatest risk to your health during distilling is the risk of fire -
                  collecting a flammable liquid near a heat source. So keep a fire
                  extinguisher nearby.

                  4) Whats the difference between a pot still, reflux still, and
                  fractionating column ?

                  A pot still simply collects and condenses the alcohol vapours that come off
                  the boiling mash. This will result in an alcohol at about 40-60% purity,
                  with plenty of flavour in it. If this distillate were put through the pot
                  still again, it would increase in purity to around 70-85% purity, and lose
                  a bit of its flavour.

                  A reflux still does these multiple distillations in one single go, by
                  having some packing in a column between the condensor & the pot, and
                  allowing some of the vapour to condense and trickle back down through the
                  packing. This "reflux" of liquid helps clean the rising vapour and increase
                  the % purity. The taller the packed column, and the more reflux liquid, the
                  purer the product will be. The advantage of doing this is that it will
                  result in a clean vodka, with little flavour to it - ideal for mixing with
                  flavours etc.

                  A fractionating column is a pure form of the reflux still. It will condense
                  all the vapour at the top of the packing, and return about 9/10 back down
                  the column. The column will be quite tall - say 600-1200mm (2-4 foot), and
                  packed with a material high in surface area, but which takes up little
                  space (pot scrubbers are good for this). It will result in an alcohol 95%+
                  pure (the theoretical limit without using a vacuum is 96.48 %(by volume)),
                  with no other tastes or impurities in it.

                  5) How do I get or make a still ?

                  If you're after a pot still, these are generally home made using what-ever
                  you have at hand - say copper tubing and old water heaters or pressure
                  cookers. Reflux stills can be made from plans on the net, or bought from
                  several manufacturers. For reflux stil plans see Stillmakers :
                  http://stillmaker.dreamhost.com/ (free!) or Gert Strands :
                  http://partyman.se/Engelsk/default.htm (US$5). See the list of "web
                  resources" below for links to sites selling ready-made stills. A good book
                  is Ian Smileys "Making Pure Corn Whisky" at
                  http://www.magma.ca/~smiley/main.htm, with full design details. For fuel
                  alcohol stills see the Mother Earth Alcohol Fuel manual at
                  http://journeytoforever.org/biofuel_library/ethanol_motherearth/meToC.html,
                  and the The Manual for the Home and Farm Production of Alcohol Fuel by S.W.
                  Mathewson at
                  http://journeytoforever.org/biofuel_library/ethanol_manual/manual_ToC.html

                  Regarding the choice of heating for the still - if you have 240V available
                  it is usually easiest to control & safer (particularly with internal
                  elements). Gas can be used, but more care is needed to keep the collection
                  container further away and not letting it overfill.

                  6) How do I make a whisky / vodka / rum / gin ?

                  Whiskey : Heat 4 kg cracked or crushed malt with 18 L of water to 63-65C,
                  and hold there for 1-1.5 hours. Heat to 73-75C, then strain off and keep
                  liquid, using 250 mL of hot water to rinse the grains. Cool to below 30C
                  (should have an initial specific gravity of 1.050). Add hydrated yeast &
                  leave to ferment (maintain at 26C) until airlock stops bubbling and final
                  SG of around 1.010. Let settle for a day, then syphon carefully into a pot
                  still. Discard the first 50 mL's, collect the next 2-3L of distillate or
                  until you start noticing the tails coming through.

                  Vodka : dissolve 5 kg of sugar & 60g of nutrients in 20L of water, cool to
                  below 30C and add hydrated yeast. Leave to ferment at 25C until below an SG
                  of around 0.990, then settle for a day. Syphon into a reflux or
                  fractionating still, and collect as per usual.

                  Rum : as per vodka, but use some brown sugar or mollasses, to give an
                  initial specific gravity (SG) of around 1.06 - 1.07. Run through either a
                  pot still, or a not-so-great reflux still.

                  Gin : make a very pure vodka, then add the following essence. Simmer 35g of
                  juniper berries in 350 mL of 50% vodka for ten minutes with the lid on, let
                  cool overnight, then filter through coffee filters. Use 5-10 mL of this
                  essence per bottle of vodka.

                  When doing any fermenting, take a lot of care to ensure that any items used
                  are clean/sterile (soaking them in a water + bleach (10 mL per litre) ), or
                  else the wash can start growing other things. Use a closed fermenter with
                  an airlock too, to let the CO2 out without letting wild yeasts, bugs etc
                  in. For more information about fermenting, see beer or wine homebrewing
                  sites.

                  7) Should I use sugar or grains ?

                  It depends on what sort of still you have, and what you are trying to make.
                  If you have a reflux or fractionating still, only use whatever is cheapest
                  (usually sugar), as the refluxing will strip out all the flavours anyhow.
                  If you have a pot still, and are after a bourban or whiskey, then you need
                  to go the grain route, or mollasses if after a rum. If you are trying to
                  make a neutral spirit for flavouring, go for sugar.

                  8) Can I use fruit wine ?

                  Sure, if you have it available. Again, using a pot still will result in a
                  brandy/grappa/schnapps, whereas a reflux still will just strip it down to
                  neutral spirit.

                  9) How do I get rid of that "off-taste" ?

                  That "rough moonshine edge" or "off-taste / wet cardboard smell" is due to
                  impurities such as the higher order alcohols, known as cogeners or fusel
                  oils. These will be present more when using a pot still, less if using a
                  reflux still, and just about absent if using a fractionating column. So one
                  way is to use a taller packed column and increase the amount of reflux
                  occuring. They can also indicate that you've tried to collect too much of
                  the alcohol, and have run into the "tails"; so finish collecting a little
                  bit earlier next time. Soaking tainted alcohol with activated carbon for a
                  week (or even months) will help remove some of this flavour - this is known
                  as "polishing" the spirit. I'm also suspecting that you need a little bit
                  of copper somewhere in the still where it can come in contact with the
                  vapour. The copper helps catalyse some of the sulphur, esters & organic
                  acids, reducing their odour & taste.

                  10) How do I measure the strength of it & dilute it ?

                  You need a hydrometer. This is a wee float, with a scale inside it. The
                  more alcohol that is present, the lighter the density of the liquid, so the
                  hydrometer sinks a bit lower. You then just read off the scale how much
                  alcohol is present. You need a seperate hydrometer for measuring the
                  density of the mash, as this is generally > 1.0, whereas the spirit is <
                  1.0, and they can't accurately do both ends of the scale.

                  11) How do I flavour/turn the vodka's into something else ?

                  There are now many commercial flavourings available, which turn vodka or
                  neutral alcohol into pretty decent gin or whiskey, or all manor of
                  liqueurs. See the commercial sites, like Des Zines
                  http://homepages.ihug.co.nz/~topkiwi or Ray Toms http://moonshine.co.nz/
                  for details. Or you can soak it with oak chips and make whiskey, or soak
                  fruits in it to make your own liqueurs.

                  12) What web resources are there ?

                  For more details, see :
                  Tony Ackland's http://www.geocities.com/kiwi_distiller
                  Aaron Smiths's http://www.go.to/distillation
                  Steve Spence's http://www.webconx.com/ethanol.htm
                  Biofuels Library http://journeytoforever.org/biofuel_library.html

                  13) How do I contact the NEW DISTILLERS news group ?

                  Both the NEW DISTILLERS and the DISTILLERS news groups are available via
                  YahooGroups, at http://www.yahoogroups.com . NEW DISTILLERS is, as the name
                  suggests, intended for those of you new to distilling and after simple,
                  straight-forward discussions, whereas the DISTILLERS group is a bit more
                  advanced, throwing in bits of design philosophy, theory, and alternative
                  ways of achieving the results. Both tend to overlap to some extent.

                  14) Can I run my car on it ?

                  You can run your car on alcohol over about 80% purity. Because any water
                  present will seperate out in the presence of the gasoline (and become a
                  problem), you either need to exclusively use the alcohol, or dry it right
                  out (eg 99%+ purity) if using it to mix with gasoline. See Steve Spences
                  site for more details, the Mother Earth Alcohol Fuel manual, or the The
                  Manual for the Home and Farm Production of Alcohol Fuel. In addition, in
                  the USA, you can get a "small fuel producer" permit, which allows small
                  scale distilling for "motor fuel" purposes. A nice advantage is that they
                  don't require denaturing for "fuel" used on the premises. The regulations
                  are posted at http://www.webconx.com/ethanolusaregs.htm

                  15) How do I convert between gallons and litres and ....

                  To convert between SI & Imperial units, multiply the first unit by the
                  conversion factor to get the second. Divide back to do it in reverse .eg 1L
                  = 0.264 US gal, so 20 L = 20 x 0.264 = 5.28 US gal, and 20 US gal / 0.264 =
                  75.76 L
                  1 L = 0.264 US gal = 0.221 UK gal
                  1 L = 1.057 US qt = 0.880 UK qt
                  1 kg = 2.204 lbm = 32.15 oz (troy) = 35.27 oz (av)
                  deg F = ((9/5) x deg C )+ 32
                  1m = 1000 mm = 39.37 inch = 3.28 ft = 1.09 yd

                  16) What is a "Thumper" ?

                  A "thumper" is an extra chamber sometimes fitted to a pot still. It can be
                  as simple as a glass jar with two holes in the lid. The off-take from the
                  still is fed into it, with the pipe running almost all the way to the
                  bottom of the jar; the jar is half filled with liquid (water or mash or
                  tails) so that the vapour from the still will bubble up through it; then
                  the vapour coming off it is collected & cooled as per normal. It acts as a
                  second distilling chamber using just the heat from the vapour, and lifts
                  the purity from 50-60% to 70-80%, hence improving what might otherwise be a
                  very mediocre design.

                  17) Can I use a Reflux Still to make Rum or Whisky ?

                  Yes you can. To do so, you need to carefully monitor the various
                  transitions between the foreshots, heads, middle run, and tails, and time
                  the collection of the middle run precisely. The reflux still allows you to
                  more precisely judge the changes between the various stages, and hence
                  target them accurately. A typical rum or whisky would be obtained by
                  discarding the foreshots, then collecting the heads, middle run, and then
                  begin the tails, until the purity has dropped to around 58-60% (81.4C). By
                  altering when to start collecting, and how late to time the final "cut",
                  various flavour profiles will result.
                • Tony & Elle Ackland
                  NEW DISTILLERS Frequently Asked Questions (Sept 01) Posted near the 1st of each month, to the NEW_DISTILLERS newsgroup at www.yahoogroups.com Please email
                  Message 8 of 29 , Oct 1, 2001
                    "NEW DISTILLERS" Frequently Asked Questions (Sept'01)

                    Posted near the 1st of each month, to the NEW_DISTILLERS newsgroup at
                    www.yahoogroups.com

                    Please email any additions, corrections, clarifications required, etc
                    regarding the FAQ to Tony Ackland (ackland@...), however please
                    direct any general questions to the newsgroup itself.

                    *******************************************************************

                    1) Is distilling hard to do ?
                    2) Is it legal ?
                    3) Will it make me blind ?
                    4) Whats the difference between a pot still, reflux still, and
                    fractionating column ?
                    5) How do I get or make a still ?
                    6) How do I make a whisky / rum / vodka / gin ?
                    7) Should I use sugar or grains ?
                    8) Can I use fruit wine ?
                    9) How do I get rid of that "off-taste" ?
                    10) How do I measure the strength of it & dilute it ?
                    11) How do I flavour/turn the vodka's into something else ?
                    12) What web resources are there ?
                    13) How do I contact the NEW DISTILLERS news group ?
                    14) Can I run my car on it ?
                    15) How do I convert between gallons and litres and ....
                    16) What is a "Thumper" ?
                    17) Can I use a reflux still to make rum or whisky ?

                    **********************************************************************

                    1) Is distilling hard to do ?

                    Nope - if you can follow instructions enough to bake scones, then you can
                    sucessfully distil. To distil well however, will require you to understand
                    what you're doing, so read around and get a bit of information under your
                    belt before you begin.

                    2) Is it legal ?

                    Probably not. It is only legal in New Zealand, and some European countries
                    turn a blind eye to it, but elsewhere it is illegal, with punishment
                    ranging from fines to imprisonment or floggings. This action against it is
                    usually the result of either religous beliefs (right or wrong), but more
                    generally due to the great revenue base it provides Governements through
                    excise taxes. So if you are going to distil, just be aware of the potential
                    legal ramifications.

                    3) Will it make me blind ?

                    Not if you're careful. This pervasive question is due to moonshine lore,
                    which abounds with myths of blindness, but few actual documented cases. The
                    concern is due to the presence of methanol (wood alcohol), an optic nerve
                    poison, which can be present in small amounts when fermenting grains or
                    fruits high in pectin. This methanol comes off first from the still, so it
                    is easily segregated and discarded. A simple rule of thumb for this is to
                    throw away the first 50 mL you collect (per 20 L mash used). Probably the
                    greatest risk to your health during distilling is the risk of fire -
                    collecting a flammable liquid near a heat source. So keep a fire
                    extinguisher nearby.

                    4) Whats the difference between a pot still, reflux still, and
                    fractionating column ?

                    A pot still simply collects and condenses the alcohol vapours that come off
                    the boiling mash. This will result in an alcohol at about 40-60% purity,
                    with plenty of flavour in it. If this distillate were put through the pot
                    still again, it would increase in purity to around 70-85% purity, and lose
                    a bit of its flavour.

                    A reflux still does these multiple distillations in one single go, by
                    having some packing in a column between the condensor & the pot, and
                    allowing some of the vapour to condense and trickle back down through the
                    packing. This "reflux" of liquid helps clean the rising vapour and increase
                    the % purity. The taller the packed column, and the more reflux liquid, the
                    purer the product will be. The advantage of doing this is that it will
                    result in a clean vodka, with little flavour to it - ideal for mixing with
                    flavours etc.

                    A fractionating column is a pure form of the reflux still. It will condense
                    all the vapour at the top of the packing, and return about 9/10 back down
                    the column. The column will be quite tall - say 600-1200mm (2-4 foot), and
                    packed with a material high in surface area, but which takes up little
                    space (pot scrubbers are good for this). It will result in an alcohol 95%+
                    pure (the theoretical limit without using a vacuum is 96.48 %(by volume)),
                    with no other tastes or impurities in it.

                    5) How do I get or make a still ?

                    If you're after a pot still, these are generally home made using what-ever
                    you have at hand - say copper tubing and old water heaters or pressure
                    cookers. Reflux stills can be made from plans on the net, or bought from
                    several manufacturers. For reflux stil plans see Stillmakers "Build a World
                    Class Distillation Apparatus" at http://www.Moonshine-Still.com (Free!) or
                    Gert Strands : http://partyman.se/Engelsk/default.htm (US$5). A good book
                    is Ian Smileys "Making Pure Corn Whisky" at
                    http://www.magma.ca/~smiley/main.htm, with full design details. See the
                    list of "web resources" below for links to sites selling ready-made stills.
                    For fuel alcohol stills see the Mother Earth Alcohol Fuel manual at
                    http://journeytoforever.org/biofuel_library/ethanol_motherearth/meToC.html,
                    and the The Manual for the Home and Farm Production of Alcohol Fuel by S.W.
                    Mathewson at
                    http://journeytoforever.org/biofuel_library/ethanol_manual/manual_ToC.html

                    Regarding the choice of heating for the still - if you have 240V available
                    it is usually easiest to control & safer (particularly with internal
                    elements). Gas can be used, but more care is needed to keep the collection
                    container further away and not letting it overfill.

                    6) How do I make a whisky / vodka / rum / gin ?

                    Whiskey : Heat 4 kg cracked or crushed malt with 18 L of water to 63-65C,
                    and hold there for 1-1.5 hours. Heat to 73-75C, then strain off and keep
                    liquid, using 250 mL of hot water to rinse the grains. Cool to below 30C
                    (should have an initial specific gravity of 1.050). Add hydrated yeast &
                    leave to ferment (maintain at 26C) until airlock stops bubbling and final
                    SG of around 1.010. Let settle for a day, then syphon carefully into a pot
                    still. Discard the first 50 mL's, collect the next 2-3L of distillate or
                    until you start noticing the tails coming through.

                    Vodka : dissolve 5 kg of sugar & 60g of nutrients in 20L of water, cool to
                    below 30C and add hydrated yeast. Leave to ferment at 25C until below an SG
                    of around 0.990, then settle for a day. Syphon into a reflux or
                    fractionating still, and collect as per usual.

                    Rum : as per vodka, but use some brown sugar or mollasses, to give an
                    initial specific gravity (SG) of around 1.06 - 1.07. Run through either a
                    pot still, or a not-so-great reflux still.

                    Gin : make a very pure vodka, then add the following essence. Simmer 35g of
                    juniper berries in 350 mL of 50% vodka for ten minutes with the lid on, let
                    cool overnight, then filter through coffee filters. Use 5-10 mL of this
                    essence per bottle of vodka.

                    When doing any fermenting, take a lot of care to ensure that any items used
                    are clean/sterile (soaking them in a water + bleach (10 mL per litre) ), or
                    else the wash can start growing other things. Use a closed fermenter with
                    an airlock too, to let the CO2 out without letting wild yeasts, bugs etc
                    in. For more information about fermenting, see beer or wine homebrewing
                    sites.

                    7) Should I use sugar or grains ?

                    It depends on what sort of still you have, and what you are trying to make.
                    If you have a reflux or fractionating still, only use whatever is cheapest
                    (usually sugar), as the refluxing will strip out all the flavours anyhow.
                    If you have a pot still, and are after a bourban or whiskey, then you need
                    to go the grain route, or mollasses if after a rum. If you are trying to
                    make a neutral spirit for flavouring, go for sugar.

                    8) Can I use fruit wine ?

                    Sure, if you have it available. Again, using a pot still will result in a
                    brandy/grappa/schnapps, whereas a reflux still will normally just strip it
                    down to neutral spirit.

                    9) How do I get rid of that "off-taste" ?

                    That "rough moonshine edge" or "off-taste / wet cardboard smell" is due to
                    impurities such as the higher order alcohols, known as cogeners or fusel
                    oils. These will be present more when using a pot still, less if using a
                    reflux still, and just about absent if using a fractionating column. So one
                    way is to use a taller packed column and increase the amount of reflux
                    occuring. They can also indicate that you've tried to collect too much of
                    the alcohol, and have run into the "tails"; so finish collecting a little
                    bit earlier next time. Soaking tainted alcohol with activated carbon for a
                    week (or even months) will help remove some of this flavour - this is known
                    as "polishing" the spirit. I'm also suspecting that you need a little bit
                    of copper somewhere in the still where it can come in contact with the
                    vapour. The copper helps catalyse some of the sulphur, esters & organic
                    acids, reducing their odour & taste.

                    10) How do I measure the strength of it & dilute it ?

                    You need a hydrometer. This is a wee float, with a scale inside it. The
                    more alcohol that is present, the lighter the density of the liquid, so the
                    hydrometer sinks a bit lower. You then just read off the scale how much
                    alcohol is present. You need a seperate hydrometer for measuring the
                    density of the mash, as this is generally > 1.0, whereas the spirit is <
                    1.0, and they can't accurately do both ends of the scale.

                    11) How do I flavour/turn the vodka's into something else ?

                    There are now many commercial flavourings available, which turn vodka or
                    neutral alcohol into pretty decent gin or whiskey, or all manor of
                    liqueurs. See the commercial sites, like Des Zines
                    http://homepages.ihug.co.nz/~topkiwi or Ray Toms http://moonshine.co.nz/
                    for details. Or you can soak it with oak chips and make whiskey, or soak
                    fruits in it to make your own liqueurs.

                    12) What web resources are there ?

                    For more details, see :
                    Tony Ackland's http://homedistiller.org
                    Aaron Smiths's http://www.go.to/distillation
                    Steve Spence's http://www.webconx.com/ethanol.htm
                    StillMaker's http://www.Moonshine-Still.com
                    Biofuels Library http://journeytoforever.org/biofuel_library.html

                    13) How do I contact the NEW DISTILLERS news group ?

                    Both the NEW DISTILLERS and the DISTILLERS news groups are available via
                    YahooGroups, at http://www.yahoogroups.com . NEW DISTILLERS is, as the name
                    suggests, intended for those of you new to distilling and after simple,
                    straight-forward discussions, whereas the DISTILLERS group is a bit more
                    advanced, throwing in bits of design philosophy, theory, and alternative
                    ways of achieving the results. Both tend to overlap to some extent.

                    14) Can I run my car on it ?

                    You can run your car on alcohol over about 80% purity. Because any water
                    present will seperate out in the presence of the gasoline (and become a
                    problem), you either need to exclusively use the alcohol, or dry it right
                    out (eg 99%+ purity) if using it to mix with gasoline. See Steve Spences
                    site for more details, the Mother Earth Alcohol Fuel manual, or the The
                    Manual for the Home and Farm Production of Alcohol Fuel. In addition, in
                    the USA, you can get a "small fuel producer" permit, which allows small
                    scale distilling for "motor fuel" purposes. A nice advantage is that they
                    don't require denaturing for "fuel" used on the premises. The regulations
                    are posted at http://www.webconx.com/ethanolusaregs.htm

                    15) How do I convert between gallons and litres and ....

                    To convert between SI & Imperial units, multiply the first unit by the
                    conversion factor to get the second. Divide back to do it in reverse .eg 1L
                    = 0.264 US gal, so 20 L = 20 x 0.264 = 5.28 US gal, and 20 US gal / 0.264 =
                    75.76 L

                    1 L = 0.264 US gal = 0.221 UK gal
                    1 L = 1.057 US qt = 0.880 UK qt
                    1 kg = 2.204 lbm = 32.15 oz (troy) = 35.27 oz (av)
                    deg F = ((9/5) x deg C )+ 32
                    1m = 1000 mm = 39.37 inch = 3.28 ft = 1.09 yd

                    16) What is a "Thumper" ?

                    A "thumper" is an extra chamber sometimes fitted to a pot still. It can be
                    as simple as a glass jar with two holes in the lid. The off-take from the
                    still is fed into it, with the pipe running almost all the way to the
                    bottom of the jar; the jar is half filled with liquid (water or mash or
                    tails) so that the vapour from the still will bubble up through it; then
                    the vapour coming off it is collected & cooled as per normal. It acts as a
                    second distilling chamber using just the heat from the vapour, and lifts
                    the purity from 50-60% to 70-80%, hence improving what might otherwise be a
                    very mediocre design.

                    17) Can I use a Reflux Still to make Rum or Whisky ?

                    Yes you can. To do so, you need to carefully monitor the various
                    transitions between the foreshots, heads, middle run, and tails, and time
                    the collection of the middle run precisely. The reflux still allows you to
                    more precisely judge the changes between the various stages, and hence
                    target them accurately. A typical rum or whisky would be obtained by
                    discarding the foreshots, then collecting the heads, middle run, and then
                    begin the tails, until the purity has dropped to around 58-60% (81.4C). By
                    altering when to start collecting, and how late to time the final "cut",
                    various flavour profiles will result.
                    ------------------------------------------------------------------------
                    --------
                  • Ackland, Tony (CALNZAS)
                    NEW DISTILLERS Frequently Asked Questions (Sept 01) Posted near the 1st of each month, to the NEW_DISTILLERS newsgroup at www.yahoogroups.com Please email
                    Message 9 of 29 , Nov 18, 2001
                      "NEW DISTILLERS" Frequently Asked Questions (Sept'01)

                      Posted near the 1st of each month, to the NEW_DISTILLERS newsgroup at
                      www.yahoogroups.com

                      Please email any additions, corrections, clarifications required, etc
                      regarding the FAQ to Tony Ackland (ackland@...), however please
                      direct any general questions to the newsgroup itself.

                      *******************************************************************

                      1) Is distilling hard to do ?
                      2) Is it legal ?
                      3) Will it make me blind ?
                      4) Whats the difference between a pot still, reflux still, and fractionating
                      column ?
                      5) How do I get or make a still ?
                      6) How do I make a whisky / rum / vodka / gin ?
                      7) Should I use sugar or grains ?
                      8) Can I use fruit wine ?
                      9) How do I get rid of that "off-taste" ?
                      10) How do I measure the strength of it & dilute it ?
                      11) How do I flavour/turn the vodka's into something else ?
                      12) What web resources are there ?
                      13) How do I contact the NEW DISTILLERS news group ?
                      14) Can I run my car on it ?
                      15) How do I convert between gallons and litres and ....
                      16) What is a "Thumper" ?
                      17) Can I use a reflux still to make rum or whisky ?

                      **********************************************************************

                      1) Is distilling hard to do ?

                      Nope - if you can follow instructions enough to bake scones, then you can
                      sucessfully distil. To distil well however, will require you to understand
                      what you're doing, so read around and get a bit of information under your
                      belt before you begin.

                      2) Is it legal ?

                      Probably not. It is only legal in New Zealand, and some European countries
                      turn a blind eye to it, but elsewhere it is illegal, with punishment ranging
                      from fines to imprisonment or floggings. This action against it is usually
                      the result of either religous beliefs (right or wrong), but more generally
                      due to the great revenue base it provides Governements through excise taxes.
                      So if you are going to distil, just be aware of the potential legal
                      ramifications.

                      3) Will it make me blind ?

                      Not if you're careful. This pervasive question is due to moonshine lore,
                      which abounds with myths of blindness, but few actual documented cases. The
                      concern is due to the presence of methanol (wood alcohol), an optic nerve
                      poison, which can be present in small amounts when fermenting grains or
                      fruits high in pectin. This methanol comes off first from the still, so it
                      is easily segregated and discarded. A simple rule of thumb for this is to
                      throw away the first 50 mL you collect (per 20 L mash used). Probably the
                      greatest risk to your health during distilling is the risk of fire -
                      collecting a flammable liquid near a heat source. So keep a fire
                      extinguisher nearby.

                      4) Whats the difference between a pot still, reflux still, and fractionating
                      column ?

                      A pot still simply collects and condenses the alcohol vapours that come off
                      the boiling mash. This will result in an alcohol at about 40-60% purity,
                      with plenty of flavour in it. If this distillate were put through the pot
                      still again, it would increase in purity to around 70-85% purity, and lose a
                      bit of its flavour.

                      A reflux still does these multiple distillations in one single go, by having
                      some packing in a column between the condensor & the pot, and allowing some
                      of the vapour to condense and trickle back down through the packing. This
                      "reflux" of liquid helps clean the rising vapour and increase the % purity.
                      The taller the packed column, and the more reflux liquid, the purer the
                      product will be. The advantage of doing this is that it will result in a
                      clean vodka, with little flavour to it - ideal for mixing with flavours etc.


                      A fractionating column is a pure form of the reflux still. It will condense
                      all the vapour at the top of the packing, and return about 9/10 back down
                      the column. The column will be quite tall - say 600-1200mm (2-4 foot), and
                      packed with a material high in surface area, but which takes up little space
                      (pot scrubbers are good for this). It will result in an alcohol 95%+ pure
                      (the theoretical limit without using a vacuum is 96.48 %(by volume)), with
                      no other tastes or impurities in it.

                      5) How do I get or make a still ?

                      If you're after a pot still, these are generally home made using what-ever
                      you have at hand - say copper tubing and old water heaters or pressure
                      cookers. Reflux stills can be made from plans on the net, or bought from
                      several manufacturers. For reflux stil plans see Stillmakers "Build a World
                      Class Distillation Apparatus" at http://www.Moonshine-Still.com (Free!) or
                      Gert Strands : http://partyman.se/Engelsk/default.htm (US$5). A good book is
                      Ian Smileys "Making Pure Corn Whisky" at
                      http://www.magma.ca/~smiley/main.htm, with full design details. See the list
                      of "web resources" below for links to sites selling ready-made stills. For
                      fuel alcohol stills see the Mother Earth Alcohol Fuel manual at
                      http://journeytoforever.org/biofuel_library/ethanol_motherearth/meToC.html,
                      and the The Manual for the Home and Farm Production of Alcohol Fuel by S.W.
                      Mathewson at
                      http://journeytoforever.org/biofuel_library/ethanol_manual/manual_ToC.html

                      Regarding the choice of heating for the still - if you have 240V available
                      it is usually easiest to control & safer (particularly with internal
                      elements). Gas can be used, but more care is needed to keep the collection
                      container further away and not letting it overfill.

                      6) How do I make a whisky / vodka / rum / gin ?

                      Whiskey : Heat 4 kg cracked or crushed malt with 18 L of water to 63-65C,
                      and hold there for 1-1.5 hours. Heat to 73-75C, then strain off and keep
                      liquid, using 250 mL of hot water to rinse the grains. Cool to below 30C
                      (should have an initial specific gravity of 1.050). Add hydrated yeast &
                      leave to ferment (maintain at 26C) until airlock stops bubbling and final SG
                      of around 1.010. Let settle for a day, then syphon carefully into a pot
                      still. Discard the first 50 mL's, collect the next 2-3L of distillate or
                      until you start noticing the tails coming through.

                      Vodka : dissolve 5 kg of sugar & 60g of nutrients in 20L of water, cool to
                      below 30C and add hydrated yeast. Leave to ferment at 25C until below an SG
                      of around 0.990, then settle for a day. Syphon into a reflux or
                      fractionating still, and collect as per usual.

                      Rum : as per vodka, but use some brown sugar or mollasses, to give an
                      initial specific gravity (SG) of around 1.06 - 1.07. Run through either a
                      pot still, or a not-so-great reflux still.

                      Gin : make a very pure vodka, then add the following essence. Simmer 35g of
                      juniper berries in 350 mL of 50% vodka for ten minutes with the lid on, let
                      cool overnight, then filter through coffee filters. Use 5-10 mL of this
                      essence per bottle of vodka.

                      When doing any fermenting, take a lot of care to ensure that any items used
                      are clean/sterile (soaking them in a water + bleach (10 mL per litre) ), or
                      else the wash can start growing other things. Use a closed fermenter with an
                      airlock too, to let the CO2 out without letting wild yeasts, bugs etc in.
                      For more information about fermenting, see beer or wine homebrewing sites.

                      7) Should I use sugar or grains/fruit ?

                      It depends on what sort of still you have, and what you are trying to make.
                      If you have a reflux or fractionating still, only use whatever is cheapest
                      (usually sugar), as the refluxing will strip out all the flavours anyhow. If
                      you have a pot still, and are after a bourban or whiskey, then you need to
                      go the grain route, or mollasses if after a rum. If you are trying to make a
                      neutral spirit for flavouring, go for sugar.

                      Basic guidelines for using them are ..
                      SUGAR. Wine yeast can use no more than 2.5lbs of sugar/1imp gal or
                      2.2lb/1U.S.gal or 1.25kg/5litres of must. This will produce 14%a.b.v. Honey
                      and liquid malt extract are 80% sugar so you need 1.5kg/5l must or mash.
                      Molasses is 50% sugar so you need 2.5kg/5l must or mash. Maple syrup is 32%
                      sugar. Carob beans are 45% sugar. Sugar beets are 15% sugar Grain malt is
                      60% sugar (starch converted to sugars) so you need 1.5kg/5l mash. Cooked
                      grain contains 60% convertible starch so you need 1.5kg/5l mash
                      FRUIT - Grapes contain the ideal sugar, water, acid balance. A sugar content
                      of 17-23% and a water content of about 80%. 8kg of grapes produces 5l of
                      wine. Most common fruits (apples, plums, apricots) contain about 10% sugar
                      and 85% water. Cherries and figs contain 15% sugar. A fruit mash could be
                      4kg fruit, (400g sugar content), 2l water (3l in pulp already), 800g
                      additional sugar. Bananas are 17-24% sugar, 75% water. Acid content 0.3%. A
                      banana mash could be 4kg of cooked bananas, 2l water (3l in pulp
                      already),400g sugar. Add 3lemons/5l for correct pH. Dates are 70% sugar, 20%
                      water. Add acid to a date mash. Raisins and sultanas have a water content of
                      about 15% and a sugar content of 60%, grapes have a water content of 75% and
                      a sugar content of about 20%, so using 1.5-2kg/5l of water appears about
                      right if we want to reconstitute them.
                      ACID - 5g of citric acid (1tsp)/5l must raises acidity by 0.1%. 3g of
                      calcium carbonate powder lowers acidity by 0.1%. A pH of 5 is 0.4% acidity.
                      Winemakers aim for 0.6% acidity. Most common fruits are about 0.6% acid
                      content. For distilling, a higher acidity in the mash helps to suppress
                      bacteria. A high tannin content doesn't matter as we are not making wine.
                      Meaurements are logarithmic, so a pH of 4 is 10 times more acidic than a pH
                      of 5.
                      YEAST - Brewers (& possibly baker's yeast) can tolerate only 8% alcohol. A
                      bottom fermenting lager yeast ferments out all the sugars better than a top
                      fermenting ale yeast. A good wine yeast (Champagne, in the right conditions,
                      can tolerate 15%a.b.v. (up to 18%a.b.v. in optimal conditions - no need to
                      use expensive turbos). Wild yeasts vary, but some are very low - this is a
                      risky path. Whisky distillers often use a combination of yeasts - initially
                      a brewer's yeast because they believe it effects the flavor.

                      8) Can I use fruit wine ?

                      Sure, if you have it available. Again, using a pot still will result in a
                      brandy/grappa/schnapps, whereas a reflux still will just strip it down to
                      neutral spirit.

                      9) How do I get rid of that "off-taste" ?

                      That "rough moonshine edge" or "off-taste / wet cardboard smell" is due to
                      impurities such as the higher order alcohols, known as cogeners or fusel
                      oils. These will be present more when using a pot still, less if using a
                      reflux still, and just about absent if using a fractionating column. So one
                      way is to use a taller packed column and increase the amount of reflux
                      occuring. They can also indicate that you've tried to collect too much of
                      the alcohol, and have run into the "tails"; so finish collecting a little
                      bit earlier next time. Soaking tainted alcohol with activated carbon for a
                      week (or even months) will help remove some of this flavour - this is known
                      as "polishing" the spirit. I'm also suspecting that you need a little bit of
                      copper somewhere in the still where it can come in contact with the vapour.
                      The copper helps catalyse some of the sulphur, esters & organic acids,
                      reducing their odour & taste.

                      10) How do I measure the strength of it & dilute it ?

                      You need a hydrometer. This is a wee float, with a scale inside it. The more
                      alcohol that is present, the lighter the density of the liquid, so the
                      hydrometer sinks a bit lower. You then just read off the scale how much
                      alcohol is present. You need a seperate hydrometer for measuring the density
                      of the mash, as this is generally > 1.0, whereas the spirit is < 1.0, and
                      they can't accurately do both ends of the scale.

                      11) How do I flavour/turn the vodka's into something else ?

                      There are now many commercial flavourings available, which turn vodka or
                      neutral alcohol into pretty decent gin or whiskey, or all manor of liqueurs.
                      See the commercial sites, like Des Zines
                      http://homepages.ihug.co.nz/~topkiwi or Ray Toms http://moonshine.co.nz/ for
                      details. Or you can soak it with oak chips and make whiskey, or soak fruits
                      in it to make your own liqueurs.

                      12) What web resources are there ?

                      For more details, see :
                      Tony Ackland's http://homedistiller.org
                      Aaron Smiths's http://www.go.to/distillation
                      Steve Spence's http://www.webconx.com/ethanol.htm
                      StillMaker's http://www.Moonshine-Still.com
                      Biofuels Library http://journeytoforever.org/biofuel_library.html

                      13) How do I contact the NEW DISTILLERS news group ?

                      Both the NEW DISTILLERS and the DISTILLERS news groups are available via
                      YahooGroups, at http://www.yahoogroups.com . NEW DISTILLERS is, as the name
                      suggests, intended for those of you new to distilling and after simple,
                      straight-forward discussions, whereas the DISTILLERS group is a bit more
                      advanced, throwing in bits of design philosophy, theory, and alternative
                      ways of achieving the results. Both tend to overlap to some extent.

                      14) Can I run my car on it ?

                      You can run your car on alcohol over about 80% purity. Because any water
                      present will seperate out in the presence of the gasoline (and become a
                      problem), you either need to exclusively use the alcohol, or dry it right
                      out (eg 99%+ purity) if using it to mix with gasoline. See Steve Spences
                      site for more details, the Mother Earth Alcohol Fuel manual, or the The
                      Manual for the Home and Farm Production of Alcohol Fuel. In addition, in the
                      USA, you can get a "small fuel producer" permit, which allows small scale
                      distilling for "motor fuel" purposes. A nice advantage is that they don't
                      require denaturing for "fuel" used on the premises. The regulations are
                      posted at http://www.webconx.com/ethanolusaregs.htm

                      15) How do I convert between gallons and litres and ....

                      To convert between SI & Imperial units, multiply the first unit by the
                      conversion factor to get the second. Divide back to do it in reverse .eg 1L
                      = 0.264 US gal, so 20 L = 20 x 0.264 = 5.28 US gal, and 20 US gal / 0.264 =
                      75.76 L

                      1 L = 0.264 US gal = 0.221 UK gal
                      1 L = 1.057 US qt = 0.880 UK qt
                      1 kg = 2.204 lbm = 32.15 oz (troy) = 35.27 oz (av)
                      deg F = ((9/5) x deg C )+ 32
                      1m = 1000 mm = 39.37 inch = 3.28 ft = 1.09 yd

                      16) What is a "Thumper" ?

                      A "thumper" is an extra chamber sometimes fitted to a pot still. It can be
                      as simple as a glass jar with two holes in the lid. The off-take from the
                      still is fed into it, with the pipe running almost all the way to the bottom
                      of the jar; the jar is half filled with liquid (water or mash or tails) so
                      that the vapour from the still will bubble up through it; then the vapour
                      coming off it is collected & cooled as per normal. It acts as a second
                      distilling chamber using just the heat from the vapour, and lifts the purity
                      from 50-60% to 70-80%, hence improving what might otherwise be a very
                      mediocre design.

                      17) Can I use a Reflux Still to make Rum or Whisky ?

                      Yes you can. To do so, you need to carefully monitor the various transitions
                      between the foreshots, heads, middle run, and tails, and time the collection
                      of the middle run precisely. The reflux still allows you to more precisely
                      judge the changes between the various stages, and hence target them
                      accurately. A typical rum or whisky would be obtained by discarding the
                      foreshots, then collecting the heads, middle run, and then begin the tails,
                      until the purity has dropped to around 58-60% (81.4C). By altering when to
                      start collecting, and how late to time the final "cut", various flavour
                      profiles will result.
                    • AuntyEthyl
                      Well this has been asked about quite a bit of late so i ll put my 40 cents worth in. Firstly, this is not the *only* way, nor the easiest way, nor the best way
                      Message 10 of 29 , Nov 18, 2001
                        Well this has been asked about quite a bit of late so
                        i'll put my 40 cents worth in.

                        Firstly, this is not the *only* way, nor the easiest
                        way, nor the best way it's just my way and for me it
                        works well. But it has some advantages over other
                        designs.

                        This system, uses a tube that is essentially sealed,
                        so unlike other designs, you can fill and forget,
                        rather than watch for overflow or needing to top it up
                        all the time. It is also designed around a 25ltr wash,
                        so will process about 10 ltrs of 40% spirit in a
                        single pass in about 36hours.

                        Secondly I apologise for the drawings, when it comes
                        to Artistic, I'm all Autistic.

                        Materials

                        1 x 500mm long 50mm diameter upvc pipe
                        1 x 50mm end cap
                        1 x 50mm threaded adapter
                        1 x 50mm threaded end cap with O ring
                        1 x poly pipe barbed adapter (see drawing/see text)
                        1 x Caulking gun glue tube nozzle
                        1 x Aquarium air tap
                        1 x 1 meter+ of silicon aquarium air hose

                        20ltr drum with tap
                        Container to collect treated spirit (I use a
                        fermenter)
                        Some coffee filter paper
                        Activated carbon
                        Some untreated spirit

                        Note. The poly pipe barbed fitting is the barbed part
                        of the poly pipe adapter that screws to a tap and has
                        the barbed part to attach some poly pipe. See
                        polyfit.gif

                        After studying my ordinary drawings, drill a hole in
                        the centre of the end cap to suit the nozzle. This can
                        be glued into position with silicon, from the outside.
                        The end cap can then be glued onto the end of the main
                        pipe. The barbs on the poly pipe fitting need to be
                        filed down flush with the outside of the fitting, then
                        a suitable hole drilled into the centre of threaded
                        cap, and the poly pipe fitting glued into place. The
                        threaded adapter can be glued onto the other end of
                        the pipe.

                        With the main filter unit built, all you need is a
                        short piece of plastic tubing to fit over the barbed
                        poly pipe fitting, then other end fits over the end of
                        a standard drum tape (not the cobra/flip type tap)

                        To the caulking gun nozzle attach a short peice of
                        silicon tube. The other end is attached to the air
                        tap. A longer peice of silicon tube is used from the
                        tap, leading into the collection container.

                        When you are ready to use.
                        Cut two layers of coffee filter paper to fit inside of
                        the main pipe. Push these inside the main pipe until
                        they rest at the bottom against the end cap.
                        Fill your main pipe with activated carbon, to 50mm
                        from the top.
                        Pour the carbon into a glass bowl and pour boiling
                        water over carbon. Stir, leave sit for a couple of
                        minutes and pour off the water.
                        Repeat about five times until water above the carbon
                        is clear.
                        Rinse filter housing. And fold silicon tube and clamp
                        with a clothes peg. Fill tube with fairly warm to hot
                        water.
                        Pour off excess water from carbon and using a desert
                        spoon fill tube with the carbon. Once filled, screw on
                        threaded cap and top up water in filter. Push the
                        clear plastic tube over the tap of the drum which has
                        been filled with untreated spirit at 50% or less, the
                        drum has also been suspended from the garage roof
                        truss.
                        Turn on the drum tap and adjust the aquarium air tap
                        until the flow is quite fast, feel the filter pipe, as
                        the spirit flows thru the pipe will cool, letting you
                        know how far the spirit has flowed.
                        Let the spirit flow fast until about two thirds of the
                        water has been displaced. The water can be chucked,
                        adjust the air tap until the spirit is just flowing,
                        about 2 drips a second.

                        Relax and wait for some smooth tasting, non smelling
                        spirit.

                        This works very well for me.

                        Enjoy
                        AuntyEthyl





                        __________________________________________________
                        Do You Yahoo!?
                        Find the one for you at Yahoo! Personals
                        http://personals.yahoo.com
                      • Tony & Elle Ackland
                        ****************************************************************** NEW DISTILLERS Frequently Asked Questions (Sept 01) Posted near the 1st of each month, to
                        Message 11 of 29 , Jan 1, 2002
                          ******************************************************************
                          "NEW DISTILLERS" Frequently Asked Questions (Sept'01)

                          Posted near the 1st of each month, to the NEW_DISTILLERS newsgroup at
                          www.yahoogroups.com

                          Please email any additions, corrections, clarifications required, etc
                          regarding the FAQ to Tony Ackland (ackland@...), however please
                          direct any general questions to the newsgroup itself.

                          *******************************************************************

                          1) Is distilling hard to do ?
                          2) Is it legal ?
                          3) Will it make me blind ?
                          4) Whats the difference between a pot still, reflux still, and
                          fractionating column ?
                          5) How do I get or make a still ?
                          6) How do I make a whisky / rum / vodka / gin ?
                          7) Should I use sugar or grains ?
                          8) Can I use fruit wine ?
                          9) How do I get rid of that "off-taste" ?
                          10) How do I measure the strength of it & dilute it ?
                          11) How do I flavour/turn the vodka's into something else ?
                          12) What web resources are there ?
                          13) How do I contact the NEW DISTILLERS news group ?
                          14) Can I run my car on it ?
                          15) How do I convert between gallons and litres and ....
                          16) What is a "Thumper" ?
                          17) Can I use a reflux still to make rum or whisky ?

                          **********************************************************************

                          1) Is distilling hard to do ?

                          Nope - if you can follow instructions enough to bake scones, then you can
                          sucessfully distil. To distil well however, will require you to understand
                          what you're doing, so read around and get a bit of information under your
                          belt before you begin.

                          2) Is it legal ?

                          Probably not. It is only legal in New Zealand, and some European countries
                          turn a blind eye to it, but elsewhere it is illegal, with punishment
                          ranging from fines to imprisonment or floggings. This action against it is
                          usually the result of either religous beliefs (right or wrong), but more
                          generally due to the great revenue base it provides Governements through
                          excise taxes. So if you are going to distil, just be aware of the potential
                          legal ramifications.

                          3) Will it make me blind ?

                          Not if you're careful. This pervasive question is due to moonshine lore,
                          which abounds with myths of blindness, but few actual documented cases. The
                          concern is due to the presence of methanol (wood alcohol), an optic nerve
                          poison, which can be present in small amounts when fermenting grains or
                          fruits high in pectin. This methanol comes off first from the still, so it
                          is easily segregated and discarded. A simple rule of thumb for this is to
                          throw away the first 50 mL you collect (per 20 L mash used). Probably the
                          greatest risk to your health during distilling is the risk of fire -
                          collecting a flammable liquid near a heat source. So keep a fire
                          extinguisher nearby.

                          4) Whats the difference between a pot still, reflux still, and
                          fractionating column ?

                          A pot still simply collects and condenses the alcohol vapours that come off
                          the boiling mash. This will result in an alcohol at about 40-60% purity,
                          with plenty of flavour in it. If this distillate were put through the pot
                          still again, it would increase in purity to around 70-85% purity, and lose
                          a bit of its flavour.

                          A reflux still does these multiple distillations in one single go, by
                          having some packing in a column between the condensor & the pot, and
                          allowing some of the vapour to condense and trickle back down through the
                          packing. This "reflux" of liquid helps clean the rising vapour and increase
                          the % purity. The taller the packed column, and the more reflux liquid, the
                          purer the product will be. The advantage of doing this is that it will
                          result in a clean vodka, with little flavour to it - ideal for mixing with
                          flavours etc.

                          A fractionating column is a pure form of the reflux still. It will condense
                          all the vapour at the top of the packing, and return about 9/10 back down
                          the column. The column will be quite tall - say 600-1200mm (2-4 foot), and
                          packed with a material high in surface area, but which takes up little
                          space (pot scrubbers are good for this). It will result in an alcohol 95%+
                          pure (the theoretical limit without using a vacuum is 96.48 %(by volume)),
                          with no other tastes or impurities in it.

                          5) How do I get or make a still ?

                          If you're after a pot still, these are generally home made using what-ever
                          you have at hand - say copper tubing and old water heaters or pressure
                          cookers. Reflux stills can be made from plans on the net, or bought from
                          several manufacturers. For reflux stil plans see Stillmakers "Build a World
                          Class Distillation Apparatus" at http://www.Moonshine-Still.com (Free!) or
                          Gert Strands : http://partyman.se/Engelsk/default.htm (US$5). A good book
                          is Ian Smileys "Making Pure Corn Whisky" at
                          http://www.magma.ca/~smiley/main.htm, with full design details. See the
                          list of "web resources" below for links to sites selling ready-made stills.
                          For fuel alcohol stills see the Mother Earth Alcohol Fuel manual at
                          http://journeytoforever.org/biofuel_library/ethanol_motherearth/meToC.html,
                          and the The Manual for the Home and Farm Production of Alcohol Fuel by S.W.
                          Mathewson at
                          http://journeytoforever.org/biofuel_library/ethanol_manual/manual_ToC.html

                          Regarding the choice of heating for the still - if you have 240V available
                          it is usually easiest to control & safer (particularly with internal
                          elements). Gas can be used, but more care is needed to keep the collection
                          container further away and not letting it overfill.

                          6) How do I make a whisky / vodka / rum / gin ?

                          Whiskey : Heat 4 kg cracked or crushed malt with 18 L of water to 63-65C,
                          and hold there for 1-1.5 hours. Heat to 73-75C, then strain off and keep
                          liquid, using 250 mL of hot water to rinse the grains. Cool to below 30C
                          (should have an initial specific gravity of 1.050). Add hydrated yeast &
                          leave to ferment (maintain at 26C) until airlock stops bubbling and final
                          SG of around 1.010. Let settle for a day, then syphon carefully into a pot
                          still. Discard the first 50 mL's, collect the next 2-3L of distillate or
                          until you start noticing the tails coming through.

                          Vodka : dissolve 5 kg of sugar & 60g of nutrients in 20L of water, cool to
                          below 30C and add hydrated yeast. Leave to ferment at 25C until below an SG
                          of around 0.990, then settle for a day. Syphon into a reflux or
                          fractionating still, and collect as per usual.

                          Rum : as per vodka, but use some brown sugar or mollasses, to give an
                          initial specific gravity (SG) of around 1.06 - 1.07. Run through either a
                          pot still, or a not-so-great reflux still.

                          Gin : make a very pure vodka, then add the following essence. Simmer 35g of
                          juniper berries in 350 mL of 50% vodka for ten minutes with the lid on, let
                          cool overnight, then filter through coffee filters. Use 5-10 mL of this
                          essence per bottle of vodka.

                          When doing any fermenting, take a lot of care to ensure that any items used
                          are clean/sterile (soaking them in a water + bleach (10 mL per litre) ), or
                          else the wash can start growing other things. Use a closed fermenter with
                          an airlock too, to let the CO2 out without letting wild yeasts, bugs etc
                          in. For more information about fermenting, see beer or wine homebrewing
                          sites.

                          7) Should I use sugar or grains/fruit ?

                          It depends on what sort of still you have, and what you are trying to make.
                          If you have a reflux or fractionating still, only use whatever is cheapest
                          (usually sugar), as the refluxing will strip out all the flavours anyhow.
                          If you have a pot still, and are after a bourban or whiskey, then you need
                          to go the grain route, or mollasses if after a rum. If you are trying to
                          make a neutral spirit for flavouring, go for sugar.

                          Basic guidelines for using them are ..
                          SUGAR. Wine yeast can use no more than 2.5lbs of sugar/1imp gal or
                          2.2lb/1U.S.gal or 1.25kg/5litres of must. This will produce 14%a.b.v. Honey
                          and liquid malt extract are 80% sugar so you need 1.5kg/5l must or mash.
                          Molasses is 50% sugar so you need 2.5kg/5l must or mash. Maple syrup is 32%
                          sugar. Carob beans are 45% sugar. Sugar beets are 15% sugar Grain malt is
                          60% sugar (starch converted to sugars) so you need 1.5kg/5l mash. Cooked
                          grain contains 60% convertible starch so you need 1.5kg/5l mash
                          FRUIT - Grapes contain the ideal sugar, water, acid balance. A sugar
                          content of 17-23% and a water content of about 80%. 8kg of grapes produces
                          5l of wine. Most common fruits (apples, plums, apricots) contain about 10%
                          sugar and 85% water. Cherries and figs contain 15% sugar. A fruit mash
                          could be 4kg fruit, (400g sugar content), 2l water (3l in pulp already),
                          800g additional sugar. Bananas are 17-24% sugar, 75% water. Acid content
                          0.3%. A banana mash could be 4kg of cooked bananas, 2l water (3l in pulp
                          already),400g sugar. Add 3lemons/5l for correct pH. Dates are 70% sugar,
                          20% water. Add acid to a date mash. Raisins and sultanas have a water
                          content of about 15% and a sugar content of 60%, grapes have a water
                          content of 75% and a sugar content of about 20%, so using 1.5-2kg/5l of
                          water appears about right if we want to reconstitute them.
                          ACID - 5g of citric acid (1tsp)/5l must raises acidity by 0.1%. 3g of
                          calcium carbonate powder lowers acidity by 0.1%. A pH of 5 is 0.4% acidity.
                          Winemakers aim for 0.6% acidity. Most common fruits are about 0.6% acid
                          content. For distilling, a higher acidity in the mash helps to suppress
                          bacteria. A high tannin content doesn't matter as we are not making wine.
                          Meaurements are logarithmic, so a pH of 4 is 10 times more acidic than a pH
                          of 5.
                          YEAST - Brewers (& possibly baker's yeast) can tolerate only 8% alcohol. A
                          bottom fermenting lager yeast ferments out all the sugars better than a top
                          fermenting ale yeast. A good wine yeast (Champagne, in the right
                          conditions, can tolerate 15%a.b.v. (up to 18%a.b.v. in optimal conditions -
                          no need to use expensive turbos). Wild yeasts vary, but some are very low -
                          this is a risky path. Whisky distillers often use a combination of yeasts -
                          initially a brewer's yeast because they believe it effects the flavor.

                          8) Can I use fruit wine ?

                          Sure, if you have it available. Again, using a pot still will result in a
                          brandy/grappa/schnapps, whereas a reflux still will just strip it down to
                          neutral spirit.

                          9) How do I get rid of that "off-taste" ?

                          That "rough moonshine edge" or "off-taste / wet cardboard smell" is due to
                          impurities such as the higher order alcohols, known as cogeners or fusel
                          oils. These will be present more when using a pot still, less if using a
                          reflux still, and just about absent if using a fractionating column. So one
                          way is to use a taller packed column and increase the amount of reflux
                          occuring. They can also indicate that you've tried to collect too much of
                          the alcohol, and have run into the "tails"; so finish collecting a little
                          bit earlier next time. Soaking tainted alcohol with activated carbon for a
                          week (or even months) will help remove some of this flavour - this is known
                          as "polishing" the spirit. I'm also suspecting that you need a little bit
                          of copper somewhere in the still where it can come in contact with the
                          vapour. The copper helps catalyse some of the sulphur, esters & organic
                          acids, reducing their odour & taste.

                          10) How do I measure the strength of it & dilute it ?

                          You need a hydrometer. This is a wee float, with a scale inside it. The
                          more alcohol that is present, the lighter the density of the liquid, so the
                          hydrometer sinks a bit lower. You then just read off the scale how much
                          alcohol is present. You need a seperate hydrometer for measuring the
                          density of the mash, as this is generally > 1.0, whereas the spirit is <
                          1.0, and they can't accurately do both ends of the scale.

                          11) How do I flavour/turn the vodka's into something else ?

                          There are now many commercial flavourings available, which turn vodka or
                          neutral alcohol into pretty decent gin or whiskey, or all manor of
                          liqueurs. See the commercial sites, like Des Zines
                          http://homepages.ihug.co.nz/~topkiwi or Ray Toms http://moonshine.co.nz/
                          for details. Or you can soak it with oak chips and make whiskey, or soak
                          fruits in it to make your own liqueurs.

                          12) What web resources are there ?

                          For more details, see :
                          Tony Ackland's http://homedistiller.org
                          Aaron Smiths's http://www.go.to/distillation
                          Steve Spence's http://www.webconx.com/ethanol.htm
                          StillMaker's http://www.Moonshine-Still.com
                          Biofuels Library http://journeytoforever.org/biofuel_library.html

                          13) How do I contact the NEW DISTILLERS news group ?

                          Both the NEW DISTILLERS and the DISTILLERS news groups are available via
                          YahooGroups, at http://www.yahoogroups.com . NEW DISTILLERS is, as the name
                          suggests, intended for those of you new to distilling and after simple,
                          straight-forward discussions, whereas the DISTILLERS group is a bit more
                          advanced, throwing in bits of design philosophy, theory, and alternative
                          ways of achieving the results. Both tend to overlap to some extent.

                          14) Can I run my car on it ?

                          You can run your car on alcohol over about 80% purity. Because any water
                          present will seperate out in the presence of the gasoline (and become a
                          problem), you either need to exclusively use the alcohol, or dry it right
                          out (eg 99%+ purity) if using it to mix with gasoline. See Steve Spences
                          site for more details, the Mother Earth Alcohol Fuel manual, or the The
                          Manual for the Home and Farm Production of Alcohol Fuel. In addition, in
                          the USA, you can get a "small fuel producer" permit, which allows small
                          scale distilling for "motor fuel" purposes. A nice advantage is that they
                          don't require denaturing for "fuel" used on the premises. The regulations
                          are posted at http://www.webconx.com/ethanolusaregs.htm

                          15) How do I convert between gallons and litres and ....

                          To convert between SI & Imperial units, multiply the first unit by the
                          conversion factor to get the second. Divide back to do it in reverse .eg 1L
                          = 0.264 US gal, so 20 L = 20 x 0.264 = 5.28 US gal, and 20 US gal / 0.264 =
                          75.76 L

                          1 L = 0.264 US gal = 0.221 UK gal
                          1 L = 1.057 US qt = 0.880 UK qt
                          1 kg = 2.204 lbm = 32.15 oz (troy) = 35.27 oz (av)
                          deg F = ((9/5) x deg C )+ 32
                          1m = 1000 mm = 39.37 inch = 3.28 ft = 1.09 yd

                          16) What is a "Thumper" ?

                          A "thumper" is an extra chamber sometimes fitted to a pot still. It can be
                          as simple as a glass jar with two holes in the lid. The off-take from the
                          still is fed into it, with the pipe running almost all the way to the
                          bottom of the jar; the jar is half filled with liquid (water or mash or
                          tails) so that the vapour from the still will bubble up through it; then
                          the vapour coming off it is collected & cooled as per normal. It acts as a
                          second distilling chamber using just the heat from the vapour, and lifts
                          the purity from 50-60% to 70-80%, hence improving what might otherwise be a
                          very mediocre design.

                          17) Can I use a Reflux Still to make Rum or Whisky ?

                          Yes you can. To do so, you need to carefully monitor the various
                          transitions between the foreshots, heads, middle run, and tails, and time
                          the collection of the middle run precisely. The reflux still allows you to
                          more precisely judge the changes between the various stages, and hence
                          target them accurately. A typical rum or whisky would be obtained by
                          discarding the foreshots, then collecting the heads, middle run, and then
                          begin the tails, until the purity has dropped to around 58-60% (81.4C). By
                          altering when to start collecting, and how late to time the final "cut",
                          various flavour profiles will result.
                          ------------------------------------------------------------------------
                          --------

                          http://homedistiller.org This page last modified 10/05/2001 17:21:16
                          email: ackland@...
                        • Tony & Elle Ackland
                          NEW DISTILLERS Frequently Asked Questions (Sept 01) Posted near the 1st of each month, to the NEW_DISTILLERS newsgroup at www.yahoogroups.com Please email
                          Message 12 of 29 , Feb 28, 2002
                            "NEW DISTILLERS" Frequently Asked Questions (Sept'01)

                            Posted near the 1st of each month, to the NEW_DISTILLERS newsgroup at
                            www.yahoogroups.com

                            Please email any additions, corrections, clarifications required, etc
                            regarding the FAQ to Tony Ackland (ackland@...), however please
                            direct any general questions to the newsgroup itself.

                            *******************************************************************

                            1) Is distilling hard to do ?
                            2) Is it legal ?
                            3) Will it make me blind ?
                            4) Whats the difference between a pot still, reflux still, and
                            fractionating column ?
                            5) How do I get or make a still ?
                            6) How do I make a whisky / rum / vodka / gin ?
                            7) Should I use sugar or grains ?
                            8) Can I use fruit wine ?
                            9) How do I get rid of that "off-taste" ?
                            10) How do I measure the strength of it & dilute it ?
                            11) How do I flavour/turn the vodka's into something else ?
                            12) What web resources are there ?
                            13) How do I contact the NEW DISTILLERS news group ?
                            14) Can I run my car on it ?
                            15) How do I convert between gallons and litres and ....
                            16) What is a "Thumper" ?
                            17) Can I use a reflux still to make rum or whisky ?

                            **********************************************************************

                            1) Is distilling hard to do ?

                            Nope - if you can follow instructions enough to bake scones, then you can
                            sucessfully distil. To distil well however, will require you to understand
                            what you're doing, so read around and get a bit of information under your
                            belt before you begin.

                            2) Is it legal ?

                            Probably not. It is only legal in New Zealand, and some European countries
                            turn a blind eye to it, but elsewhere it is illegal, with punishment
                            ranging from fines to imprisonment or floggings. This action against it is
                            usually the result of either religous beliefs (right or wrong), but more
                            generally due to the great revenue base it provides Governements through
                            excise taxes. So if you are going to distil, just be aware of the potential
                            legal ramifications.

                            3) Will it make me blind ?

                            Not if you're careful. This pervasive question is due to moonshine lore,
                            which abounds with myths of blindness, but few actual documented cases. The
                            concern is due to the presence of methanol (wood alcohol), an optic nerve
                            poison, which can be present in small amounts when fermenting grains or
                            fruits high in pectin. This methanol comes off first from the still, so it
                            is easily segregated and discarded. A simple rule of thumb for this is to
                            throw away the first 50 mL you collect (per 20 L mash used). Probably the
                            greatest risk to your health during distilling is the risk of fire -
                            collecting a flammable liquid near a heat source. So keep a fire
                            extinguisher nearby.

                            4) Whats the difference between a pot still, reflux still, and
                            fractionating column ?

                            A pot still simply collects and condenses the alcohol vapours that come off
                            the boiling mash. This will result in an alcohol at about 40-60% purity,
                            with plenty of flavour in it. If this distillate were put through the pot
                            still again, it would increase in purity to around 70-85% purity, and lose
                            a bit of its flavour.

                            A reflux still does these multiple distillations in one single go, by
                            having some packing in a column between the condensor & the pot, and
                            allowing some of the vapour to condense and trickle back down through the
                            packing. This "reflux" of liquid helps clean the rising vapour and increase
                            the % purity. The taller the packed column, and the more reflux liquid, the
                            purer the product will be. The advantage of doing this is that it will
                            result in a clean vodka, with little flavour to it - ideal for mixing with
                            flavours etc.

                            A fractionating column is a pure form of the reflux still. It will condense
                            all the vapour at the top of the packing, and return about 9/10 back down
                            the column. The column will be quite tall - say 600-1200mm (2-4 foot), and
                            packed with a material high in surface area, but which takes up little
                            space (pot scrubbers are good for this). It will result in an alcohol 95%+
                            pure (the theoretical limit without using a vacuum is 96.48 %(by volume)),
                            with no other tastes or impurities in it.

                            5) How do I get or make a still ?

                            If you're after a pot still, these are generally home made using what-ever
                            you have at hand - say copper tubing and old water heaters or pressure
                            cookers. Reflux stills can be made from plans on the net, or bought from
                            several manufacturers. For reflux stil plans see Stillmakers "Build a World
                            Class Distillation Apparatus" at http://www.Moonshine-Still.com (Free!) or
                            Gert Strands : http://partyman.se/Engelsk/default.htm (US$5). A good book
                            is Ian Smileys "Making Pure Corn Whisky" at
                            http://www.magma.ca/~smiley/main.htm, with full design details. See the
                            list of "web resources" below for links to sites selling ready-made stills.
                            For fuel alcohol stills see the Mother Earth Alcohol Fuel manual at
                            http://journeytoforever.org/biofuel_library/ethanol_motherearth/meToC.html,
                            and the The Manual for the Home and Farm Production of Alcohol Fuel by S.W.
                            Mathewson at
                            http://journeytoforever.org/biofuel_library/ethanol_manual/manual_ToC.html

                            Regarding the choice of heating for the still - if you have 240V available
                            it is usually easiest to control & safer (particularly with internal
                            elements). Gas can be used, but more care is needed to keep the collection
                            container further away and not letting it overfill.

                            6) How do I make a whisky / vodka / rum / gin ?

                            Whiskey : Heat 4 kg cracked or crushed malt with 18 L of water to 63-65C,
                            and hold there for 1-1.5 hours. Heat to 73-75C, then strain off and keep
                            liquid, using 250 mL of hot water to rinse the grains. Cool to below 30C
                            (should have an initial specific gravity of 1.050). Add hydrated yeast &
                            leave to ferment (maintain at 26C) until airlock stops bubbling and final
                            SG of around 1.010. Let settle for a day, then syphon carefully into a pot
                            still. Discard the first 50 mL's, collect the next 2-3L of distillate or
                            until you start noticing the tails coming through.

                            Vodka : dissolve 5 kg of sugar & 60g of nutrients in 20L of water, cool to
                            below 30C and add hydrated yeast. Leave to ferment at 25C until below an SG
                            of around 0.990, then settle for a day. Syphon into a reflux or
                            fractionating still, and collect as per usual.

                            Rum : as per vodka, but use some brown sugar or mollasses, to give an
                            initial specific gravity (SG) of around 1.06 - 1.07. Run through either a
                            pot still, or a not-so-great reflux still.

                            Gin : make a very pure vodka, then add the following essence. Simmer 35g of
                            juniper berries in 350 mL of 50% vodka for ten minutes with the lid on, let
                            cool overnight, then filter through coffee filters. Use 5-10 mL of this
                            essence per bottle of vodka.

                            When doing any fermenting, take a lot of care to ensure that any items used
                            are clean/sterile (soaking them in a water + bleach (10 mL per litre) ), or
                            else the wash can start growing other things. Use a closed fermenter with
                            an airlock too, to let the CO2 out without letting wild yeasts, bugs etc
                            in. For more information about fermenting, see beer or wine homebrewing
                            sites.

                            7) Should I use sugar or grains/fruit ?

                            It depends on what sort of still you have, and what you are trying to make.
                            If you have a reflux or fractionating still, only use whatever is cheapest
                            (usually sugar), as the refluxing will strip out all the flavours anyhow.
                            If you have a pot still, and are after a bourban or whiskey, then you need
                            to go the grain route, or mollasses if after a rum. If you are trying to
                            make a neutral spirit for flavouring, go for sugar.

                            Basic guidelines for using them are ..
                            SUGAR. Wine yeast can use no more than 2.5lbs of sugar/1imp gal or
                            2.2lb/1U.S.gal or 1.25kg/5litres of must. This will produce 14%a.b.v. Honey
                            and liquid malt extract are 80% sugar so you need 1.5kg/5l must or mash.
                            Molasses is 50% sugar so you need 2.5kg/5l must or mash. Maple syrup is 32%
                            sugar. Carob beans are 45% sugar. Sugar beets are 15% sugar Grain malt is
                            60% sugar (starch converted to sugars) so you need 1.5kg/5l mash. Cooked
                            grain contains 60% convertible starch so you need 1.5kg/5l mash
                            FRUIT - Grapes contain the ideal sugar, water, acid balance. A sugar
                            content of 17-23% and a water content of about 80%. 8kg of grapes produces
                            5l of wine. Most common fruits (apples, plums, apricots) contain about 10%
                            sugar and 85% water. Cherries and figs contain 15% sugar. A fruit mash
                            could be 4kg fruit, (400g sugar content), 2l water (3l in pulp already),
                            800g additional sugar. Bananas are 17-24% sugar, 75% water. Acid content
                            0.3%. A banana mash could be 4kg of cooked bananas, 2l water (3l in pulp
                            already),400g sugar. Add 3lemons/5l for correct pH. Dates are 70% sugar,
                            20% water. Add acid to a date mash. Raisins and sultanas have a water
                            content of about 15% and a sugar content of 60%, grapes have a water
                            content of 75% and a sugar content of about 20%, so using 1.5-2kg/5l of
                            water appears about right if we want to reconstitute them.
                            ACID - 5g of citric acid (1tsp)/5l must raises acidity by 0.1%. 3g of
                            calcium carbonate powder lowers acidity by 0.1%. A pH of 5 is 0.4% acidity.
                            Winemakers aim for 0.6% acidity. Most common fruits are about 0.6% acid
                            content. For distilling, a higher acidity in the mash helps to suppress
                            bacteria. A high tannin content doesn't matter as we are not making wine.
                            Meaurements are logarithmic, so a pH of 4 is 10 times more acidic than a pH
                            of 5.
                            YEAST - Brewers (& possibly baker's yeast) can tolerate only 8% alcohol. A
                            bottom fermenting lager yeast ferments out all the sugars better than a top
                            fermenting ale yeast. A good wine yeast (Champagne, in the right
                            conditions, can tolerate 15%a.b.v. (up to 18%a.b.v. in optimal conditions -
                            no need to use expensive turbos). Wild yeasts vary, but some are very low -
                            this is a risky path. Whisky distillers often use a combination of yeasts -
                            initially a brewer's yeast because they believe it effects the flavor.

                            8) Can I use fruit wine ?

                            Sure, if you have it available. Again, using a pot still will result in a
                            brandy/grappa/schnapps, whereas a reflux still will just strip it down to
                            neutral spirit.

                            9) How do I get rid of that "off-taste" ?

                            That "rough moonshine edge" or "off-taste / wet cardboard smell" is due to
                            impurities such as the higher order alcohols, known as cogeners or fusel
                            oils. These will be present more when using a pot still, less if using a
                            reflux still, and just about absent if using a fractionating column. So one
                            way is to use a taller packed column and increase the amount of reflux
                            occuring. They can also indicate that you've tried to collect too much of
                            the alcohol, and have run into the "tails"; so finish collecting a little
                            bit earlier next time. Soaking tainted alcohol with activated carbon for a
                            week (or even months) will help remove some of this flavour - this is known
                            as "polishing" the spirit. I'm also suspecting that you need a little bit
                            of copper somewhere in the still where it can come in contact with the
                            vapour. The copper helps catalyse some of the sulphur, esters & organic
                            acids, reducing their odour & taste.

                            10) How do I measure the strength of it & dilute it ?

                            You need a hydrometer. This is a wee float, with a scale inside it. The
                            more alcohol that is present, the lighter the density of the liquid, so the
                            hydrometer sinks a bit lower. You then just read off the scale how much
                            alcohol is present. You need a seperate hydrometer for measuring the
                            density of the mash, as this is generally > 1.0, whereas the spirit is <
                            1.0, and they can't accurately do both ends of the scale.

                            11) How do I flavour/turn the vodka's into something else ?

                            There are now many commercial flavourings available, which turn vodka or
                            neutral alcohol into pretty decent gin or whiskey, or all manor of
                            liqueurs. See the commercial sites, like Des Zines
                            http://homepages.ihug.co.nz/~topkiwi or Ray Toms http://moonshine.co.nz/
                            for details. Or you can soak it with oak chips and make whiskey, or soak
                            fruits in it to make your own liqueurs.

                            12) What web resources are there ?

                            For more details, see :
                            Tony Ackland's http://homedistiller.org
                            Aaron Smiths's http://www.go.to/distillation
                            Steve Spence's http://www.webconx.com/ethanol.htm
                            StillMaker's http://www.Moonshine-Still.com
                            Biofuels Library http://journeytoforever.org/biofuel_library.html

                            13) How do I contact the NEW DISTILLERS news group ?

                            Both the NEW DISTILLERS and the DISTILLERS news groups are available via
                            YahooGroups, at http://www.yahoogroups.com . NEW DISTILLERS is, as the name
                            suggests, intended for those of you new to distilling and after simple,
                            straight-forward discussions, whereas the DISTILLERS group is a bit more
                            advanced, throwing in bits of design philosophy, theory, and alternative
                            ways of achieving the results. Both tend to overlap to some extent.

                            14) Can I run my car on it ?

                            You can run your car on alcohol over about 80% purity. Because any water
                            present will seperate out in the presence of the gasoline (and become a
                            problem), you either need to exclusively use the alcohol, or dry it right
                            out (eg 99%+ purity) if using it to mix with gasoline. See Steve Spences
                            site for more details, the Mother Earth Alcohol Fuel manual, or the The
                            Manual for the Home and Farm Production of Alcohol Fuel. In addition, in
                            the USA, you can get a "small fuel producer" permit, which allows small
                            scale distilling for "motor fuel" purposes. A nice advantage is that they
                            don't require denaturing for "fuel" used on the premises. The regulations
                            are posted at http://www.webconx.com/ethanolusaregs.htm

                            15) How do I convert between gallons and litres and ....

                            To convert between SI & Imperial units, multiply the first unit by the
                            conversion factor to get the second. Divide back to do it in reverse .eg 1L
                            = 0.264 US gal, so 20 L = 20 x 0.264 = 5.28 US gal, and 20 US gal / 0.264 =
                            75.76 L

                            1 L = 0.264 US gal = 0.221 UK gal
                            1 L = 1.057 US qt = 0.880 UK qt
                            1 kg = 2.204 lbm = 32.15 oz (troy) = 35.27 oz (av)
                            deg F = ((9/5) x deg C )+ 32
                            1m = 1000 mm = 39.37 inch = 3.28 ft = 1.09 yd

                            16) What is a "Thumper" ?

                            A "thumper" is an extra chamber sometimes fitted to a pot still. It can be
                            as simple as a glass jar with two holes in the lid. The off-take from the
                            still is fed into it, with the pipe running almost all the way to the
                            bottom of the jar; the jar is half filled with liquid (water or mash or
                            tails) so that the vapour from the still will bubble up through it; then
                            the vapour coming off it is collected & cooled as per normal. It acts as a
                            second distilling chamber using just the heat from the vapour, and lifts
                            the purity from 50-60% to 70-80%, hence improving what might otherwise be a
                            very mediocre design.

                            17) Can I use a Reflux Still to make Rum or Whisky ?

                            Yes you can. To do so, you need to carefully monitor the various
                            transitions between the foreshots, heads, middle run, and tails, and time
                            the collection of the middle run precisely. The reflux still allows you to
                            more precisely judge the changes between the various stages, and hence
                            target them accurately. A typical rum or whisky would be obtained by
                            discarding the foreshots, then collecting the heads, middle run, and then
                            begin the tails, until the purity has dropped to around 58-60% (81.4C). By
                            altering when to start collecting, and how late to time the final "cut",
                            various flavour profiles will result.
                            ------------------------------------------------------------------------
                            --------

                            http://homedistiller.org This page last modified 10/05/2001 17:21:16
                            email: ackland@...
                          • Tony & Elle Ackland
                            NEW DISTILLERS Frequently Asked Questions (Sept 01) Posted near the 1st of each month, to the NEW_DISTILLERS newsgroup at www.yahoogroups.com Please email
                            Message 13 of 29 , May 8, 2002
                              "NEW DISTILLERS" Frequently Asked Questions (Sept'01)

                              Posted near the 1st of each month, to the NEW_DISTILLERS newsgroup at
                              www.yahoogroups.com

                              Please email any additions, corrections, clarifications required, etc
                              regarding the FAQ to Tony Ackland (ackland@...), however please
                              direct any general questions to the newsgroup itself.

                              *******************************************************************

                              1) Is distilling hard to do ?
                              2) Is it legal ?
                              3) Will it make me blind ?
                              4) Whats the difference between a pot still, reflux still, and
                              fractionating column ?
                              5) How do I get or make a still ?
                              6) How do I make a whisky / rum / vodka / gin ?
                              7) Should I use sugar or grains ?
                              8) Can I use fruit wine ?
                              9) How do I get rid of that "off-taste" ?
                              10) How do I measure the strength of it & dilute it ?
                              11) How do I flavour/turn the vodka's into something else ?
                              12) What web resources are there ?
                              13) How do I contact the NEW DISTILLERS news group ?
                              14) Can I run my car on it ?
                              15) How do I convert between gallons and litres and ....
                              16) What is a "Thumper" ?
                              17) Can I use a reflux still to make rum or whisky ?

                              **********************************************************************

                              1) Is distilling hard to do ?

                              Nope - if you can follow instructions enough to bake scones, then you can
                              sucessfully distil. To distil well however, will require you to understand
                              what you're doing, so read around and get a bit of information under your
                              belt before you begin.

                              2) Is it legal ?

                              Probably not. It is only legal in New Zealand, and some European countries
                              turn a blind eye to it, but elsewhere it is illegal, with punishment
                              ranging from fines to imprisonment or floggings. This action against it is
                              usually the result of either religous beliefs (right or wrong), but more
                              generally due to the great revenue base it provides Governements through
                              excise taxes. So if you are going to distil, just be aware of the potential
                              legal ramifications.

                              3) Will it make me blind ?

                              Not if you're careful. This pervasive question is due to moonshine lore,
                              which abounds with myths of blindness, but few actual documented cases. The
                              concern is due to the presence of methanol (wood alcohol), an optic nerve
                              poison, which can be present in small amounts when fermenting grains or
                              fruits high in pectin. This methanol comes off first from the still, so it
                              is easily segregated and discarded. A simple rule of thumb for this is to
                              throw away the first 50 mL you collect (per 20 L mash used). Probably the
                              greatest risk to your health during distilling is the risk of fire -
                              collecting a flammable liquid near a heat source. So keep a fire
                              extinguisher nearby.

                              4) Whats the difference between a pot still, reflux still, and
                              fractionating column ?

                              A pot still simply collects and condenses the alcohol vapours that come off
                              the boiling mash. This will result in an alcohol at about 40-60% purity,
                              with plenty of flavour in it. If this distillate were put through the pot
                              still again, it would increase in purity to around 70-85% purity, and lose
                              a bit of its flavour.

                              A reflux still does these multiple distillations in one single go, by
                              having some packing in a column between the condensor & the pot, and
                              allowing some of the vapour to condense and trickle back down through the
                              packing. This "reflux" of liquid helps clean the rising vapour and increase
                              the % purity. The taller the packed column, and the more reflux liquid, the
                              purer the product will be. The advantage of doing this is that it will
                              result in a clean vodka, with little flavour to it - ideal for mixing with
                              flavours etc.

                              A fractionating column is a pure form of the reflux still. It will condense
                              all the vapour at the top of the packing, and return about 9/10 back down
                              the column. The column will be quite tall - say 600-1200mm (2-4 foot), and
                              packed with a material high in surface area, but which takes up little
                              space (pot scrubbers are good for this). It will result in an alcohol 95%+
                              pure (the theoretical limit without using a vacuum is 96.48 %(by volume)),
                              with no other tastes or impurities in it.

                              5) How do I get or make a still ?

                              If you're after a pot still, these are generally home made using what-ever
                              you have at hand - say copper tubing and old water heaters or pressure
                              cookers. Reflux stills can be made from plans on the net, or bought from
                              several manufacturers. For reflux stil plans see Stillmakers "Build a World
                              Class Distillation Apparatus" at http://www.Moonshine-Still.com (Free!) or
                              Gert Strands : http://partyman.se/Engelsk/default.htm (US$5). A good book
                              is Ian Smileys "Making Pure Corn Whisky" at
                              http://www.magma.ca/~smiley/main.htm, with full design details. For an
                              excellent book on all aspects of still design, see "The Compleat Distiller"
                              at http://www.amphora-society.com See the list of "web resources" below
                              for links to sites selling ready-made stills. For fuel alcohol stills see
                              the Mother Earth Alcohol Fuel manual at
                              http://journeytoforever.org/biofuel_library/ethanol_motherearth/meToC.html,
                              and the The Manual for the Home and Farm Production of Alcohol Fuel by S.W.
                              Mathewson at
                              http://journeytoforever.org/biofuel_library/ethanol_manual/manual_ToC.html
                              Regarding the choice of heating for the still - if you have 240V available
                              it is usually easiest to control & safer (particularly with internal
                              elements). Gas can be used, but more care is needed to keep the collection
                              container further away and not letting it overfill.

                              6) How do I make a whisky / vodka / rum / gin ?

                              Whiskey : Heat 4 kg cracked or crushed malt with 18 L of water to 63-65C,
                              and hold there for 1-1.5 hours. Heat to 73-75C, then strain off and keep
                              liquid, using 250 mL of hot water to rinse the grains. Cool to below 30C
                              (should have an initial specific gravity of 1.050). Add hydrated yeast &
                              leave to ferment (maintain at 26C) until airlock stops bubbling and final
                              SG of around 1.010. Let settle for a day, then syphon carefully into a pot
                              still. Discard the first 50 mL's, collect the next 2-3L of distillate or
                              until you start noticing the tails coming through.

                              Vodka : dissolve 5 kg of sugar & 60g of nutrients in 20L of water, cool to
                              below 30C and add hydrated yeast. Leave to ferment at 25C until below an SG
                              of around 0.990, then settle for a day. Syphon into a reflux or
                              fractionating still, and collect as per usual.

                              Rum : as per vodka, but use some brown sugar or mollasses, to give an
                              initial specific gravity (SG) of around 1.06 - 1.07. Run through either a
                              pot still, or a not-so-great reflux still.

                              Gin : make a very pure vodka, then add the following essence. Simmer 35g of
                              juniper berries in 350 mL of 50% vodka for ten minutes with the lid on, let
                              cool overnight, then filter through coffee filters. Use 5-10 mL of this
                              essence per bottle of vodka.

                              When doing any fermenting, take a lot of care to ensure that any items used
                              are clean/sterile (soaking them in a water + bleach (10 mL per litre) ), or
                              else the wash can start growing other things. Use a closed fermenter with
                              an airlock too, to let the CO2 out without letting wild yeasts, bugs etc
                              in. For more information about fermenting, see beer or wine homebrewing
                              sites.

                              7) Should I use sugar or grains/fruit ?

                              It depends on what sort of still you have, and what you are trying to make.
                              If you have a reflux or fractionating still, only use whatever is cheapest
                              (usually sugar), as the refluxing will strip out all the flavours anyhow.
                              If you have a pot still, and are after a bourban or whiskey, then you need
                              to go the grain route, or mollasses if after a rum. If you are trying to
                              make a neutral spirit for flavouring, go for sugar.

                              Basic guidelines for using them are ..
                              SUGAR. Wine yeast can use no more than 2.5lbs of sugar/1imp gal or
                              2.2lb/1U.S.gal or 1.25kg/5litres of must. This will produce 14%a.b.v. Honey
                              and liquid malt extract are 80% sugar so you need 1.5kg/5l must or mash.
                              Molasses is 50% sugar so you need 2.5kg/5l must or mash. Maple syrup is 32%
                              sugar. Carob beans are 45% sugar. Sugar beets are 15% sugar Grain malt is
                              60% sugar (starch converted to sugars) so you need 1.5kg/5l mash. Cooked
                              grain contains 60% convertible starch so you need 1.5kg/5l mash
                              FRUIT - Grapes contain the ideal sugar, water, acid balance. A sugar
                              content of 17-23% and a water content of about 80%. 8kg of grapes produces
                              5l of wine. Most common fruits (apples, plums, apricots) contain about 10%
                              sugar and 85% water. Cherries and figs contain 15% sugar. A fruit mash
                              could be 4kg fruit, (400g sugar content), 2l water (3l in pulp already),
                              800g additional sugar. Bananas are 17-24% sugar, 75% water. Acid content
                              0.3%. A banana mash could be 4kg of cooked bananas, 2l water (3l in pulp
                              already),400g sugar. Add 3lemons/5l for correct pH. Dates are 70% sugar,
                              20% water. Add acid to a date mash. Raisins and sultanas have a water
                              content of about 15% and a sugar content of 60%, grapes have a water
                              content of 75% and a sugar content of about 20%, so using 1.5-2kg/5l of
                              water appears about right if we want to reconstitute them.
                              ACID - 5g of citric acid (1tsp)/5l must raises acidity by 0.1%. 3g of
                              calcium carbonate powder lowers acidity by 0.1%. A pH of 5 is 0.4% acidity.
                              Winemakers aim for 0.6% acidity. Most common fruits are about 0.6% acid
                              content. For distilling, a higher acidity in the mash helps to suppress
                              bacteria. A high tannin content doesn't matter as we are not making wine.
                              Meaurements are logarithmic, so a pH of 4 is 10 times more acidic than a pH
                              of 5.
                              YEAST - Brewers (& possibly baker's yeast) can tolerate only 8% alcohol. A
                              bottom fermenting lager yeast ferments out all the sugars better than a top
                              fermenting ale yeast. A good wine yeast (Champagne, in the right
                              conditions, can tolerate 15%a.b.v. (up to 18%a.b.v. in optimal conditions -
                              no need to use expensive turbos). Wild yeasts vary, but some are very low -
                              this is a risky path. Whisky distillers often use a combination of yeasts -
                              initially a brewer's yeast because they believe it effects the flavor.

                              8) Can I use fruit wine ?

                              Sure, if you have it available. Again, using a pot still will result in a
                              brandy/grappa/schnapps, whereas a reflux still will just strip it down to
                              neutral spirit.

                              9) How do I get rid of that "off-taste" ?

                              That "rough moonshine edge" or "off-taste / wet cardboard smell" is due to
                              impurities such as the higher order alcohols, known as cogeners or fusel
                              oils. These will be present more when using a pot still, less if using a
                              reflux still, and just about absent if using a fractionating column. So one
                              way is to use a taller packed column and increase the amount of reflux
                              occuring. They can also indicate that you've tried to collect too much of
                              the alcohol, and have run into the "tails"; so finish collecting a little
                              bit earlier next time. Soaking tainted alcohol with activated carbon for a
                              week (or even months) will help remove some of this flavour - this is known
                              as "polishing" the spirit. I'm also suspecting that you need a little bit
                              of copper somewhere in the still where it can come in contact with the
                              vapour. The copper helps catalyse some of the sulphur, esters & organic
                              acids, reducing their odour & taste.

                              10) How do I measure the strength of it & dilute it ?

                              You need a hydrometer. This is a wee float, with a scale inside it. The
                              more alcohol that is present, the lighter the density of the liquid, so the
                              hydrometer sinks a bit lower. You then just read off the scale how much
                              alcohol is present. You need a seperate hydrometer for measuring the
                              density of the mash, as this is generally > 1.0, whereas the spirit is <
                              1.0, and they can't accurately do both ends of the scale.

                              11) How do I flavour/turn the vodka's into something else ?

                              There are now many commercial flavourings available, which turn vodka or
                              neutral alcohol into pretty decent gin or whiskey, or all manor of
                              liqueurs. See the commercial sites, like Des Zines
                              http://homepages.ihug.co.nz/~topkiwi or Ray Toms http://moonshine.co.nz/
                              for details. Or you can soak it with oak chips and make whiskey, or soak
                              fruits in it to make your own liqueurs.

                              12) What web resources are there ?

                              For more details, see :
                              Tony Ackland's http://homedistiller.org
                              Aaron Smiths's http://www.go.to/distillation
                              Steve Spence's http://www.webconx.com/ethanol.htm
                              StillMaker's http://www.Moonshine-Still.com
                              Biofuels Library http://journeytoforever.org/biofuel_library.html

                              13) How do I contact the NEW DISTILLERS news group ?

                              Both the NEW DISTILLERS and the DISTILLERS news groups are available via
                              YahooGroups, at http://www.yahoogroups.com . NEW DISTILLERS is, as the name
                              suggests, intended for those of you new to distilling and after simple,
                              straight-forward discussions, whereas the DISTILLERS group is a bit more
                              advanced, throwing in bits of design philosophy, theory, and alternative
                              ways of achieving the results. Both tend to overlap to some extent.

                              14) Can I run my car on it ?

                              You can run your car on alcohol over about 80% purity. Because any water
                              present will seperate out in the presence of the gasoline (and become a
                              problem), you either need to exclusively use the alcohol, or dry it right
                              out (eg 99%+ purity) if using it to mix with gasoline. See Steve Spences
                              site for more details, the Mother Earth Alcohol Fuel manual, or the The
                              Manual for the Home and Farm Production of Alcohol Fuel. In addition, in
                              the USA, you can get a "small fuel producer" permit, which allows small
                              scale distilling for "motor fuel" purposes. A nice advantage is that they
                              don't require denaturing for "fuel" used on the premises. The regulations
                              are posted at http://www.webconx.com/ethanolusaregs.htm

                              15) How do I convert between gallons and litres and ....

                              To convert between SI & Imperial units, multiply the first unit by the
                              conversion factor to get the second. Divide back to do it in reverse .eg 1L
                              = 0.264 US gal, so 20 L = 20 x 0.264 = 5.28 US gal, and 20 US gal / 0.264 =
                              75.76 L

                              1 L = 0.264 US gal = 0.221 UK gal
                              1 L = 1.057 US qt = 0.880 UK qt
                              1 kg = 2.204 lbm = 32.15 oz (troy) = 35.27 oz (av)
                              deg F = ((9/5) x deg C )+ 32
                              1m = 1000 mm = 39.37 inch = 3.28 ft = 1.09 yd

                              16) What is a "Thumper" ?

                              A "thumper" is an extra chamber sometimes fitted to a pot still. It can be
                              as simple as a glass jar with two holes in the lid. The off-take from the
                              still is fed into it, with the pipe running almost all the way to the
                              bottom of the jar; the jar is half filled with liquid (water or mash or
                              tails) so that the vapour from the still will bubble up through it; then
                              the vapour coming off it is collected & cooled as per normal. It acts as a
                              second distilling chamber using just the heat from the vapour, and lifts
                              the purity from 50-60% to 70-80%, hence improving what might otherwise be a
                              very mediocre design.

                              17) Can I use a Reflux Still to make Rum or Whisky ?

                              Yes you can. To do so, you need to carefully monitor the various
                              transitions between the foreshots, heads, middle run, and tails, and time
                              the collection of the middle run precisely. The reflux still allows you to
                              more precisely judge the changes between the various stages, and hence
                              target them accurately. A typical rum or whisky would be obtained by
                              discarding the foreshots, then collecting the heads, middle run, and then
                              begin the tails, until the purity has dropped to around 58-60% (81.4C). By
                              altering when to start collecting, and how late to time the final "cut",
                              various flavour profiles will result.
                              ------------------------------------------------------------------------
                              --------

                              http://homedistiller.org This page last modified 03/04/2002 20:40:14
                              email: ackland@...
                            • fhebert8@bellsouth.net
                              ... (solid alcohol), camp fuel,,
                              Message 14 of 29 , May 9, 2002
                                >I am trying to find the process for making sterno,
                                (solid alcohol), camp fuel,,
                              • gringotony
                                ... Is this worth the effort - I think you can buy sterno cheaper than you can make it. And I think also that the days are gone when the rummies used to
                                Message 15 of 29 , May 9, 2002
                                  --- In new_distillers@y..., <fhebert8@b...> wrote:
                                  >
                                  > >I am trying to find the process for making sterno,
                                  > (solid alcohol), camp fuel,,

                                  Is this worth the effort - I think you can buy sterno cheaper than
                                  you can make it. And I think also that the days are gone when the
                                  rummies used to strain it through a sock and drink it!
                                • Tony & Elle Ackland
                                  NEW DISTILLERS Frequently Asked Questions (June 02) Posted near the 1st of each month, to the NEW_DISTILLERS newsgroup at www.yahoogroups.com Please email
                                  Message 16 of 29 , Aug 22 1:01 AM
                                    "NEW DISTILLERS" Frequently Asked Questions (June'02)

                                    Posted near the 1st of each month, to the NEW_DISTILLERS newsgroup at
                                    www.yahoogroups.com

                                    Please email any additions, corrections, clarifications required, etc
                                    regarding the FAQ to Tony Ackland (ackland@...), however please
                                    direct any general questions to the newsgroup itself.

                                    *******************************************************************

                                    1) Is distilling hard to do ?
                                    2) Is it legal ?
                                    3) Will it make me blind ?
                                    4) Whats the difference between a pot still, reflux still, and
                                    fractionating column ?
                                    5) How do I get or make a still ?
                                    6) How do I make a whisky / rum / vodka / gin ?
                                    7) Should I use sugar or grains ?
                                    8) Can I use fruit wine ?
                                    9) How do I get rid of that "off-taste" ?
                                    10) How do I measure the strength of it & dilute it ?
                                    11) How do I flavour/turn the vodka's into something else ?
                                    12) What web resources are there ?
                                    13) How do I contact the NEW DISTILLERS news group ?
                                    14) Can I run my car on it ?
                                    15) How do I convert between gallons and litres and ....
                                    16) What is a "Thumper" ?
                                    17) Can I use a reflux still to make rum or whisky ?
                                    18) Can methylated spirits be made safe to drink ?

                                    **********************************************************************

                                    1) Is distilling hard to do ?

                                    Nope - if you can follow instructions enough to bake scones, then you can
                                    sucessfully distil. To distil well however, will require you to understand
                                    what you're doing, so read around and get a bit of information under your
                                    belt before you begin.

                                    2) Is it legal ?

                                    Probably not. It is only legal in New Zealand, and some European countries
                                    turn a blind eye to it, but elsewhere it is illegal, with punishment
                                    ranging from fines to imprisonment or floggings. This action against it is
                                    usually the result of either religous beliefs (right or wrong), but more
                                    generally due to the great revenue base it provides Governements through
                                    excise taxes. So if you are going to distil, just be aware of the potential
                                    legal ramifications.

                                    3) Will it make me blind ?

                                    Not if you're careful. This pervasive question is due to moonshine lore,
                                    which abounds with myths of blindness, but few actual documented cases. The
                                    concern is due to the presence of methanol (wood alcohol), an optic nerve
                                    poison, which can be present in small amounts when fermenting grains or
                                    fruits high in pectin. This methanol comes off first from the still, so it
                                    is easily segregated and discarded. A simple rule of thumb for this is to
                                    throw away the first 50 mL you collect (per 20 L mash used). Probably the
                                    greatest risk to your health during distilling is the risk of fire -
                                    collecting a flammable liquid near a heat source. So keep a fire
                                    extinguisher nearby.

                                    4) Whats the difference between a pot still, reflux still, and
                                    fractionating column ?

                                    A pot still simply collects and condenses the alcohol vapours that come off
                                    the boiling mash. This will result in an alcohol at about 40-60% purity,
                                    with plenty of flavour in it. If this distillate were put through the pot
                                    still again, it would increase in purity to around 70-85% purity, and lose
                                    a bit of its flavour.

                                    A reflux still does these multiple distillations in one single go, by
                                    having some packing in a column between the condensor & the pot, and
                                    allowing some of the vapour to condense and trickle back down through the
                                    packing. This "reflux" of liquid helps clean the rising vapour and increase
                                    the % purity. The taller the packed column, and the more reflux liquid, the
                                    purer the product will be. The advantage of doing this is that it will
                                    result in a clean vodka, with little flavour to it - ideal for mixing with
                                    flavours etc.

                                    A fractionating column is a pure form of the reflux still. It will condense
                                    all the vapour at the top of the packing, and return about 9/10 back down
                                    the column. The column will be quite tall - say 600-1200mm (2-4 foot), and
                                    packed with a material high in surface area, but which takes up little
                                    space (pot scrubbers are good for this). It will result in an alcohol 95%+
                                    pure (the theoretical limit without using a vacuum is 96.48 %(by volume)),
                                    with no other tastes or impurities in it.

                                    5) How do I get or make a still ?

                                    If you're after a pot still, these are generally home made using what-ever
                                    you have at hand - say copper tubing and old water heaters or pressure
                                    cookers. Reflux stills can be made from plans on the net, or bought from
                                    several manufacturers. For reflux stil plans see Stillmakers "Build a World
                                    Class Distillation Apparatus" at http://www.Moonshine-Still.com (Free!) or
                                    Gert Strands : http://partyman.se/Engelsk/default.htm (US$5). A good book
                                    is Ian Smileys "Making Pure Corn Whisky" at
                                    http://www.magma.ca/~smiley/main.htm, with full design details. For an
                                    excellent book on all aspects of still design, see "The Compleat Distiller"
                                    at http://www.amphora-society.com See the list of "web resources" below
                                    for links to sites selling ready-made stills. For fuel alcohol stills see
                                    the Mother Earth Alcohol Fuel manual at
                                    http://journeytoforever.org/biofuel_library/ethanol_motherearth/meToC.html,
                                    and the The Manual for the Home and Farm Production of Alcohol Fuel by S.W.
                                    Mathewson at
                                    http://journeytoforever.org/biofuel_library/ethanol_manual/manual_ToC.html

                                    Regarding the choice of heating for the still - if you have 240V available
                                    it is usually easiest to control & safer (particularly with internal
                                    elements). Gas can be used, but more care is needed to keep the collection
                                    container further away and not letting it overfill.

                                    6) How do I make a whisky / vodka / rum / gin ?

                                    Whiskey : Heat 4 kg cracked or crushed malt with 18 L of water to 63-65C,
                                    and hold there for 1-1.5 hours. Heat to 73-75C, then strain off and keep
                                    liquid, using 250 mL of hot water to rinse the grains. Cool to below 30C
                                    (should have an initial specific gravity of 1.050). Add hydrated yeast &
                                    leave to ferment (maintain at 26C) until airlock stops bubbling and final
                                    SG of around 1.010. Let settle for a day, then syphon carefully into a
                                    pot still. Discard the first 50 mL's, collect the next 2-3L of distillate
                                    or until you start noticing the tails coming through.

                                    Vodka : dissolve 5 kg of sugar & 60g of nutrients in 20L of water, cool to
                                    below 30C and add hydrated yeast. Leave to ferment at 25C until below an SG
                                    of around 0.990, then settle for a day. Syphon into a reflux or
                                    fractionating still, and collect as per usual.

                                    Rum : as per vodka, but use some brown sugar or mollasses, to give an
                                    initial specific gravity (SG) of around 1.06 - 1.07. Run through either a
                                    pot still, or a not-so-great reflux still.

                                    Gin : make a very pure vodka, then add the following essence. Simmer 35g of
                                    juniper berries in 350 mL of 50% vodka for ten minutes with the lid on, let
                                    cool overnight, then filter through coffee filters. Use 5-10 mL of this
                                    essence per bottle of vodka.

                                    When doing any fermenting, take a lot of care to ensure that any items used
                                    are clean/sterile (soaking them in a water + bleach (10 mL per litre) ), or
                                    else the wash can start growing other things. Use a closed fermenter with
                                    an airlock too, to let the CO2 out without letting wild yeasts, bugs etc
                                    in. For more information about fermenting, see beer or wine homebrewing
                                    sites.

                                    7) Should I use sugar or grains/fruit ?

                                    It depends on what sort of still you have, and what you are trying to make.
                                    If you have a reflux or fractionating still, only use whatever is cheapest
                                    (usually sugar), as the refluxing will strip out all the flavours anyhow.
                                    If you have a pot still, and are after a bourban or whiskey, then you need
                                    to go the grain route, or mollasses if after a rum. If you are trying to
                                    make a neutral spirit for flavouring, go for sugar.

                                    Basic guidelines for using them are ..
                                    SUGAR. Wine yeast can use no more than 2.5lbs of sugar/1imp gal or
                                    2.2lb/1U.S.gal or 1.25kg/5litres of must. This will produce 14%a.b.v. Honey
                                    and liquid malt extract are 80% sugar so you need 1.5kg/5l must or mash.
                                    Molasses is 50% sugar so you need 2.5kg/5l must or mash. Maple syrup is 32%
                                    sugar. Carob beans are 45% sugar. Sugar beets are 15% sugar Grain malt is
                                    60% sugar (starch converted to sugars) so you need 1.5kg/5l mash. Cooked
                                    grain contains 60% convertible starch so you need 1.5kg/5l mash
                                    FRUIT - Grapes contain the ideal sugar, water, acid balance. A sugar
                                    content of 17-23% and a water content of about 80%. 8kg of grapes produces
                                    5l of wine. Most common fruits (apples, plums, apricots) contain about 10%
                                    sugar and 85% water. Cherries and figs contain 15% sugar. A fruit mash
                                    could be 4kg fruit, (400g sugar content), 2l water (3l in pulp already),
                                    800g additional sugar. Bananas are 17-24% sugar, 75% water. Acid content
                                    0.3%. A banana mash could be 4kg of cooked bananas, 2l water (3l in pulp
                                    already),400g sugar. Add 3lemons/5l for correct pH. Dates are 70% sugar,
                                    20% water. Add acid to a date mash. Raisins and sultanas have a water
                                    content of about 15% and a sugar content of 60%, grapes have a water
                                    content of 75% and a sugar content of about 20%, so using 1.5-2kg/5l of
                                    water appears about right if we want to reconstitute them.
                                    ACID - 5g of citric acid (1tsp)/5l must raises acidity by 0.1%. 3g of
                                    calcium carbonate powder lowers acidity by 0.1%. A pH of 5 is 0.4% acidity.
                                    Winemakers aim for 0.6% acidity. Most common fruits are about 0.6% acid
                                    content. For distilling, a higher acidity in the mash helps to suppress
                                    bacteria. A high tannin content doesn't matter as we are not making wine.
                                    Meaurements are logarithmic, so a pH of 4 is 10 times more acidic than a pH
                                    of 5.
                                    YEAST - Brewers (& possibly baker's yeast) can tolerate only 8% alcohol. A
                                    bottom fermenting lager yeast ferments out all the sugars better than a top
                                    fermenting ale yeast. A good wine yeast (Champagne, in the right
                                    conditions, can tolerate 15%a.b.v. (up to 18%a.b.v. in optimal conditions -
                                    no need to use expensive turbos). Wild yeasts vary, but some are very low -
                                    this is a risky path. Whisky distillers often use a combination of yeasts -
                                    initially a brewer's yeast because they believe it effects the flavor.

                                    8) Can I use fruit wine ?

                                    Sure, if you have it available. Again, using a pot still will result in a
                                    brandy/grappa/schnapps, whereas a reflux still will just strip it down to
                                    neutral spirit.

                                    9) How do I get rid of that "off-taste" ?

                                    That "rough moonshine edge" or "off-taste / wet cardboard smell" is due to
                                    impurities such as the higher order alcohols, known as cogeners or fusel
                                    oils. These will be present more when using a pot still, less if using a
                                    reflux still, and just about absent if using a fractionating column. So one
                                    way is to use a taller packed column and increase the amount of reflux
                                    occuring. They can also indicate that you've tried to collect too much of
                                    the alcohol, and have run into the "tails"; so finish collecting a little
                                    bit earlier next time. Soaking tainted alcohol with activated carbon for a
                                    week (or even months) will help remove some of this flavour - this is known
                                    as "polishing" the spirit. I'm also suspecting that you need a little bit
                                    of copper somewhere in the still where it can come in contact with the
                                    vapour. The copper helps catalyse some of the sulphur, esters & organic
                                    acids, reducing their odour & taste.

                                    10) How do I measure the strength of it & dilute it ?

                                    You need a hydrometer. This is a wee float, with a scale inside it. The
                                    more alcohol that is present, the lighter the density of the liquid, so the
                                    hydrometer sinks a bit lower. You then just read off the scale how much
                                    alcohol is present. You need a seperate hydrometer for measuring the
                                    density of the mash, as this is generally > 1.0, whereas the spirit is <
                                    1.0, and they can't accurately do both ends of the scale.

                                    11) How do I flavour/turn the vodka's into something else ?

                                    There are now many commercial flavourings available, which turn vodka or
                                    neutral alcohol into pretty decent gin or whiskey, or all manor of
                                    liqueurs. See the commercial sites, like Des Zines
                                    http://homepages.ihug.co.nz/~topkiwi or Ray Toms http://moonshine.co.nz/
                                    for details. Or you can soak it with oak chips and make whiskey, or soak
                                    fruits in it to make your own liqueurs.

                                    12) What web resources are there ?

                                    For more details, see :
                                    Tony Ackland's http://homedistiller.org
                                    Aaron Smiths's http://www.go.to/distillation
                                    Steve Spence's http://www.webconx.com/ethanol.htm
                                    StillMaker's http://www.Moonshine-Still.com
                                    Biofuels Library http://journeytoforever.org/biofuel_library.html

                                    13) How do I contact the NEW DISTILLERS news group ?

                                    Both the NEW DISTILLERS and the DISTILLERS news groups are available via
                                    YahooGroups, at http://www.yahoogroups.com . NEW DISTILLERS is, as the name
                                    suggests, intended for those of you new to distilling and after simple,
                                    straight-forward discussions, whereas the DISTILLERS group is a bit more
                                    advanced, throwing in bits of design philosophy, theory, and alternative
                                    ways of achieving the results. Both tend to overlap to some extent.

                                    14) Can I run my car on it ?

                                    You can run your car on alcohol over about 80% purity. Because any water
                                    present will seperate out in the presence of the gasoline (and become a
                                    problem), you either need to exclusively use the alcohol, or dry it right
                                    out (eg 99%+ purity) if using it to mix with gasoline. See Steve Spences
                                    site for more details, the Mother Earth Alcohol Fuel manual, or the The
                                    Manual for the Home and Farm Production of Alcohol Fuel. In addition, in
                                    the USA, you can get a "small fuel producer" permit, which allows small
                                    scale distilling for "motor fuel" purposes. A nice advantage is that they
                                    don't require denaturing for "fuel" used on the premises. The regulations
                                    are posted at http://www.webconx.com/ethanolusaregs.htm

                                    15) How do I convert between gallons and litres and ....

                                    To convert between SI & Imperial units, multiply the first unit by the
                                    conversion factor to get the second. Divide back to do it in reverse .eg 1L
                                    = 0.264 US gal, so 20 L = 20 x 0.264 = 5.28 US gal, and 20 US gal / 0.264 =
                                    75.76 L

                                    1 L = 0.264 US gal = 0.221 UK gal
                                    1 L = 1.057 US qt = 0.880 UK qt
                                    1 kg = 2.204 lbm = 32.15 oz (troy) = 35.27 oz (av)
                                    deg F = ((9/5) x deg C )+ 32
                                    1m = 1000 mm = 39.37 inch = 3.28 ft = 1.09 yd

                                    16) What is a "Thumper" ?

                                    A "thumper" is an extra chamber sometimes fitted to a pot still. It can be
                                    as simple as a glass jar with two holes in the lid. The off-take from the
                                    still is fed into it, with the pipe running almost all the way to the
                                    bottom of the jar; the jar is half filled with liquid (water or mash or
                                    tails) so that the vapour from the still will bubble up through it; then
                                    the vapour coming off it is collected & cooled as per normal. It acts as a
                                    second distilling chamber using just the heat from the vapour, and lifts
                                    the purity from 50-60% to 70-80%, hence improving what might otherwise be a
                                    very mediocre design.

                                    17) Can I use a Reflux Still to make Rum or Whisky ?

                                    Yes you can. To do so, you need to carefully monitor the various
                                    transitions between the foreshots, heads, middle run, and tails, and time
                                    the collection of the middle run precisely. The reflux still allows you to
                                    more precisely judge the changes between the various stages, and hence
                                    target them accurately. A typical rum or whisky would be obtained by
                                    discarding the foreshots, then collecting the heads, middle run, and then
                                    begin the tails, until the purity has dropped to around 58-60% (81.4C). By
                                    altering when to start collecting, and how late to time the final "cut",
                                    various flavour profiles will result.

                                    18) Can Methylated Spirits be made safe to Drink ?

                                    No. Methylated spirits (aka meths) is a mixture of ethanol and (poisonous)
                                    methanol, with a denturant added to make it foul tasting. There is no
                                    effective way of seperating them, be it by distilling, using carbon, or
                                    filtering through bread (old wives tale). Do not add meths to anything you
                                    ever intend to distill or drink, and don't try using it in any form - it
                                    will still be poisonous. Keep it for cleaning and starting the BBQ with.
                                    ------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                    --------

                                    http://homedistiller.org This page last modified 05/26/2002 17:39:28
                                    email: ackland@...
                                  • Jim Long
                                    Tony & Elle Ackland wrote: NEW DISTILLERS Frequently Asked Questions (June 02) Posted near the 1st of each month, to the NEW_DISTILLERS newsgroup at
                                    Message 17 of 29 , Aug 22 8:57 AM

                                       

                                       Tony & Elle Ackland wrote:

                                      "NEW DISTILLERS" Frequently Asked Questions (June'02)

                                      Posted near the 1st of each month, to the NEW_DISTILLERS newsgroup at
                                      www.yahoogroups.com

                                      BRAVO !!  I have been a member of this group only about a month and a half, and have read all the new postings and alot of the old postings. I think this Post has to be about the best! As I am completely new to all of this and this post has answered alot of the thoughts that I have had.

                                       As a complete beginer in the art of distillation I can honestly say that this post is guite informative for the individual that wants to learn.

                                       Thanks for all the information on the art,and for the wealth of knowledge that you all share.

                                       Harley

                                       



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                                    • MCZAR101@AOL.COM
                                      I HAVE TO DITTO THAT....THANK GOD FOR FREEDOM OF SPEECH AND THE NET....
                                      Message 18 of 29 , Aug 22 9:30 AM
                                        <PRE>I HAVE TO DITTO THAT....THANK GOD FOR FREEDOM OF SPEECH AND THE NET....
                                      • bokakob
                                        Thank you for your continuous efforts supporting this group. I find your advice and critisizm being invaluable. Thanks again. AND I AM RIGHT IN THIS!!! Cheers,
                                        Message 19 of 29 , Aug 22 11:23 AM
                                          Thank you for your continuous efforts supporting this group. I find
                                          your advice and critisizm being invaluable. Thanks again.

                                          AND I AM RIGHT IN THIS!!!

                                          Cheers, Alex...



                                          --- In new_distillers@y..., Tony & Elle Ackland <Tony.Ackland@c...>
                                          wrote:
                                          > "NEW DISTILLERS" Frequently Asked Questions (June'02)
                                          >
                                        • Tony & Elle Ackland
                                          Hmmm.... I ve been a bit slack about getting this out on a regular basis. Any suggestions for additions/changes etc ?
                                          Message 20 of 29 , Nov 12, 2002
                                            Hmmm.... I've been a bit slack about getting this out on a regular basis.
                                            Any suggestions for additions/changes etc ?

                                            ******************************************************************
                                            "NEW DISTILLERS" Frequently Asked Questions (June'02)

                                            Posted near the 1st of each month, to the NEW_DISTILLERS newsgroup at
                                            www.yahoogroups.com

                                            Please email any additions, corrections, clarifications required, etc
                                            regarding the FAQ to Tony Ackland (ackland@...), however please
                                            direct any general questions to the newsgroup itself.

                                            *******************************************************************

                                            1) Is distilling hard to do ?
                                            2) Is it legal ?
                                            3) Will it make me blind ?
                                            4) Whats the difference between a pot still, reflux still, and
                                            fractionating column ?
                                            5) How do I get or make a still ?
                                            6) How do I make a whisky / rum / vodka / gin ?
                                            7) Should I use sugar or grains ?
                                            8) Can I use fruit wine ?
                                            9) How do I get rid of that "off-taste" ?
                                            10) How do I measure the strength of it & dilute it ?
                                            11) How do I flavour/turn the vodka's into something else ?
                                            12) What web resources are there ?
                                            13) How do I contact the NEW DISTILLERS news group ?
                                            14) Can I run my car on it ?
                                            15) How do I convert between gallons and litres and ....
                                            16) What is a "Thumper" ?
                                            17) Can I use a reflux still to make rum or whisky ?
                                            18) Can methylated spirits be made safe to drink ?

                                            **********************************************************************

                                            1) Is distilling hard to do ?

                                            Nope - if you can follow instructions enough to bake scones, then you can
                                            sucessfully distil. To distil well however, will require you to understand
                                            what you're doing, so read around and get a bit of information under your
                                            belt before you begin.

                                            2) Is it legal ?

                                            Probably not. It is only legal in New Zealand, and some European countries
                                            turn a blind eye to it, but elsewhere it is illegal, with punishment
                                            ranging from fines to imprisonment or floggings. This action against it is
                                            usually the result of either religous beliefs (right or wrong), but more
                                            generally due to the great revenue base it provides Governements through
                                            excise taxes. So if you are going to distil, just be aware of the potential
                                            legal ramifications.

                                            3) Will it make me blind ?

                                            Not if you're careful. This pervasive question is due to moonshine lore,
                                            which abounds with myths of blindness, but few actual documented cases. The
                                            concern is due to the presence of methanol (wood alcohol), an optic nerve
                                            poison, which can be present in small amounts when fermenting grains or
                                            fruits high in pectin. This methanol comes off first from the still, so it
                                            is easily segregated and discarded. A simple rule of thumb for this is to
                                            throw away the first 50 mL you collect (per 20 L mash used). Probably the
                                            greatest risk to your health during distilling is the risk of fire -
                                            collecting a flammable liquid near a heat source. So keep a fire
                                            extinguisher nearby.

                                            4) Whats the difference between a pot still, reflux still, and fractiona
                                            ting column ?

                                            A pot still simply collects and condenses the alcohol vapours that come off
                                            the boiling mash. This will result in an alcohol at about 40-60% purity,
                                            with plenty of flavour in it. If this distillate were put through the pot
                                            still again, it would increase in purity to around 70-85% purity, and lose
                                            a bit of its flavour.

                                            A reflux still does these multiple distillations in one single go, by
                                            having some packing in a column between the condensor & the pot, and
                                            allowing some of the vapour to condense and trickle back down through the
                                            packing. This "reflux" of liquid helps clean the rising vapour and increase
                                            the % purity. The taller the packed column, and the more reflux liquid, the
                                            purer the product will be. The advantage of doing this is that it will
                                            result in a clean vodka, with little flavour to it - ideal for mixing with
                                            flavours etc.

                                            A fractionating column is a pure form of the reflux still. It will condense
                                            all the vapour at the top of the packing, and return about 9/10 back down
                                            the column. The column will be quite tall - say 600-1200mm (2-4 foot), and
                                            packed with a material high in surface area, but which takes up little
                                            space (pot scrubbers are good for this). It will result in an alcohol 95%+
                                            pure (the theoretical limit without using a vacuum is 96.48 %(by volume)),
                                            with no other tastes or impurities in it.

                                            5) How do I get or make a still ?

                                            If you're after a pot still, these are generally home made using what-ever
                                            you have at hand - say copper tubing and old water heaters or pressure
                                            cookers. Reflux stills can be made from plans on the net, or bought from
                                            several manufacturers. For reflux stil plans see Stillmakers "Build a World
                                            Class Distillation Apparatus" at http://www.Moonshine-Still.com (Free!) or
                                            Gert Strands : http://partyman.se/Engelsk/default.htm (US$5). A good book
                                            is Ian Smileys "Making Pure Corn Whisky" at
                                            http://www.magma.ca/~smiley/main.htm, with full design details. For an
                                            excellent book on all aspects of still design, see "The Compleat Distiller"
                                            at http://www.amphora-society.com See the list of "web resources" below
                                            for links to sites selling ready-made stills. For fuel alcohol stills see
                                            the Mother Earth Alcohol Fuel manual at
                                            http://journeytoforever.org/biofuel_library/ethanol_motherearth/meToC.html,
                                            and the The Manual for the Home and Farm Production of Alcohol Fuel by S.W.
                                            Mathewson at
                                            http://journeytoforever.org/biofuel_library/ethanol_manual/manual_ToC.html

                                            Regarding the choice of heating for the still - if you have 240V available
                                            it is usually easiest to control & safer (particularly with internal
                                            elements). Gas can be used, but more care is needed to keep the collection
                                            container further away and not letting it overfill.

                                            6) How do I make a whisky / vodka / rum / gin ?

                                            Whiskey : Heat 4 kg cracked or crushed malt with 18 L of water to 63-65C,
                                            and hold there for 1-1.5 hours. Heat to 73-75C, then strain off and keep
                                            liquid, using 250 mL of hot water to rinse the grains. Cool to below 30C
                                            (should have an initial specific gravity of 1.050). Add hydrated yeast &
                                            leave to ferment (maintain at 26C) until airlock stops bubbling and final
                                            SG of around 1.010. Let settle for a day, then syphon carefully into a pot
                                            still. Discard the first 50 mL's, collect the next 2-3L of distillate or
                                            until you start noticing the tails coming through.

                                            Vodka : dissolve 5 kg of sugar & 60g of nutrients in 20L of water, cool to
                                            below 30C and add hydrated yeast. Leave to ferment at 25C until below an SG
                                            of around 0.990, then settle for a day. Syphon into a reflux or
                                            fractionating still, and collect as per usual.

                                            Rum : as per vodka, but use some brown sugar or mollasses, to give an
                                            initial specific gravity (SG) of around 1.06 - 1.07. Run through either a
                                            pot still, or a not-so-great reflux still.

                                            Gin : make a very pure vodka, then add the following essence. Simmer 35g of
                                            juniper berries in 350 mL of 50% vodka for ten minutes with the lid on, let
                                            cool overnight, then filter through coffee filters. Use 5-10 mL of this
                                            essence per bottle of vodka.

                                            When doing any fermenting, take a lot of care to ensure that any items used
                                            are clean/sterile (soaking them in a water + bleach (10 mL per litre) ), or
                                            else the wash can start growing other things. Use a closed fermenter with
                                            an airlock too, to let the CO2 out without letting wild yeasts, bugs etc
                                            in. For more information about fermenting, see beer or wine homebrewing
                                            sites.

                                            7) Should I use sugar or grains/fruit ?

                                            It depends on what sort of still you have, and what you are trying to make.
                                            If you have a reflux or fractionating still, only use whatever is cheapest
                                            (usually sugar), as the refluxing will strip out all the flavours anyhow.
                                            If you have a pot still, and are after a bourban or whiskey, then you need
                                            to go the grain route, or mollasses if after a rum. If you are trying to
                                            make a neutral spirit for flavouring, go for sugar.

                                            Basic guidelines for using them are ..

                                            SUGAR. Wine yeast can use no more than 2.5lbs of sugar/1imp gal or
                                            2.2lb/1U.S.gal or 1.25kg/5litres of must. This will produce 14%a.b.v. Honey
                                            and liquid malt extract are 80% sugar so you need 1.5kg/5l must or mash.
                                            Molasses is 50% sugar so you need 2.5kg/5l must or mash. Maple syrup is 32%
                                            sugar. Carob beans are 45% sugar. Sugar beets are 15% sugar Grain malt is
                                            60% sugar (starch converted to sugars) so you need 1.5kg/5l mash. Cooked
                                            grain contains 60% convertible starch so you need 1.5kg/5l mash

                                            FRUIT - Grapes contain the ideal sugar, water, acid balance. A sugar
                                            content of 17-23% and a water content of about 80%. 8kg of grapes produces
                                            5l of wine. Most common fruits (apples, plums, apricots) contain about 10%
                                            sugar and 85% water. Cherries and figs contain 15% sugar. A fruit mash
                                            could be 4kg fruit, (400g sugar content), 2l water (3l in pulp already),
                                            800g additional sugar. Bananas are 17-24% sugar, 75% water. Acid content
                                            0.3%. A banana mash could be 4kg of cooked bananas, 2l water (3l in pulp
                                            already),400g sugar. Add 3lemons/5l for correct pH. Dates are 70% sugar,
                                            20% water. Add acid to a date mash. Raisins and sultanas have a water
                                            content of about 15% and a sugar content of 60%, grapes have a water
                                            content of 75% and a sugar content of about 20%, so using 1.5-2kg/5l of
                                            water appears about right if we want to reconstitute them.

                                            ACID - 5g of citric acid (1tsp)/5l must raises acidity by 0.1%. 3g of
                                            calcium carbonate powder lowers acidity by 0.1%. A pH of 5 is 0.4% acidity.
                                            Winemakers aim for 0.6% acidity. Most common fruits are about 0.6% acid
                                            content. For distilling, a higher acidity in the mash helps to suppress
                                            bacteria. A high tannin content doesn't matter as we are not making wine.
                                            Meaurements are logarithmic, so a pH of 4 is 10 times more acidic than a pH
                                            of 5.

                                            YEAST - Brewers (& possibly baker's yeast) can tolerate only 8% alcohol. A
                                            bottom fermenting lager yeast ferments out all the sugars better than a top
                                            fermenting ale yeast. A good wine yeast (Champagne, in the right
                                            conditions, can tolerate 15%a.b.v. (up to 18%a.b.v. in optimal conditions -
                                            no need to use expensive turbos). Wild yeasts vary, but some are very low -
                                            this is a risky path. Whisky distillers often use a combination of yeasts -
                                            initially a brewer's yeast because they believe it effects the flavor.

                                            8) Can I use fruit wine ?

                                            Sure, if you have it available. Again, using a pot still will result in a
                                            brandy/grappa/schnapps, whereas a reflux still will just strip it down to
                                            neutral spirit.

                                            9) How do I get rid of that "off-taste" ?

                                            That "rough moonshine edge" or "off-taste / wet cardboard smell" is due to
                                            impurities such as the higher order alcohols, known as cogeners or fusel
                                            oils. These will be present more when using a pot still, less if using a
                                            reflux still, and just about absent if using a fractionating column. So one
                                            way is to use a taller packed column and increase the amount of reflux
                                            occuring. They can also indicate that you've tried to collect too much of
                                            the alcohol, and have run into the "tails"; so finish collecting a little
                                            bit earlier next time. Soaking tainted alcohol with activated carbon for a
                                            week (or even months) will help remove some of this flavour - this is known
                                            as "polishing" the spirit. I'm also suspecting that you need a little bit
                                            of copper somewhere in the still where it can come in contact with the
                                            vapour. The copper helps catalyse some of the sulphur, esters & organic
                                            acids, reducing their odour & taste.

                                            10) How do I measure the strength of it & dilute it ?

                                            You need a hydrometer. This is a wee float, with a scale inside it. The
                                            more alcohol that is present, the lighter the density of the liquid, so the
                                            hydrometer sinks a bit lower. You then just read off the scale how much
                                            alcohol is present. You need a seperate hydrometer for measuring the
                                            density of the mash, as this is generally > 1.0, whereas the spirit is <
                                            1.0, and they can't accurately do both ends of the scale.

                                            11) How do I flavour/turn the vodka's into something else ?

                                            There are now many commercial flavourings available, which turn vodka or
                                            neutral alcohol into pretty decent gin or whiskey, or all manor of
                                            liqueurs. See the commercial sites, like Des Zines
                                            http://homepages.ihug.co.nz/~topkiwi or Ray Toms http://moonshine.co.nz/
                                            for details. Or you can soak it with oak chips and make whiskey, or soak
                                            fruits in it to make your own liqueurs.

                                            12) What web resources are there ?

                                            For more details, see :
                                            Tony Ackland's http://homedistiller.org
                                            Aaron Smiths's http://www.go.to/distillation
                                            Steve Spence's http://www.webconx.com/ethanol.htm
                                            StillMaker's http://www.Moonshine-Still.com
                                            Biofuels Library http://journeytoforever.org/biofuel_library.html

                                            13) How do I contact the NEW DISTILLERS news group ?

                                            Both the NEW DISTILLERS and the DISTILLERS news groups are available via
                                            YahooGroups, at http://www.yahoogroups.com . NEW DISTILLERS is, as the name
                                            suggests, intended for those of you new to distilling and after simple,
                                            straight-forward discussions, whereas the DISTILLERS group is a bit more
                                            advanced, throwing in bits of design philosophy, theory, and alternative
                                            ways of achieving the results. Both tend to overlap to some extent.

                                            14) Can I run my car on it ?

                                            You can run your car on alcohol over about 80% purity. Because any water
                                            present will seperate out in the presence of the gasoline (and become a
                                            problem), you either need to exclusively use the alcohol, or dry it right
                                            out (eg 99%+ purity) if using it to mix with gasoline. See Steve Spences
                                            site for more details, the Mother Earth Alcohol Fuel manual, or the The
                                            Manual for the Home and Farm Production of Alcohol Fuel. In addition, in
                                            the USA, you can get a "small fuel producer" permit, which allows small
                                            scale distilling for "motor fuel" purposes. A nice advantage is that they
                                            don't require denaturing for "fuel" used on the premises. The regulations
                                            are posted at http://www.webconx.com/ethanolusaregs.htm

                                            15) How do I convert between gallons and litres and ....

                                            To convert between SI & Imperial units, multiply the first unit by the
                                            conversion factor to get the second. Divide back to do it in reverse .eg 1L
                                            = 0.264 US gal, so 20 L = 20 x 0.264 = 5.28 US gal, and 20 US gal / 0.264 =
                                            75.76 L

                                            1 L = 0.264 US gal = 0.221 UK gal
                                            1 L = 1.057 US qt = 0.880 UK qt
                                            1 kg = 2.204 lbm = 32.15 oz (troy) = 35.27 oz (av)
                                            deg F = ((9/5) x deg C )+ 32
                                            1m = 1000 mm = 39.37 inch = 3.28 ft = 1.09 yd

                                            16) What is a "Thumper" ?

                                            A "thumper" is an extra chamber sometimes fitted to a pot still. It can be
                                            as simple as a glass jar with two holes in the lid. The off-take from the
                                            still is fed into it, with the pipe running almost all the way to the
                                            bottom of the jar; the jar is half filled with liquid (water or mash or
                                            tails) so that the vapour from the still will bubble up through it; then
                                            the vapour coming off it is collected & cooled as per normal. It acts as a
                                            second distilling chamber using just the heat from the vapour, and lifts
                                            the purity from 50-60% to 70-80%, hence improving what might otherwise be a
                                            very mediocre design.

                                            17) Can I use a Reflux Still to make Rum or Whisky ?

                                            Yes you can. To do so, you need to carefully monitor the various
                                            transitions between the foreshots, heads, middle run, and tails, and time
                                            the collection of the middle run precisely. The reflux still allows you to
                                            more precisely judge the changes between the various stages, and hence
                                            target them accurately. A typical rum or whisky would be obtained by
                                            discarding the foreshots, then collecting the heads, middle run, and then
                                            begin the tails, until the purity has dropped to around 58-60% (81.4C). By
                                            altering when to start collecting, and how late to time the final "cut",
                                            various flavour profiles will result.

                                            18) Can Methylated Spirits be made safe to Drink ?

                                            No. Methylated spirits (aka meths) is a mixture of ethanol and (poisonous)
                                            methanol, with a denturant added to make it foul tasting. There is no
                                            effective way of seperating them, be it by distilling, using carbon, or
                                            filtering through bread (old wives tale). Do not add meths to anything you
                                            ever intend to distill or drink, and don't try using it in any form - it
                                            will still be poisonous. Keep it for cleaning and starting the BBQ with.
                                          • BOKAKOB
                                            Hey, Tony your site is G*R*E*A*T!!! Whant I noticed in this group there are many questions like this: - how to run pot still and its cut-off poitnts? - how to
                                            Message 21 of 29 , Nov 14, 2002

                                              Hey, Tony your site is G*R*E*A*T!!! Whant I noticed in this group there are many questions like this:

                                              - how to run pot still and its cut-off poitnts?
                                              - how to run a reflux and compound stills?
                                              - how to make a sugar wash?

                                              I thiught a very basic bible-like rigid directives would help to faithfuls...
                                              This way this list becomes a compressed essence of your site!

                                               Tony & Elle Ackland <Tony.Ackland@...> wrote:

                                              Hmmm.... I've been a bit slack about getting this out on a regular basis.
                                              Any suggestions for additions/changes etc ?


                                              I can be wrong I must say.
                                              Cheers, Alex...



                                              Do you Yahoo!?
                                              New DSL Internet Access from SBC & Yahoo!

                                            • Tony & Elle Ackland
                                              NEW DISTILLERS Frequently Asked Questions (Feb 03) Posted near the 1st of each month, to the NEW_DISTILLERS newsgroup at www.yahoogroups.com Please email any
                                              Message 22 of 29 , Feb 14, 2003
                                                "NEW DISTILLERS" Frequently Asked Questions (Feb'03)
                                                Posted near the 1st of each month, to the NEW_DISTILLERS newsgroup at
                                                www.yahoogroups.com
                                                Please email any additions, corrections, clarifications required, etc
                                                regarding the FAQ to Tony Ackland (ackland@...), however please
                                                direct any general questions to the newsgroup itself.
                                                *******************************************************************
                                                1) Is distilling hard to do ?
                                                2) Is it legal ?
                                                3) Will it make me blind ?
                                                4) Whats the difference between a pot still, reflux still, and
                                                fractionating column ?
                                                5) How do I get or make a still ?
                                                6) How do I make a whisky / rum / vodka / gin ?
                                                7) Should I use sugar or grains ?
                                                8) Can I use fruit wine ?
                                                9) How do I make a Turbo-all-sugar wash ?
                                                10) How do I run a Pot still ?
                                                11) How do I run a Reflux still ?
                                                12) Can I use a reflux still to make rum or whisky ?
                                                13) How do I measure the strength of it & dilute it ?
                                                14) How do I get rid of that "off-taste" ?
                                                15) Why do my spirits turn cloudy when diluted ?
                                                16) How do I flavour/turn the vodka's into something else ?
                                                17) What web resources are there ?
                                                18) How do I contact the NEW DISTILLERS news group ?
                                                19) Can I run my car on it ?
                                                20) How do I convert between gallons and litres and ....
                                                21) What is a "Thumper" ?
                                                22) Can methylated spirits be made safe to drink ?
                                                **********************************************************************
                                                1) Is distilling hard to do ?
                                                Nope - if you can follow instructions enough to bake scones, then you can
                                                sucessfully distil. To distil well however, will require you to understand
                                                what you're doing, so read around and get a bit of information under your
                                                belt before you begin.
                                                2) Is it legal ?
                                                Probably not. It is only legal in New Zealand, and some European countries
                                                turn a blind eye to it, but elsewhere it is illegal, with punishment
                                                ranging from fines to imprisonment or floggings. This action against it is
                                                usually the result of either religous beliefs (right or wrong), but more
                                                generally due to the great revenue base it provides Governements through
                                                excise taxes. So if you are going to distil, just be aware of the potential
                                                legal ramifications.
                                                3) Will it make me blind ?
                                                Not if you're careful. This pervasive question is due to moonshine lore,
                                                which abounds with myths of blindness, but few actual documented cases. The
                                                concern is due to the presence of methanol (wood alcohol), an optic nerve
                                                poison, which can be present in small amounts when fermenting grains or
                                                fruits high in pectin. This methanol comes off first from the still, so it
                                                is easily segregated and discarded. A simple rule of thumb for this is to
                                                throw away the first 50 mL you collect (per 20 L mash used). Probably the
                                                greatest risk to your health during distilling is the risk of fire -
                                                collecting a flammable liquid near a heat source. So keep a fire
                                                extinguisher nearby.
                                                4) Whats the difference between a pot still, reflux still, and
                                                fractionating column ?
                                                A pot still simply collects and condenses the alcohol vapours that come off
                                                the boiling mash. This will result in an alcohol at about 40-60% purity,
                                                with plenty of flavour in it. If this distillate were put through the pot
                                                still again, it would increase in purity to around 70-85% purity, and lose
                                                a bit of its flavour.

                                                A reflux still does these multiple distillations in one single go, by
                                                having some packing in a column between the condensor & the pot, and
                                                allowing some of the vapour to condense and trickle back down through the
                                                packing. This "reflux" of liquid helps clean the rising vapour and increase
                                                the % purity. The taller the packed column, and the more reflux liquid, the
                                                purer the product will be. The advantage of doing this is that it will
                                                result in a clean vodka, with little flavour to it - ideal for mixing with
                                                flavours etc.

                                                A fractionating column is a pure form of the reflux still. It will condense
                                                all the vapour at the top of the packing, and return about 9/10 back down
                                                the column. The column will be quite tall - say 600-1200mm (2-4 foot), and
                                                packed with a material high in surface area, but which takes up little
                                                space (pot scrubbers are good for this). It will result in an alcohol 95%+
                                                pure (the theoretical limit without using a vacuum is 96.48 %(by volume)),
                                                with no other tastes or impurities in it.
                                                5) How do I get or make a still ?
                                                If you're after a pot still, these are generally home made using what-ever
                                                you have at hand - say copper tubing and old water heaters or pressure
                                                cookers. You don't really need any plans for these - just follow any of the
                                                photos about.
                                                Reflux stills can be made from plans on the net, or bought from several
                                                manufacturers. For reflux still plans see
                                                The photos section at http://homedistiller.org/photos-ns.htm for "Offset
                                                head" designs, and http://homedistiller.org/photos-reflux.htm for general
                                                reflux stills.
                                                Alex's designs at http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Distillers/files/OFTS/
                                                StillCookers http://us.geocities.com/stillcooker/
                                                Stillmakers "Build a World Class Distillation Apparatus" at
                                                http://www.Moonshine-Still.com (Free!) or
                                                Gert Strands : http://partyman.se/Engelsk/default.htm (US$5).
                                                Ian Smileys "Making Pure Corn Whisky" at http://www.home-distilling.com ,
                                                with full design details.
                                                For an excellent book on all aspects of still design, see "The Compleat
                                                Distiller" at http://www.amphora-society.com
                                                See the list of "web resources" below for links to sites selling ready-made
                                                stills.
                                                For fuel alcohol stills see the Mother Earth Alcohol Fuel manual at
                                                http://journeytoforever.org/biofuel_library/ethanol_motherearth/meToC.html,
                                                and the The Manual for the Home and Farm Production of Alcohol Fuel by S.W.
                                                Mathewson at
                                                http://journeytoforever.org/biofuel_library/ethanol_manual/manual_ToC.html
                                                Regarding the choice of heating for the still - if you have 240V available
                                                it is usually easiest to control & safer (particularly with internal
                                                elements). Gas can be used, but more care is needed to keep the collection
                                                container further away and not letting it overfill.
                                                6) How do I make a whisky / vodka / rum / gin ?
                                                Whiskey : Heat 4 kg cracked or crushed malt with 18 L of water to 63-65 ?C,
                                                and hold there for 1-1.5 hours. Heat to 73-75 ?C, then strain off and keep
                                                liquid, using 250 mL of hot water to rinse the grains. Cool to below 30 ?C
                                                (should have an initial specific gravity of 1.050). Add hydrated yeast &
                                                leave to ferment (maintain at 26 ?C) until airlock stops bubbling and final
                                                SG of around 1.010. Let settle for a day, then syphon carefully into a pot
                                                still. Discard the first 50 mL's, collect the next 2-3L of distillate or
                                                until you start noticing the tails coming through.

                                                Vodka : dissolve 5 kg of sugar & 60 g of nutrients in 20 L of water, cool
                                                to below 30C and add hydrated yeast. Leave to ferment at 25 ?C until below
                                                an SG of around 0.990, then settle for a day. Syphon into a reflux or
                                                fractionating still, and collect as per usual.
                                                Rum : as per vodka, but use some brown sugar or mollasses, to give an
                                                initial specific gravity (SG) of around 1.060 - 1.070. Run through either a
                                                pot still, or a de-refluxed reflux still.
                                                Gin : make a very pure vodka, then add the following essence. Simmer 35 g
                                                of juniper berries in 350 mL of 50% vodka for ten minutes with the lid on,
                                                let cool overnight, then filter through coffee filters. Use 5-10 mL of this
                                                essence per bottle of vodka.

                                                When doing any fermenting, take a lot of care to ensure that any items used
                                                are clean/sterile (soaking them in a water + bleach (10 mL per litre) ), or
                                                else the wash can start growing other things. Use a closed fermenter with
                                                an airlock too, to let the CO2 out without letting wild yeasts, bugs etc
                                                in. For more information about fermenting, see beer or wine homebrewing
                                                sites.
                                                7) Should I use sugar or grains/fruit ?
                                                It depends on what sort of still you have, and what you are trying to make.
                                                If you have a reflux or fractionating still, only use whatever is cheapest
                                                (usually sugar), as the refluxing will strip out all the flavours anyhow.
                                                If you have a pot still, and are after a bourban or whiskey, then you need
                                                to go the grain route, or mollasses if after a rum. If you are trying to
                                                make a neutral spirit for flavouring, go for sugar.
                                                Basic guidelines for using them are ..
                                                SUGAR. Wine yeast can use no more than 2.5lbs of sugar/1imp gal or
                                                2.2lb/1U.S.gal or 1.25kg/5litres of must. This will produce 14%a.b.v. Honey
                                                and liquid malt extract are 80% sugar so you need 1.5kg/5l must or mash.
                                                Molasses is 50% sugar so you need 2.5kg/5l must or mash. Maple syrup is 32%
                                                sugar. Carob beans are 45% sugar. Sugar beets are 15% sugar Grain malt is
                                                60% sugar (starch converted to sugars) so you need 1.5kg/5l mash. Cooked
                                                grain contains 60% convertible starch so you need 1.5kg/5l mash
                                                FRUIT - Grapes contain the ideal sugar, water, acid balance. A sugar
                                                content of 17-23% and a water content of about 80%. 8kg of grapes produces
                                                5l of wine.
                                                Most common fruits (apples, plums, apricots) contain about 10% sugar and
                                                85% water. Cherries and figs contain 15% sugar. A fruit mash could be 4kg
                                                fruit, (400g sugar content), 2l water (3l in pulp already), 800g additional
                                                sugar.
                                                Bananas are 17-24% sugar, 75% water. Acid content 0.3%. A banana mash could
                                                be 4kg of cooked bananas, 2l water (3l in pulp already),400g sugar. Add
                                                3lemons/5l for correct pH.
                                                Dates are 70% sugar, 20% water. Add acid to a date mash.
                                                Raisins and sultanas have a water content of about 15% and a sugar content
                                                of 60%, grapes have a water content of 75% and a sugar content of about
                                                20%, so using 1.5-2kg/5l of water appears about right if we want to
                                                reconstitute them.
                                                ACID - 5g of citric acid (1tsp)/5l must raises acidity by 0.1%. 3g of
                                                calcium carbonate powder lowers acidity by 0.1%. A pH of 5 is 0.4% acidity.
                                                Winemakers aim for 0.6% acidity. Most common fruits are about 0.6% acid
                                                content. For distilling, a higher acidity in the mash helps to suppress
                                                bacteria. A high tannin content doesn't matter as we are not making wine.
                                                Meaurements are logarithmic, so a pH of 4 is 10 times more acidic than a pH
                                                of 5.
                                                YEAST - Brewers (& possibly baker's yeast) can tolerate only 8% alcohol. A
                                                bottom fermenting lager yeast ferments out all the sugars better than a top
                                                fermenting ale yeast. A good wine yeast (Champagne, in the right
                                                conditions, can tolerate 15%a.b.v. (up to 18%a.b.v. in optimal conditions -
                                                no need to use expensive turbos). Wild yeasts vary, but some are very low -
                                                this is a risky path. Whisky distillers often use a combination of yeasts -
                                                initially a brewer's yeast because they believe it effects the flavor.
                                                8) Can I use fruit wine ?
                                                Sure, if you have it available. Again, using a pot still will result in a
                                                brandy/grappa/schnapps, whereas a reflux still will just strip it down to
                                                neutral spirit.
                                                9) How do I make a Turbo-all-sugar wash ?
                                                The first trick is to locate the "Turbo" yeasts - either try the New
                                                Zealand sites, or www.brewhaus.com. Then, dissolve 5-6 kg of sugar with 2-3
                                                L of boiling water, top up to 25 L with cold water, wait until its cooled
                                                below 24 ?C, and then stir the yeast in, and close the lid with an airlock.
                                                Keep at 24 ?C until the SG has dropped below 1.010 Its then possible to add
                                                extra sugar (1 kg at a time, dissolved in a little water) each time the SG
                                                has dropped below 1.010. You should be able to add an extra 3-4 kg this way
                                                over a week. It should finish around 0.980 - 0.990
                                                10) How do I run a Pot Still ?
                                                See http://homedistiller.org/dtw.htm#use_pot for details. A pot still is
                                                fairly straight forward to use. Turn it on. Once the temperature is up to
                                                about 60 ?C turn on the cooling water to the condensor. Make sure you throw
                                                away the first 1 00 mL per 20L wash, as this will contain any methanol that
                                                might be present. Segregate the distillate into 500 mL lots as it comes
                                                off. Only keep (for drinking) that which doesn't contain fusels (smell off)
                                                - probably below about 92 ? C, however you should keep distilling past
                                                here, untill about 96 ? C, as this fraction, although high in tails and not
                                                good for drinking this time, can be added back to the next wash and cleaned
                                                up OK then.
                                                11) How do I run a Reflux / Fractionating Still ?
                                                See http://homedistiller.org/dtw.htm#use_reflux for details +/or
                                                variations. It is best to first equilibriate the column under total reflux
                                                for 10 minutes or so. This will concentrate up the foreshots so that they
                                                can be removed first. Collect them one drip at a time, for approx 50 mL per
                                                25L wash, and throw away. You can then collect the remaining run at a
                                                quicker rate. Adjust the reflux ratio (the ratio of how much of the total
                                                vapour is returned as reflux) by varying either the rate of collection or
                                                rate of cooling water (depending on still design) to maintain the purity
                                                you want. You can judge the purity by measuring the vapour temperature.
                                                Target around 78.2 - 78.4 ?C . Towards the end of the run it will be hard
                                                to get a high enough reflux ratio to maintain the high purity / low
                                                temperature. When the temperature has nudged up to around 80 ?C quit
                                                collecting for drinking, and collect the remainder as tails (for
                                                redistillation in the next run) up to around 96 ?C .
                                                12) Can I use a Reflux Still to make Rum or Whisky ?
                                                Yes you can. To do so, you need to carefully monitor the various
                                                transitions between the foreshots, heads, middle run, and tails, and time
                                                the collection of the middle run precisely. The reflux still allows you to
                                                more precisely judge the changes between the various stages, and hence
                                                target them accurately. A typical rum or whisky would be obtained by
                                                discarding the foreshots, then collecting the heads, middle run, and then
                                                begin the tails, until the purity has dropped to around 58-60% (82 ?C). By
                                                altering when to start collecting, and how late to time the final "cut",
                                                various flavour profiles will result. You'd collect it faster and at a
                                                slightly lower reflux ratio than for a neutral spirit, as you want the
                                                flavour present.
                                                13) How do I measure the strength of it & dilute it ?
                                                You need a hydrometer. This is a wee float, with a scale inside it. The
                                                more alcohol that is present, the lighter the density of the liquid, so the
                                                hydrometer sinks a bit lower. You then just read off the scale how much
                                                alcohol is present. You need a seperate hydrometer for measuring the
                                                density of the mash, as this is generally > 1.0, whereas the spirit is <
                                                1.0, and they can't accurately do both ends of the scale.
                                                14) How do I get rid of that "off-taste" ?
                                                That "rough moonshine edge" or "off-taste / wet cardboard smell" is due to
                                                impurities such as the higher order alcohols, known as cogeners or fusel
                                                oils. These will be present more when using a pot still, less if using a
                                                reflux still, and just about absent if using a fractionating column. So one
                                                way is to use a taller packed column and increase the amount of reflux
                                                occuring. They can also indicate that you've tried to collect too much of
                                                the alcohol, and have run into the "tails"; so finish collecting a little
                                                bit earlier next time. Soaking tainted alcohol with activated carbon for a
                                                week (or even months) will help remove some of this flavour - this is known
                                                as "polishing" the spirit. I'm also suspecting that you need a little bit
                                                of copper somewhere in the still where it can come in contact with the
                                                vapour. The copper helps catalyse some of the sulphur, esters & organic
                                                acids, reducing their odour & taste.
                                                15) Why do my spirits turn cloudy when diluted ?
                                                With neutral spirits, either you have pushed 'tails' into your product (eg
                                                collected too much product from the still - quit earlier next time), or you
                                                are using poor tap-water (high in calcium carbonate). If it happens when
                                                diluting your gin, sambuca or the like, its because there is too little
                                                alcohol/too much oil present and the oils are no longer dissolved. Either
                                                drink it cloudy or increase the % alcohol present.
                                                16) How do I flavour/turn the vodka's into something else ?
                                                There are now many commercial flavourings available, which turn vodka or
                                                neutral alcohol into pretty decent gin or whiskey, or all manor of
                                                liqueurs. See the commercial sites, like Des Zines
                                                http://homepages.ihug.co.nz/~topkiwi or Ray Toms http://moonshine.co.nz/
                                                for details. Or you can soak it with oak chips and make whiskey, or soak
                                                fruits in it to make your own liqueurs. There are many websites describing
                                                how to make liqueurs - see http://homedistiller.org/liqueurs.htm or
                                                http://www.guntheranderson.com for a starting point.
                                                17) What web resources are there ?
                                                For more details, see :
                                                Tony Ackland's http://homedistiller.org
                                                Aaron Smiths's http://www.go.to/distillation
                                                Steve Spence's http://www.webconx.com/ethanol.htm
                                                StillMaker's http://www.Moonshine-Still.com
                                                Biofuels Library http://journeytoforever.org/biofuel_library.html
                                                18) How do I contact the NEW DISTILLERS news group ?
                                                Both the NEW DISTILLERS and the DISTILLERS news groups are available via
                                                YahooGroups, at http://www.yahoogroups.com . NEW DISTILLERS is, as the name
                                                suggests, intended for those of you new to distilling and after simple,
                                                straight-forward answers to questions, whereas the DISTILLERS group
                                                discussions are a bit more advanced, throwing in bits of design philosophy,
                                                theory, and alternative ways of achieving the results. Both tend to overlap
                                                to some extent.
                                                19) Can I run my car on it ?
                                                You can run your car on alcohol over about 80% purity. Because any water
                                                present will seperate out in the presence of the gasoline (and become a
                                                problem), you either need to exclusively use the alcohol, or dry it right
                                                out (eg 99%+ purity) if using it to mix with gasoline. See Steve Spences
                                                site for more details, the Mother Earth Alcohol Fuel manual, or the The
                                                Manual for the Home and Farm Production of Alcohol Fuel. In addition, in
                                                the USA, you can get a "small fuel producer" permit, which allows small
                                                scale distilling for "motor fuel" purposes. A nice advantage is that they
                                                don't require denaturing for "fuel" used on the premises. The regulations
                                                are posted at http://www.webconx.com/ethanolusaregs.htm
                                                20) How do I convert between gallons and litres and ....
                                                To convert between SI & Imperial units, multiply the first unit by the
                                                conversion factor to get the second. Divide back to do it in reverse .eg 1L
                                                = 0.264 US gal, so 20 L = 20 x 0.264 = 5.28 US gal, and 20 US gal / 0.264 =
                                                75.76 L

                                                1 L = 0.264 US gal = 0.221 UK gal
                                                1 L = 1.057 US qt = 0.880 UK qt
                                                1 kg = 2.204 lbm = 32.15 oz (troy) = 35.27 oz (av)
                                                deg F = ((9/5) x deg C )+ 32
                                                1m = 1000 mm = 39.37 inch = 3.28 ft = 1.09 yd
                                                21) What is a "Thumper" ?
                                                A "thumper" is an extra chamber sometimes fitted to a pot still. It can be
                                                as simple as a glass jar with two holes in the lid. The off-take from the
                                                still is fed into it, with the pipe running almost all the way to the
                                                bottom of the jar; the jar is half filled with liquid (water or mash or
                                                tails) so that the vapour from the still will bubble up through it; then
                                                the vapour coming off it is collected & cooled as per normal. It acts as a
                                                second distilling chamber using just the heat from the vapour, and lifts
                                                the purity from 50-60% to 70-80%, hence improving what might otherwise be a
                                                very mediocre design. Don't make the thumper too small, and start it off
                                                with liquid already high in alcohol.
                                                22) Can Methylated Spirits be made safe to Drink ?
                                                No. Methylated spirits (aka meths) is a mixture of ethanol and (poisonous)
                                                methanol, with a denturant added to make it foul tasting. There is no
                                                effective way of seperating them, be it by distilling, using carbon, or
                                                filtering through bread (old wives tale). Do not add meths to anything you
                                                ever intend to distill or drink, and don't try using it in any form - it
                                                will still be poisonous. Keep it for cleaning and starting the BBQ with.
                                              • Ackland, Tony (CALNZAS)
                                                NEW DISTILLERS Frequently Asked Questions (Feb 03) Posted near the 1st of each month, to the NEW_DISTILLERS newsgroup at www.yahoogroups.com Please email any
                                                Message 23 of 29 , May 20, 2003
                                                  "NEW DISTILLERS" Frequently Asked Questions (Feb'03)

                                                  Posted near the 1st of each month, to the NEW_DISTILLERS newsgroup at www.yahoogroups.com

                                                  Please email any additions, corrections, clarifications required, etc regarding the FAQ to Tony Ackland (ackland@...), however please direct any general questions to the newsgroup itself.

                                                  *******************************************************************

                                                  1) Is distilling hard to do ?
                                                  2) Is it legal ?
                                                  3) Will it make me blind ?
                                                  4) Whats the difference between a pot still, reflux still, and fractionating column ?
                                                  5) How do I get or make a still ?
                                                  6) How do I make a whisky / rum / vodka / gin ?
                                                  7) Should I use sugar or grains ?
                                                  8) Can I use fruit wine ?
                                                  9) How do I make a Turbo-all-sugar wash ?
                                                  10) How do I run a Pot still ?
                                                  11) How do I run a Reflux still ?
                                                  12) Can I use a reflux still to make rum or whisky ?
                                                  13) How do I measure the strength of it & dilute it ?
                                                  14) How do I get rid of that "off-taste" ?
                                                  15) Why do my spirits turn cloudy when diluted ?
                                                  16) How do I flavour/turn the vodka's into something else ?
                                                  17) What web resources are there ?
                                                  18) How do I contact the NEW DISTILLERS news group ?
                                                  19) Can I run my car on it ?
                                                  20) How do I convert between gallons and litres and ....
                                                  21) What is a "Thumper" ?
                                                  22) Can methylated spirits be made safe to drink ?

                                                  **********************************************************************

                                                  1) Is distilling hard to do ?

                                                  Nope - if you can follow instructions enough to bake scones, then you can sucessfully distil. To distil well however, will require you to understand what you're doing, so read around and get a bit of information under your belt before you begin.

                                                  2) Is it legal ?

                                                  Probably not. It is only legal in New Zealand, and some European countries turn a blind eye to it, but elsewhere it is illegal, with punishment ranging from fines to imprisonment or floggings. This action against it is usually the result of either religous beliefs (right or wrong), but more generally due to the great revenue base it provides Governements through excise taxes. So if you are going to distil, just be aware of the potential legal ramifications.

                                                  3) Will it make me blind ?

                                                  Not if you're careful. This pervasive question is due to moonshine lore, which abounds with myths of blindness, but few actual documented cases. The concern is due to the presence of methanol (wood alcohol), an optic nerve poison, which can be present in small amounts when fermenting grains or fruits high in pectin. This methanol comes off first from the still, so it is easily segregated and discarded. A simple rule of thumb for this is to throw away the first 50 mL you collect (per 20 L mash used). Probably the greatest risk to your health during distilling is the risk of fire - collecting a flammable liquid near a heat source. So keep a fire extinguisher nearby.

                                                  4) Whats the difference between a pot still, reflux still, and fractionating column ?

                                                  A pot still simply collects and condenses the alcohol vapours that come off the boiling mash. This will result in an alcohol at about 40-60% purity, with plenty of flavour in it. If this distillate were put through the pot still again, it would increase in purity to around 70-85% purity, and lose a bit of its flavour.

                                                  A reflux still does these multiple distillations in one single go, by having some packing in a column between the condensor & the pot, and allowing some of the vapour to condense and trickle back down through the packing. This "reflux" of liquid helps clean the rising vapour and increase the % purity. The taller the packed column, and the more reflux liquid, the purer the product will be. The advantage of doing this is that it will result in a clean vodka, with little flavour to it - ideal for mixing with flavours etc.

                                                  A fractionating column is a pure form of the reflux still. It will condense all the vapour at the top of the packing, and return about 9/10 back down the column. The column will be quite tall - say 600-1200mm (2-4 foot), and packed with a material high in surface area, but which takes up little space (pot scrubbers are good for this). It will result in an alcohol 95%+ pure (the theoretical limit without using a vacuum is 96.48 %(by volume)), with no other tastes or impurities in it.

                                                  5) How do I get or make a still ?

                                                  If you're after a pot still, these are generally home made using what-ever you have at hand - say copper tubing and old water heaters or pressure cookers. You don't really need any plans for these - just follow any of the photos about.

                                                  Reflux stills can be made from plans on the net, or bought from several manufacturers. For reflux still plans see
                                                  The photos section at http://homedistiller.org/photos-ns.htm for "Offset head" designs, and http://homedistiller.org/photos-reflux.htm for general reflux stills.
                                                  Alex's designs at http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Distillers/files/OFTS/
                                                  StillCookers http://us.geocities.com/stillcooker/
                                                  Stillmakers "Build a World Class Distillation Apparatus" at http://www.Moonshine-Still.com (Free!) or
                                                  Gert Strands : http://partyman.se/Engelsk/default.htm (US$5).
                                                  Ian Smileys "Making Pure Corn Whisky" at http://www.home-distilling.com , with full design details.
                                                  For an excellent book on all aspects of still design, see "The Compleat Distiller" at http://www.amphora-society.com
                                                  See the list of "web resources" below for links to sites selling ready-made stills.
                                                  For fuel alcohol stills see the Mother Earth Alcohol Fuel manual at http://journeytoforever.org/biofuel_library/ethanol_motherearth/meToC.html, and the The Manual for the Home and Farm Production of Alcohol Fuel by S.W. Mathewson at http://journeytoforever.org/biofuel_library/ethanol_manual/manual_ToC.html
                                                  Regarding the choice of heating for the still - if you have 240V available it is usually easiest to control & safer (particularly with internal elements). Gas can be used, but more care is needed to keep the collection container further away and not letting it overfill.

                                                  For more details on design, see http://homedistiller.org/designs.htm and http://homedistiller.org/refluxdesign.htm.

                                                  6) How do I make a whisky / vodka / rum / gin ?

                                                  Whiskey : Heat 4 kg cracked or crushed malt with 18 L of water to 63-65 °C, and hold there for 1-1.5 hours. Heat to 73-75 °C, then strain off and keep liquid, using 250 mL of hot water to rinse the grains. Cool to below 30 °C (should have an initial specific gravity of 1.050). Add hydrated yeast & leave to ferment (maintain at 26 °C) until airlock stops bubbling and final SG of around 1.010. Let settle for a day, then syphon carefully into a pot still. Discard the first 50 mL's, collect the next 2-3L of distillate or until you start noticing the tails coming through. Many people also have sucess starting with a beer-kit instead of using grains.

                                                  Vodka : dissolve 5 kg of sugar & 60 g of nutrients in 20 L of water, cool to below 30C and add hydrated yeast. Leave to ferment at 25 °C until below an SG of around 0.990, then settle for a day. Syphon into a reflux or fractionating still, and collect as per usual.

                                                  Rum : as per vodka, but use some brown sugar or mollasses, to give an initial specific gravity (SG) of around 1.060 - 1.070. Run through either a pot still, or a de-refluxed reflux still.

                                                  Gin : make a very pure vodka, then add the following essence. Simmer 35 g of juniper berries in 350 mL of 50% vodka for ten minutes with the lid on, let cool overnight, then filter through coffee filters. Use 5-10 mL of this essence per bottle of vodka.

                                                  When doing any fermenting, take a lot of care to ensure that any items used are clean/sterile (soaking them in a water + bleach (10 mL per litre) ), or else the wash can start growing other things. Use a closed fermenter with an airlock too, to let the CO2 out without letting wild yeasts, bugs etc in. For more information about fermenting, see beer or wine homebrewing sites.

                                                  7) Should I use sugar or grains/fruit ?

                                                  It depends on what sort of still you have, and what you are trying to make. If you have a reflux or fractionating still, only use whatever is cheapest (usually sugar), as the refluxing will strip out all the flavours anyhow. If you have a pot still, and are after a bourban or whiskey, then you need to go the grain route, or mollasses if after a rum. If you are trying to make a neutral spirit for flavouring, go for sugar.

                                                  Basic guidelines for using them are ..

                                                  SUGAR. Wine yeast can use no more than 2.5lbs of sugar/1imp gal or 2.2lb/1U.S.gal or 1.25kg/5litres of must. This will produce 14%a.b.v. Honey and liquid malt extract are 80% sugar so you need 1.5kg/5l must or mash. Molasses is 50% sugar so you need 2.5kg/5l must or mash. Maple syrup is 32% sugar. Carob beans are 45% sugar. Sugar beets are 15% sugar Grain malt is 60% sugar (starch converted to sugars) so you need 1.5kg/5l mash. Cooked grain contains 60% convertible starch so you need 1.5kg/5l mash

                                                  FRUIT - Grapes contain the ideal sugar, water, acid balance. A sugar content of 17-23% and a water content of about 80%. 8kg of grapes produces 5l of wine.
                                                  Most common fruits (apples, plums, apricots) contain about 10% sugar and 85% water. Cherries and figs contain 15% sugar. A fruit mash could be 4kg fruit, (400g sugar content), 2l water (3l in pulp already), 800g additional sugar.
                                                  Bananas are 17-24% sugar, 75% water. Acid content 0.3%. A banana mash could be 4kg of cooked bananas, 2l water (3l in pulp already),400g sugar. Add 3lemons/5l for correct pH.
                                                  Dates are 70% sugar, 20% water. Add acid to a date mash.
                                                  Raisins and sultanas have a water content of about 15% and a sugar content of 60%, grapes have a water content of 75% and a sugar content of about 20%, so using 1.5-2kg/5l of water appears about right if we want to reconstitute them.

                                                  ACID - 5g of citric acid (1tsp)/5l must raises acidity by 0.1%. 3g of calcium carbonate powder lowers acidity by 0.1%. A pH of 5 is 0.4% acidity. Winemakers aim for 0.6% acidity. Most common fruits are about 0.6% acid content. For distilling, a higher acidity in the mash helps to suppress bacteria. A high tannin content doesn't matter as we are not making wine. Meaurements are logarithmic, so a pH of 4 is 10 times more acidic than a pH of 5.

                                                  YEAST - Brewers (& possibly baker's yeast) can tolerate only 8% alcohol. A bottom fermenting lager yeast ferments out all the sugars better than a top fermenting ale yeast. A good wine yeast (Champagne, in the right conditions, can tolerate 15%a.b.v. (up to 18%a.b.v. in optimal conditions - no need to use expensive turbos). Wild yeasts vary, but some are very low - this is a risky path. Whisky distillers often use a combination of yeasts - initially a brewer's yeast because they believe it effects the flavor.

                                                  8) Can I use fruit wine ?

                                                  Sure, if you have it available. Again, using a pot still will result in a brandy/grappa/schnapps, whereas a reflux still will just strip it down to neutral spirit.

                                                  9) How do I make a Turbo-all-sugar wash ?

                                                  The first trick is to locate the "Turbo" yeasts - either try the New Zealand sites, or www.brewhaus.com. Then, dissolve 5-6 kg of sugar with 2-3 L of boiling water, top up to 25 L with cold water, wait until its cooled below 24 °C, and then stir the yeast in, and close the lid with an airlock. Keep at 24 °C until the SG has dropped below 1.010 Its then possible to add extra sugar (1 kg at a time, dissolved in a little water) each time the SG has dropped below 1.010. You should be able to add an extra 3-4 kg this way over a week. It should finish around 0.980 - 0.990

                                                  10) How do I run a Pot Still ?

                                                  See http://homedistiller.org/dtw.htm#use_pot for details. A pot still is fairly straight forward to use. Turn it on. Once the temperature is up to about 60 °C turn on the cooling water to the condensor. Make sure you throw away the first 1 00 mL per 20L wash, as this will contain any methanol that might be present. Segregate the distillate into 500 mL lots as it comes off. Only keep (for drinking) that which doesn't contain fusels (smell off) - probably below about 92 ° C, however you should keep distilling past here, untill about 96 ° C, as this fraction, although high in tails and not good for drinking this time, can be added back to the next wash and cleaned up OK then.

                                                  11) How do I run a Reflux / Fractionating Still ?

                                                  See http://homedistiller.org/dtw.htm#use_reflux for details +/or variations. It is best to first equilibriate the column under total reflux for 10 minutes or so. This will concentrate up the foreshots so that they can be removed first. Collect them one drip at a time, for approx 50 mL per 25L wash, and throw away. You can then collect the remaining run at a quicker rate. Adjust the reflux ratio (the ratio of how much of the total vapour is returned as reflux) by varying either the rate of collection or rate of cooling water (depending on still design) to maintain the purity you want. You can judge the purity by measuring the vapour temperature. Target around 78.2 - 78.4 °C . Towards the end of the run it will be hard to get a high enough reflux ratio to maintain the high purity / low temperature. When the temperature has nudged up to around 80 °C quit collecting for drinking, and collect the remainder as tails (for redistillation in the next run) up to around 96 °C .

                                                  12) Can I use a Reflux Still to make Rum or Whisky ?

                                                  Yes you can. To do so, you need to carefully monitor the various transitions between the foreshots, heads, middle run, and tails, and time the collection of the middle run precisely. The reflux still allows you to more precisely judge the changes between the various stages, and hence target them accurately. A typical rum or whisky would be obtained by discarding the foreshots, then collecting the heads, middle run, and then begin the tails, until the purity has dropped to around 58-60% (82 °C). By altering when to start collecting, and how late to time the final "cut", various flavour profiles will result. You'd collect it faster and at a slightly lower reflux ratio than for a neutral spirit, as you want the flavour present.

                                                  13) How do I measure the strength of it & dilute it ?

                                                  You need a hydrometer. This is a wee float, with a scale inside it. The more alcohol that is present, the lighter the density of the liquid, so the hydrometer sinks a bit lower. You then just read off the scale how much alcohol is present. You need a seperate hydrometer for measuring the density of the mash, as this is generally > 1.0, whereas the spirit is < 1.0, and they can't accurately do both ends of the scale.

                                                  14) How do I get rid of that "off-taste" ?

                                                  That "rough moonshine edge" or "off-taste / wet cardboard smell" is due to impurities such as the higher order alcohols, known as cogeners or fusel oils. These will be present more when using a pot still, less if using a reflux still, and just about absent if using a fractionating column. So one way is to use a taller packed column and increase the amount of reflux occuring. They can also indicate that you've tried to collect too much of the alcohol, and have run into the "tails"; so finish collecting a little bit earlier next time. Soaking tainted alcohol with activated carbon for a week (or even months) will help remove some of this flavour - this is known as "polishing" the spirit. I'm also suspecting that you need a little bit of copper somewhere in the still where it can come in contact with the vapour. The copper helps catalyse some of the sulphur, esters & organic acids, reducing their odour & taste.

                                                  15) Why do my spirits turn cloudy when diluted ?

                                                  With neutral spirits, either you have pushed 'tails' into your product (eg collected too much product from the still - quit earlier next time), or you are using poor tap-water (high in calcium carbonate). If it happens when diluting your gin, sambuca or the like, its because there is too little alcohol/too much oil present and the oils are no longer dissolved. Either drink it cloudy or increase the % alcohol present.

                                                  16) How do I flavour/turn the vodka's into something else ?

                                                  There are now many commercial flavourings available, which turn vodka or neutral alcohol into pretty decent gin or whiskey, or all manor of liqueurs. See the commercial sites, like Des Zines http://homepages.ihug.co.nz/~topkiwi or Ray Toms http://moonshine.co.nz/ for details. Or you can soak it with oak chips and make whiskey, or soak fruits in it to make your own liqueurs. There are many websites describing how to make liqueurs - see http://homedistiller.org/liqueurs.htm or http://www.guntheranderson.com for a starting point.

                                                  17) What web resources are there ?

                                                  For more details, see :
                                                  Tony Ackland's http://homedistiller.org
                                                  Aaron Smiths's http://www.go.to/distillation
                                                  Steve Spence's http://webconx.green-trust.org/ethanol.htm
                                                  StillMaker's http://www.Moonshine-Still.com
                                                  Biofuels Library http://journeytoforever.org/biofuel_library.html

                                                  18) How do I contact the NEW DISTILLERS news group ?

                                                  Both the NEW DISTILLERS and the DISTILLERS news groups are available via YahooGroups, at http://www.yahoogroups.com . NEW DISTILLERS is, as the name suggests, intended for those of you new to distilling and after simple, straight-forward answers to questions, whereas the DISTILLERS group discussions are a bit more advanced, throwing in bits of design philosophy, theory, and alternative ways of achieving the results. Both tend to overlap to some extent.

                                                  19) Can I run my car on it ?

                                                  You can run your car on alcohol over about 80% purity. Because any water present will seperate out in the presence of the gasoline (and become a problem), you either need to exclusively use the alcohol, or dry it right out (eg 99%+ purity) if using it to mix with gasoline. See Steve Spences site for more details, the Mother Earth Alcohol Fuel manual, or the The Manual for the Home and Farm Production of Alcohol Fuel. In addition, in the USA, you can get a "small fuel producer" permit, which allows small scale distilling for "motor fuel" purposes. A nice advantage is that they don't require denaturing for "fuel" used on the premises. The regulations are posted at http://webconx.green-trust.org/ethanol.htm

                                                  20) How do I convert between gallons and litres and ....

                                                  To convert between SI & Imperial units, multiply the first unit by the conversion factor to get the second. Divide back to do it in reverse .eg 1L = 0.264 US gal, so 20 L = 20 x 0.264 = 5.28 US gal, and 20 US gal / 0.264 = 75.76 L

                                                  1 L = 0.264 US gal = 0.221 UK gal
                                                  1 L = 1.057 US qt = 0.880 UK qt
                                                  1 kg = 2.204 lbm = 32.15 oz (troy) = 35.27 oz (av)
                                                  deg F = ((9/5) x deg C )+ 32
                                                  1m = 1000 mm = 39.37 inch = 3.28 ft = 1.09 yd

                                                  21) What is a "Thumper" ?

                                                  A "thumper" is an extra chamber sometimes fitted to a pot still. It can be as simple as a glass jar with two holes in the lid. The off-take from the still is fed into it, with the pipe running almost all the way to the bottom of the jar; the jar is half filled with liquid (water or mash or tails) so that the vapour from the still will bubble up through it; then the vapour coming off it is collected & cooled as per normal. It acts as a second distilling chamber using just the heat from the vapour, and lifts the purity from 50-60% to 70-80%, hence improving what might otherwise be a very mediocre design. Don't make the thumper too small, and start it off with liquid already high in alcohol.

                                                  22) Can Methylated Spirits be made safe to Drink ?

                                                  No. Methylated spirits (aka meths) is a mixture of ethanol and (poisonous) methanol, with a denturant added to make it foul tasting. There is no effective way of seperating them, be it by distilling, using carbon, or filtering through bread (old wives tale). Do not add meths to anything you ever intend to distill or drink, and don't try using it in any form - it will still be poisonous. Keep it for cleaning and starting the BBQ with.
                                                • Ackland, Tony (CALNZAS)
                                                  NEW DISTILLERS Frequently Asked Questions (Feb 03) Posted near the 1st of each month, to the NEW_DISTILLERS newsgroup at www.yahoogroups.com Please email any
                                                  Message 24 of 29 , Jan 28, 2004
                                                    "NEW DISTILLERS" Frequently Asked Questions (Feb'03)

                                                    Posted near the 1st of each month, to the NEW_DISTILLERS newsgroup at www.yahoogroups.com

                                                    Please email any additions, corrections, clarifications required, etc regarding the FAQ to Tony Ackland (Tony.Ackland@...), however please direct any general questions to the newsgroup itself.

                                                    *******************************************************************

                                                    1) Is distilling hard to do ?
                                                    2) Is it legal ?
                                                    3) Will it make me blind ?
                                                    4) Whats the difference between a pot still, reflux still, and fractionating column ?
                                                    5) How do I get or make a still ?
                                                    6) How do I make a whisky / rum / vodka / gin ?
                                                    7) Should I use sugar or grains ?
                                                    8) Can I use fruit wine ?
                                                    9) How do I make a Turbo-all-sugar wash ?
                                                    10) How do I run a Pot still ?
                                                    11) How do I run a Reflux still ?
                                                    12) Can I use a reflux still to make rum or whisky ?
                                                    13) How do I measure the strength of it & dilute it ?
                                                    14) How do I get rid of that "off-taste" ?
                                                    15) Why do my spirits turn cloudy when diluted ?
                                                    16) How do I flavour/turn the vodka's into something else ?
                                                    17) What web resources are there ?
                                                    18) How do I contact the NEW DISTILLERS news group ?
                                                    19) Can I run my car on it ?
                                                    20) How do I convert between gallons and litres and ....
                                                    21) What is a "Thumper" ?
                                                    22) Can methylated spirits be made safe to drink ?

                                                    **********************************************************************

                                                    1) Is distilling hard to do ?

                                                    Nope - if you can follow instructions enough to bake scones, then you can sucessfully distil. To distil well however, will require you to understand what you're doing, so read around and get a bit of information under your belt before you begin.

                                                    2) Is it legal ?

                                                    Probably not. It is only legal in New Zealand, and some European countries turn a blind eye to it, but elsewhere it is illegal, with punishment ranging from fines to imprisonment or floggings. This action against it is usually the result of either religous beliefs (right or wrong), but more generally due to the great revenue base it provides Governements through excise taxes. So if you are going to distil, just be aware of the potential legal ramifications.

                                                    3) Will it make me blind ?

                                                    Not if you're careful. This pervasive question is due to moonshine lore, which abounds with myths of blindness, but few actual documented cases. The concern is due to the presence of methanol (wood alcohol), an optic nerve poison, which can be present in small amounts when fermenting grains or fruits high in pectin. This methanol comes off first from the still, so it is easily segregated and discarded, and easily observed via changes in the vapour temperature. A simple rule of thumb for this is to throw away the first 50 mL you collect (per 20 L mash used). Probably the greatest risk to your health during distilling is the risk of fire - collecting a flammable liquid near a heat source. So keep a fire extinguisher nearby.

                                                    The cases where you do hear about people poisoned by "illict spirits" have been the terrible situations where adulterants such as methanol, antifreeze, battery acid etc have been added to the spirits afterwards by unscrupulous sellers (for what misguided reasons ??). If you have had a healthy fermentation take place, it is infact very difficult to make methanol. The other problems have been lead poisoning when people have used lead-based products (ie lead solder) when constructing their still, instead of something more appropriate for food-grade vessels. The rules should infact be "dont buy spirits from an unknown supplier" - but its very safe to distill for yourself.

                                                    4) Whats the difference between a pot still, reflux still, and fractionating column ?

                                                    A pot still simply collects and condenses the alcohol vapours that come off the boiling mash. This will result in an alcohol at about 40-60% purity, with plenty of flavour in it. If this distillate were put through the pot still again, it would increase in purity to around 70-85% purity, and lose a bit of its flavour.

                                                    A reflux still does these multiple distillations in one single go, by having some packing in a column between the condensor & the pot, and allowing some of the vapour to condense and trickle back down through the packing. This "reflux" of liquid helps clean the rising vapour and increase the % purity. The taller the packed column, and the more reflux liquid, the purer the product will be. The advantage of doing this is that it will result in a clean vodka, with little flavour to it - ideal for mixing with flavours etc.

                                                    A fractionating column is a pure form of the reflux still. It will condense all the vapour at the top of the packing, and return about 9/10 back down the column. The column will be quite tall - say 600-1200mm (2-4 foot), and packed with a material high in surface area, but which takes up little space (pot scrubbers are good for this). It will result in an alcohol 95%+ pure (the theoretical limit without using a vacuum is 96.48 %(by volume)), with no other tastes or impurities in it.

                                                    5) How do I get or make a still ?

                                                    If you're after a pot still, these are generally home made using what-ever you have at hand - say copper tubing and old water heaters or pressure cookers. You don't really need any plans for these - just follow any of the photos about.

                                                    Reflux stills can be made from plans on the net, or bought from several manufacturers. For reflux still plans see
                                                    The photos section at http://homedistiller.org/photos-ns.htm for "Offset head" designs, and http://homedistiller.org/photos-reflux.htm for general reflux stills.
                                                    Alex's designs at http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Distillers/files/OFTS/
                                                    StillCookers http://us.geocities.com/stillcooker/
                                                    Stillmakers "Build a World Class Distillation Apparatus" at http://www.Moonshine-Still.com (Free!) or
                                                    Gert Strands : http://partyman.se/Engelsk/default.htm (US$5).
                                                    Ian Smileys "Making Pure Corn Whisky" at http://www.home-distilling.com , with full design details.
                                                    For an excellent book on all aspects of still design, see "The Compleat Distiller" at http://www.amphora-society.com
                                                    See the list of "web resources" below for links to sites selling ready-made stills.

                                                    For fuel alcohol stills see the Mother Earth Alcohol Fuel manual at http://journeytoforever.org/biofuel_library/ethanol_motherearth/meToC.html, and the The Manual for the Home and Farm Production of Alcohol Fuel by S.W. Mathewson at http://journeytoforever.org/biofuel_library/ethanol_manual/manual_ToC.html
                                                    Regarding the choice of heating for the still - if you have 240V available it is usually easiest to control & safer (particularly with internal elements). Gas can be used, but more care is needed to keep the collection container further away and not letting it overfill.

                                                    For more details on design, see http://homedistiller.org/designs.htm and http://homedistiller.org/refluxdesign.htm.

                                                    6) How do I make a whisky / vodka / rum / gin ?

                                                    Whiskey : Heat 4 kg cracked or crushed malt with 18 L of water to 63-65 °C, and hold there for 1-1.5 hours. Heat to 73-75 °C, then strain off and keep liquid, using 250 mL of hot water to rinse the grains. Cool to below 30 °C (should have an initial specific gravity of 1.050). Add hydrated yeast & leave to ferment (maintain at 26 °C) until airlock stops bubbling and final SG of around 1.010. Let settle for a day, then syphon carefully into a pot still. Discard the first 50 mL's, collect the next 2-3L of distillate or until you start noticing the tails coming through. Many people also have sucess starting with a beer-kit instead of using grains.

                                                    Vodka : dissolve 5 kg of sugar & 60 g of nutrients in 20 L of water, cool to below 30C and add hydrated yeast. Leave to ferment at 25 °C until below an SG of around 0.990, then settle for a day. Syphon into a reflux or fractionating still, and collect as per usual.

                                                    Rum : as per vodka, but use some brown sugar or mollasses, to give an initial specific gravity (SG) of around 1.060 - 1.070. Run through either a pot still, or a de-refluxed reflux still.

                                                    Gin : make a very pure vodka, then add the following essence. Simmer 35 g of juniper berries in 350 mL of 50% vodka for ten minutes with the lid on, let cool overnight, then filter through coffee filters. Use 5-10 mL of this essence per bottle of vodka.

                                                    When doing any fermenting, take a lot of care to ensure that any items used are clean/sterile (soaking them in a water + bleach (10 mL per litre) ), or else the wash can start growing other things. Use a closed fermenter with an airlock too, to let the CO2 out without letting wild yeasts, bugs etc in. For more information about fermenting, see beer or wine homebrewing sites.

                                                    7) Should I use sugar or grains/fruit ?

                                                    It depends on what sort of still you have, and what you are trying to make. If you have a reflux or fractionating still, only use whatever is cheapest (usually sugar), as the refluxing will strip out all the flavours anyhow. If you have a pot still, and are after a bourban or whiskey, then you need to go the grain route, or mollasses if after a rum. If you are trying to make a neutral spirit for flavouring, go for sugar.

                                                    Basic guidelines for using them are ..

                                                    SUGAR. Wine yeast can use no more than 2.5lbs of sugar/1imp gal or 2.2lb/1U.S.gal or 1.25kg/5litres of must. This will produce 14%a.b.v. Honey and liquid malt extract are 80% sugar so you need 1.5kg/5l must or mash. Molasses is 50% sugar so you need 2.5kg/5l must or mash. Maple syrup is 32% sugar. Carob beans are 45% sugar. Sugar beets are 15% sugar Grain malt is 60% sugar (starch converted to sugars) so you need 1.5kg/5l mash. Cooked grain contains 60% convertible starch so you need 1.5kg/5l mash

                                                    FRUIT - Grapes contain the ideal sugar, water, acid balance. A sugar content of 17-23% and a water content of about 80%. 8kg of grapes produces 5l of wine.
                                                    Most common fruits (apples, plums, apricots) contain about 10% sugar and 85% water. Cherries and figs contain 15% sugar. A fruit mash could be 4kg fruit, (400g sugar content), 2l water (3l in pulp already), 800g additional sugar.
                                                    Bananas are 17-24% sugar, 75% water. Acid content 0.3%. A banana mash could be 4kg of cooked bananas, 2l water (3l in pulp already),400g sugar. Add 3lemons/5l for correct pH.
                                                    Dates are 70% sugar, 20% water. Add acid to a date mash.
                                                    Raisins and sultanas have a water content of about 15% and a sugar content of 60%, grapes have a water content of 75% and a sugar content of about 20%, so using 1.5-2kg/5l of water appears about right if we want to reconstitute them.

                                                    ACID - 5g of citric acid (1tsp)/5l must raises acidity by 0.1%. 3g of calcium carbonate powder lowers acidity by 0.1%. A pH of 5 is 0.4% acidity. Winemakers aim for 0.6% acidity. Most common fruits are about 0.6% acid content. For distilling, a higher acidity in the mash helps to suppress bacteria. A high tannin content doesn't matter as we are not making wine. Meaurements are logarithmic, so a pH of 4 is 10 times more acidic than a pH of 5.

                                                    YEAST - Brewers (& possibly baker's yeast) can tolerate only 8% alcohol. A bottom fermenting lager yeast ferments out all the sugars better than a top fermenting ale yeast. A good wine yeast (Champagne, in the right conditions, can tolerate 15%a.b.v. (up to 18%a.b.v. in optimal conditions - no need to use expensive turbos). Wild yeasts vary, but some are very low - this is a risky path. Whisky distillers often use a combination of yeasts - initially a brewer's yeast because they believe it effects the flavor.

                                                    8) Can I use fruit wine ?

                                                    Sure, if you have it available. Again, using a pot still will result in a brandy/grappa/schnapps, whereas a reflux still will just strip it down to neutral spirit unless you reduce the amount of reflux occuring.

                                                    9) How do I make a Turbo-all-sugar wash ?

                                                    The first trick is to locate the "Turbo" yeasts - either try the New Zealand sites, or www.brewhaus.com. Then, dissolve 5-6 kg of sugar with 2-3 L of boiling water, top up to 25 L with cold water, wait until its cooled below 24 °C, and then stir the yeast in, and close the lid with an airlock. Keep at 24 °C until the SG has dropped below 1.010 Its then possible to add extra sugar (1 kg at a time, dissolved in a little water) each time the SG has dropped below 1.010. You should be able to add an extra 3-4 kg this way over a week. It should finish around 0.980 - 0.990

                                                    10) How do I run a Pot Still ?

                                                    See http://homedistiller.org/dtw.htm#use_pot for details. A pot still is fairly straight forward to use. Turn it on. Once the temperature is up to about 60 °C turn on the cooling water to the condensor. Make sure you throw away the first 1 00 mL per 20L wash, as this will contain any methanol that might be present. Segregate the distillate into 500 mL lots as it comes off. Only keep (for drinking) that which doesn't contain fusels (smell off) - probably below about 92 ° C, however you should keep distilling past here, untill about 96 ° C, as this fraction, although high in tails and not good for drinking this time, can be added back to the next wash and cleaned up OK then.

                                                    11) How do I run a Reflux / Fractionating Still ?

                                                    See http://homedistiller.org/dtw.htm#use_reflux for details +/or variations. It is best to first equilibriate the column under total reflux for 10 minutes or so. This will concentrate up the foreshots so that they can be removed first. Collect them one drip at a time, for approx 50 mL per 25L wash, and throw away. You can then collect the remaining run at a quicker rate. Adjust the reflux ratio (the ratio of how much of the total vapour is returned as reflux) by varying either the rate of collection or rate of cooling water (depending on still design) to maintain the purity you want. You can judge the purity by measuring the vapour temperature. Target around 78.2 - 78.4 °C . Towards the end of the run it will be hard to get a high enough reflux ratio to maintain the high purity / low temperature. When the temperature has nudged up to around 80 °C quit collecting for drinking, and collect the remainder as tails (for redistillation in the next run) up to around 96 °C .

                                                    12) Can I use a Reflux Still to make Rum or Whisky ?

                                                    Yes you can. To do so, you need to carefully monitor the various transitions between the foreshots, heads, middle run, and tails, and time the collection of the middle run precisely. The reflux still allows you to more precisely judge the changes between the various stages, and hence target them accurately. A typical rum or whisky would be obtained by discarding the foreshots, then collecting the heads, middle run, and then begin the tails, until the purity has dropped to around 58-60% (82 °C). By altering when to start collecting, and how late to time the final "cut", various flavour profiles will result. You'd collect it faster and at a slightly lower reflux ratio than for a neutral spirit, as you want the flavour present.

                                                    13) How do I measure the strength of it & dilute it ?

                                                    You need a hydrometer. This is a wee float, with a scale inside it. The more alcohol that is present, the lighter the density of the liquid, so the hydrometer sinks a bit lower. You then just read off the scale how much alcohol is present. You need a seperate hydrometer for measuring the density of the mash, as this is generally > 1.0, whereas the spirit is < 1.0, and they can't accurately do both ends of the scale.

                                                    14) How do I get rid of that "off-taste" ?

                                                    That "rough moonshine edge" or "off-taste / wet cardboard smell" is due to impurities such as the higher order alcohols, known as cogeners or fusel oils. These will be present more when using a pot still, less if using a reflux still, and just about absent if using a fractionating column. So one way is to use a taller packed column and increase the amount of reflux occuring. They can also indicate that you've tried to collect too much of the alcohol, and have run into the "tails"; so finish collecting a little bit earlier next time. Soaking tainted alcohol with activated carbon for a week (or even months) will help remove some of this flavour - this is known as "polishing" the spirit. I'm also suspecting that you need a little bit of copper somewhere in the still where it can come in contact with the vapour. The copper helps catalyse some of the sulphur, esters & organic acids, reducing their odour & taste.

                                                    15) Why do my spirits turn cloudy when diluted ?

                                                    With neutral spirits, either you have pushed 'tails' into your product (eg collected too much product from the still - quit earlier next time), or you are using poor tap-water (high in calcium carbonate). If it happens when diluting your gin, sambuca or the like, its because there is too little alcohol/too much oil present and the oils are no longer dissolved. Either drink it cloudy or increase the % alcohol present.

                                                    16) How do I flavour/turn the vodka's into something else ?

                                                    There are now many commercial flavourings available, which turn vodka or neutral alcohol into pretty decent gin or whiskey, or all manor of liqueurs. See the commercial sites, like Des Zines http://homepages.ihug.co.nz/~topkiwi or Ray Toms http://moonshine.co.nz/ for details. Or you can soak it with oak chips and make whiskey, or soak fruits in it to make your own liqueurs. There are many websites describing how to make liqueurs - see http://homedistiller.org/liqueurs.htm or http://www.guntheranderson.com for a starting point.

                                                    17) What web resources are there ?

                                                    For more details, see :
                                                    Tony Ackland's http://homedistiller.org
                                                    Aaron Smiths's http://www.go.to/distillation
                                                    Steve Spence's http://webconx.green-trust.org/ethanol.htm
                                                    StillMaker's http://www.Moonshine-Still.com
                                                    Biofuels Library http://journeytoforever.org/biofuel_library.html

                                                    18) How do I contact the NEW DISTILLERS news group ?

                                                    Both the NEW DISTILLERS and the DISTILLERS news groups are available via YahooGroups, at http://www.yahoogroups.com . NEW DISTILLERS is, as the name suggests, intended for those of you new to distilling and after simple, straight-forward answers to questions, whereas the DISTILLERS group discussions are a bit more advanced, throwing in bits of design philosophy, theory, and alternative ways of achieving the results. Both tend to overlap to some extent.

                                                    19) Can I run my car on it ?

                                                    You can run your car on alcohol over about 80% purity. Because any water present will seperate out in the presence of the gasoline (and become a problem), you either need to exclusively use the alcohol, or dry it right out (eg 99%+ purity) if using it to mix with gasoline. See Steve Spences site for more details, the Mother Earth Alcohol Fuel manual, or the The Manual for the Home and Farm Production of Alcohol Fuel. In addition, in the USA, you can get a "small fuel producer" permit, which allows small scale distilling for "motor fuel" purposes. A nice advantage is that they don't require denaturing for "fuel" used on the premises. The regulations are posted at http://webconx.green-trust.org/ethanol.htm

                                                    20) How do I convert between gallons and litres and ....

                                                    To convert between SI & Imperial units, multiply the first unit by the conversion factor to get the second. Divide back to do it in reverse .eg 1L = 0.264 US gal, so 20 L = 20 x 0.264 = 5.28 US gal, and 20 US gal / 0.264 = 75.76 L

                                                    1 L = 0.264 US gal = 0.221 UK gal
                                                    1 L = 1.057 US qt = 0.880 UK qt
                                                    1 kg = 2.204 lbm = 32.15 oz (troy) = 35.27 oz (av)
                                                    deg F = ((9/5) x deg C )+ 32
                                                    1m = 1000 mm = 39.37 inch = 3.28 ft = 1.09 yd

                                                    21) What is a "Thumper" ?

                                                    A "thumper" is an extra chamber sometimes fitted to a pot still. It can be as simple as a glass jar with two holes in the lid. The off-take from the still is fed into it, with the pipe running almost all the way to the bottom of the jar; the jar is half filled with liquid (water or mash or tails) so that the vapour from the still will bubble up through it; then the vapour coming off it is collected & cooled as per normal. It acts as a second distilling chamber using just the heat from the vapour, and lifts the purity from 50-60% to 70-80%, hence improving what might otherwise be a very mediocre design. Don't make the thumper too small, and start it off with liquid already high in alcohol.

                                                    22) Can Methylated Spirits be made safe to Drink ?

                                                    No. Methylated spirits (aka meths) is a mixture of ethanol and (poisonous) methanol, with a denturant added to make it foul tasting. There is no effective way of seperating them, be it by distilling, using carbon, or filtering through bread (old wives tale). Do not add meths to anything you ever intend to distill or drink, and don't try using it in any form - it will still be poisonous. Keep it for cleaning and starting the BBQ with. Likewise, you cant "clean up" antifreeze in your still.

                                                    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                    http://homedistiller.org This page last modified 08/28/2003 20:19:50
                                                  • Ackland, Tony (CALBRIS)
                                                    NEW DISTILLERS Frequently Asked Questions (Feb 03) Posted near the 1st of each month, to the NEW_DISTILLERS newsgroup at www.yahoogroups.com Please email any
                                                    Message 25 of 29 , Sep 27, 2004
                                                      "NEW DISTILLERS" Frequently Asked Questions (Feb'03)

                                                      Posted near the 1st of each month, to the NEW_DISTILLERS newsgroup at www.yahoogroups.com

                                                      Please email any additions, corrections, clarifications required, etc regarding the FAQ to Tony Ackland (Tony.Ackland@...), however please direct any general questions to the newsgroup itself.

                                                      *******************************************************************

                                                      1) Is distilling hard to do ?
                                                      2) Is it legal ?
                                                      3) Will it make me blind ?
                                                      4) Whats the difference between a pot still, reflux still, and fractionating column ?
                                                      5) How do I get or make a still ?
                                                      6) How do I make a whisky / rum / vodka / gin ?
                                                      7) Should I use sugar or grains ?
                                                      8) Can I use fruit wine ?
                                                      9) How do I make a Turbo-all-sugar wash ?
                                                      10) How do I run a Pot still ?
                                                      11) How do I run a Reflux still ?
                                                      12) Can I use a reflux still to make rum or whisky ?
                                                      13) How do I measure the strength of it & dilute it ?
                                                      14) How do I get rid of that "off-taste" ?
                                                      15) Why do my spirits turn cloudy when diluted ?
                                                      16) How do I flavour/turn the vodka's into something else ?
                                                      17) What web resources are there ?
                                                      18) How do I contact the NEW DISTILLERS news group ?
                                                      19) Can I run my car on it ?
                                                      20) How do I convert between gallons and litres and ....
                                                      21) What is a "Thumper" ?
                                                      22) Can methylated spirits be made safe to drink ?

                                                      **********************************************************************

                                                      1) Is distilling hard to do ?

                                                      Nope - if you can follow instructions enough to bake scones, then you can sucessfully distil. To distil well however, will require you to understand what you're doing, so read around and get a bit of information under your belt before you begin.

                                                      2) Is it legal ?

                                                      Probably not. It is only legal in New Zealand, and some European countries turn a blind eye to it, but elsewhere it is illegal, with punishment ranging from fines to imprisonment or floggings. This action against it is usually the result of either religous beliefs (right or wrong), but more generally due to the great revenue base it provides Governements through excise taxes. So if you are going to distil, just be aware of the potential legal ramifications.

                                                      3) Will it make me blind ?

                                                      Not if you're careful. This pervasive question is due to moonshine lore, which abounds with myths of blindness, but few actual documented cases. The concern is due to the presence of methanol (wood alcohol), an optic nerve poison, which can be present in small amounts when fermenting grains or fruits high in pectin. This methanol comes off first from the still, so it is easily segregated and discarded, and easily observed via changes in the vapour temperature. A simple rule of thumb for this is to throw away the first 50 mL you collect (per 20 L mash used). Probably the greatest risk to your health during distilling is the risk of fire - collecting a flammable liquid near a heat source. So keep a fire extinguisher nearby.

                                                      The cases where you do hear about people poisoned by "illict spirits" have been the terrible situations where adulterants such as methanol, antifreeze, battery acid etc have been added to the spirits afterwards by unscrupulous sellers (for what misguided reasons ??). If you have had a healthy fermentation take place, it is infact very difficult to make methanol. The other problems have been lead poisoning when people have used lead-based products (ie lead solder) when constructing their still, instead of something more appropriate for food-grade vessels. The rules should infact be "dont buy spirits from an unknown supplier" - but its very safe to distill for yourself.

                                                      4) Whats the difference between a pot still, reflux still, and fractionating column ?

                                                      A pot still simply collects and condenses the alcohol vapours that come off the boiling mash. This will result in an alcohol at about 40-60% purity, with plenty of flavour in it. If this distillate were put through the pot still again, it would increase in purity to around 70-85% purity, and lose a bit of its flavour.

                                                      A reflux still does these multiple distillations in one single go, by having some packing in a column between the condensor & the pot, and allowing some of the vapour to condense and trickle back down through the packing. This "reflux" of liquid helps clean the rising vapour and increase the % purity. The taller the packed column, and the more reflux liquid, the purer the product will be. The advantage of doing this is that it will result in a clean vodka, with little flavour to it - ideal for mixing with flavours etc.

                                                      A fractionating column is a pure form of the reflux still. It will condense all the vapour at the top of the packing, and return about 9/10 back down the column. The column will be quite tall - say 600-1200mm (2-4 foot), and packed with a material high in surface area, but which takes up little space (pot scrubbers are good for this). It will result in an alcohol 95%+ pure (the theoretical limit without using a vacuum is 96.48 %(by volume)), with no other tastes or impurities in it.

                                                      5) How do I get or make a still ?

                                                      If you're after a pot still, these are generally home made using what-ever you have at hand - say copper tubing and old water heaters or pressure cookers. You don't really need any plans for these - just follow any of the photos about.

                                                      Reflux stills can be made from plans on the net, or bought from several manufacturers. For reflux still plans see
                                                      The photos section at http://homedistiller.org/photos-ns.htm for "Offset head" designs, and http://homedistiller.org/photos-reflux.htm for general reflux stills.
                                                      Alex's designs at http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Distillers/files/OFTS/
                                                      StillCookers http://us.geocities.com/stillcooker/
                                                      Stillmakers "Build a World Class Distillation Apparatus" at http://www.Moonshine-Still.com (Free!) or
                                                      Gert Strands : http://partyman.se/Engelsk/default.htm (US$5).
                                                      Ian Smileys "Making Pure Corn Whisky" at http://www.home-distilling.com , with full design details.
                                                      For an excellent book on all aspects of still design, see "The Compleat Distiller" at http://www.amphora-society.com
                                                      See the list of "web resources" below for links to sites selling ready-made stills.
                                                      For fuel alcohol stills see the Mother Earth Alcohol Fuel manual at http://journeytoforever.org/biofuel_library/ethanol_motherearth/meToC.html, and the The Manual for the Home and Farm Production of Alcohol Fuel by S.W. Mathewson at http://journeytoforever.org/biofuel_library/ethanol_manual/manual_ToC.html
                                                      Regarding the choice of heating for the still - if you have 240V available it is usually easiest to control & safer (particularly with internal elements). Gas can be used, but more care is needed to keep the collection container further away and not letting it overfill.

                                                      For more details on design, see http://homedistiller.org/designs.htm and http://homedistiller.org/refluxdesign.htm.

                                                      6) How do I make a whisky / vodka / rum / gin ?

                                                      Whiskey : Heat 4 kg cracked or crushed malt with 18 L of water to 63-65 °C, and hold there for 1-1.5 hours. Heat to 73-75 °C, then strain off and keep liquid, using 250 mL of hot water to rinse the grains. Cool to below 30 °C (should have an initial specific gravity of 1.050). Add hydrated yeast & leave to ferment (maintain at 26 °C) until airlock stops bubbling and final SG of around 1.010. Let settle for a day, then syphon carefully into a pot still. Discard the first 50 mL's, collect the next 2-3L of distillate or until you start noticing the tails coming through. Many people also have sucess starting with a beer-kit instead of using grains.

                                                      Vodka : dissolve 5 kg of sugar & 60 g of nutrients in 20 L of water, cool to below 30C and add hydrated yeast. Leave to ferment at 25 °C until below an SG of around 0.990, then settle for a day. Syphon into a reflux or fractionating still, and collect as per usual.

                                                      Rum : as per vodka, but use some brown sugar or mollasses, to give an initial specific gravity (SG) of around 1.060 - 1.070. Run through either a pot still, or a de-refluxed reflux still.

                                                      Gin : make a very pure vodka, then add the following essence. Simmer 35 g of juniper berries in 350 mL of 50% vodka for ten minutes with the lid on, let cool overnight, then filter through coffee filters. Use 5-10 mL of this essence per bottle of vodka.

                                                      When doing any fermenting, take a lot of care to ensure that any items used are clean/sterile (soaking them in a water + bleach (10 mL per litre) ), or else the wash can start growing other things. Use a closed fermenter with an airlock too, to let the CO2 out without letting wild yeasts, bugs etc in. For more information about fermenting, see beer or wine homebrewing sites.

                                                      7) Should I use sugar or grains/fruit ?

                                                      It depends on what sort of still you have, and what you are trying to make. If you have a reflux or fractionating still, only use whatever is cheapest (usually sugar), as the refluxing will strip out all the flavours anyhow. If you have a pot still, and are after a bourban or whiskey, then you need to go the grain route, or mollasses if after a rum. If you are trying to make a neutral spirit for flavouring, go for sugar.

                                                      Basic guidelines for using them are ..

                                                      SUGAR. Wine yeast can use no more than 2.5lbs of sugar/1imp gal or 2.2lb/1U.S.gal or 1.25kg/5litres of must. This will produce 14%a.b.v. Honey and liquid malt extract are 80% sugar so you need 1.5kg/5l must or mash. Molasses is 50% sugar so you need 2.5kg/5l must or mash. Maple syrup is 32% sugar. Carob beans are 45% sugar. Sugar beets are 15% sugar Grain malt is 60% sugar (starch converted to sugars) so you need 1.5kg/5l mash. Cooked grain contains 60% convertible starch so you need 1.5kg/5l mash

                                                      FRUIT - Grapes contain the ideal sugar, water, acid balance. A sugar content of 17-23% and a water content of about 80%. 8kg of grapes produces 5l of wine.
                                                      Most common fruits (apples, plums, apricots) contain about 10% sugar and 85% water. Cherries and figs contain 15% sugar. A fruit mash could be 4kg fruit, (400g sugar content), 2l water (3l in pulp already), 800g additional sugar.
                                                      Bananas are 17-24% sugar, 75% water. Acid content 0.3%. A banana mash could be 4kg of cooked bananas, 2l water (3l in pulp already),400g sugar. Add 3lemons/5l for correct pH.
                                                      Dates are 70% sugar, 20% water. Add acid to a date mash.
                                                      Raisins and sultanas have a water content of about 15% and a sugar content of 60%, grapes have a water content of 75% and a sugar content of about 20%, so using 1.5-2kg/5l of water appears about right if we want to reconstitute them.

                                                      ACID - 5g of citric acid (1tsp)/5l must raises acidity by 0.1%. 3g of calcium carbonate powder lowers acidity by 0.1%. A pH of 5 is 0.4% acidity. Winemakers aim for 0.6% acidity. Most common fruits are about 0.6% acid content. For distilling, a higher acidity in the mash helps to suppress bacteria. A high tannin content doesn't matter as we are not making wine. Meaurements are logarithmic, so a pH of 4 is 10 times more acidic than a pH of 5.

                                                      YEAST - Brewers (& possibly baker's yeast) can tolerate only 8% alcohol. A bottom fermenting lager yeast ferments out all the sugars better than a top fermenting ale yeast. A good wine yeast (Champagne, in the right conditions, can tolerate 15%a.b.v. (up to 18%a.b.v. in optimal conditions - no need to use expensive turbos). Wild yeasts vary, but some are very low - this is a risky path. Whisky distillers often use a combination of yeasts - initially a brewer's yeast because they believe it effects the flavor.

                                                      8) Can I use fruit wine ?

                                                      Sure, if you have it available. Again, using a pot still will result in a brandy/grappa/schnapps, whereas a reflux still will just strip it down to neutral spirit.

                                                      9) How do I make a Turbo-all-sugar wash ?

                                                      The first trick is to locate the "Turbo" yeasts - either try the New Zealand sites, or www.brewhaus.com. Then, dissolve 5-6 kg of sugar with 2-3 L of boiling water, top up to 25 L with cold water, wait until its cooled below 24 °C, and then stir the yeast in, and close the lid with an airlock. Keep at 24 °C until the SG has dropped below 1.010 Its then possible to add extra sugar (1 kg at a time, dissolved in a little water) each time the SG has dropped below 1.010. You should be able to add an extra 3-4 kg this way over a week. It should finish around 0.980 - 0.990

                                                      10) How do I run a Pot Still ?

                                                      See http://homedistiller.org/dtw.htm#use_pot for details. A pot still is fairly straight forward to use. Turn it on. Once the temperature is up to about 60 °C turn on the cooling water to the condensor. Make sure you throw away the first 1 00 mL per 20L wash, as this will contain any methanol that might be present. Segregate the distillate into 500 mL lots as it comes off. Only keep (for drinking) that which doesn't contain fusels (smell off) - probably below about 92 ° C, however you should keep distilling past here, untill about 96 ° C, as this fraction, although high in tails and not good for drinking this time, can be added back to the next wash and cleaned up OK then.

                                                      11) How do I run a Reflux / Fractionating Still ?

                                                      See http://homedistiller.org/dtw.htm#use_reflux for details +/or variations. It is best to first equilibriate the column under total reflux for 10 minutes or so. This will concentrate up the foreshots so that they can be removed first. Collect them one drip at a time, for approx 50 mL per 25L wash, and throw away. You can then collect the remaining run at a quicker rate. Adjust the reflux ratio (the ratio of how much of the total vapour is returned as reflux) by varying either the rate of collection or rate of cooling water (depending on still design) to maintain the purity you want. You can judge the purity by measuring the vapour temperature. Target around 78.2 - 78.4 °C . Towards the end of the run it will be hard to get a high enough reflux ratio to maintain the high purity / low temperature. When the temperature has nudged up to around 80 °C quit collecting for drinking, and collect the remainder as tails (for redistillation in the next run) up to around 96 °C .

                                                      12) Can I use a Reflux Still to make Rum or Whisky ?

                                                      Yes you can. To do so, you need to carefully monitor the various transitions between the foreshots, heads, middle run, and tails, and time the collection of the middle run precisely. The reflux still allows you to more precisely judge the changes between the various stages, and hence target them accurately. A typical rum or whisky would be obtained by discarding the foreshots, then collecting the heads, middle run, and then begin the tails, until the purity has dropped to around 58-60% (82 °C). By altering when to start collecting, and how late to time the final "cut", various flavour profiles will result. You'd collect it faster and at a slightly lower reflux ratio than for a neutral spirit, as you want the flavour present.

                                                      13) How do I measure the strength of it & dilute it ?

                                                      You need a hydrometer. This is a wee float, with a scale inside it. The more alcohol that is present, the lighter the density of the liquid, so the hydrometer sinks a bit lower. You then just read off the scale how much alcohol is present. You need a seperate hydrometer for measuring the density of the mash, as this is generally > 1.0, whereas the spirit is < 1.0, and they can't accurately do both ends of the scale.

                                                      14) How do I get rid of that "off-taste" ?

                                                      That "rough moonshine edge" or "off-taste / wet cardboard smell" is due to impurities such as the higher order alcohols, known as cogeners or fusel oils. These will be present more when using a pot still, less if using a reflux still, and just about absent if using a fractionating column. So one way is to use a taller packed column and increase the amount of reflux occuring. They can also indicate that you've tried to collect too much of the alcohol, and have run into the "tails"; so finish collecting a little bit earlier next time. Soaking tainted alcohol with activated carbon for a week (or even months) will help remove some of this flavour - this is known as "polishing" the spirit. I'm also suspecting that you need a little bit of copper somewhere in the still where it can come in contact with the vapour. The copper helps catalyse some of the sulphur, esters & organic acids, reducing their odour & taste.

                                                      15) Why do my spirits turn cloudy when diluted ?

                                                      With neutral spirits, either you have pushed 'tails' into your product (eg collected too much product from the still - quit earlier next time), or you are using poor tap-water (high in calcium carbonate). If it happens when diluting your gin, sambuca or the like, its because there is too little alcohol/too much oil present and the oils are no longer dissolved. Either drink it cloudy or increase the % alcohol present.

                                                      16) How do I flavour/turn the vodka's into something else ?

                                                      There are now many commercial flavourings available, which turn vodka or neutral alcohol into pretty decent gin or whiskey, or all manor of liqueurs. See the commercial sites, like Des Zines http://homepages.ihug.co.nz/~topkiwi or Ray Toms http://moonshine.co.nz/ for details. Or you can soak it with oak chips and make whiskey, or soak fruits in it to make your own liqueurs. There are many websites describing how to make liqueurs - see http://homedistiller.org/liqueurs.htm or http://www.guntheranderson.com for a starting point.

                                                      17) What web resources are there ?

                                                      For more details, see :
                                                      Tony Ackland's http://homedistiller.org
                                                      Aaron Smiths's http://www.go.to/distillation
                                                      Steve Spence's http://webconx.green-trust.org/ethanol.htm
                                                      StillMaker's http://www.Moonshine-Still.com
                                                      Biofuels Library http://journeytoforever.org/biofuel_library.html

                                                      18) How do I contact the NEW DISTILLERS news group ?

                                                      Both the NEW DISTILLERS and the DISTILLERS news groups are available via YahooGroups, at http://www.yahoogroups.com . NEW DISTILLERS is, as the name suggests, intended for those of you new to distilling and after simple, straight-forward answers to questions, whereas the DISTILLERS group discussions are a bit more advanced, throwing in bits of design philosophy, theory, and alternative ways of achieving the results. Both tend to overlap to some extent.

                                                      19) Can I run my car on it ?

                                                      You can run your car on alcohol over about 80% purity. Because any water present will seperate out in the presence of the gasoline (and become a problem), you either need to exclusively use the alcohol, or dry it right out (eg 99%+ purity) if using it to mix with gasoline. See Steve Spences site for more details, the Mother Earth Alcohol Fuel manual, or the The Manual for the Home and Farm Production of Alcohol Fuel. In addition, in the USA, you can get a "small fuel producer" permit, which allows small scale distilling for "motor fuel" purposes. A nice advantage is that they don't require denaturing for "fuel" used on the premises. The regulations are posted at http://webconx.green-trust.org/ethanol.htm

                                                      20) How do I convert between gallons and litres and ....

                                                      To convert between SI & Imperial units, multiply the first unit by the conversion factor to get the second. Divide back to do it in reverse .eg 1L = 0.264 US gal, so 20 L = 20 x 0.264 = 5.28 US gal, and 20 US gal / 0.264 = 75.76 L

                                                      1 L = 0.264 US gal = 0.221 UK gal
                                                      1 L = 1.057 US qt = 0.880 UK qt
                                                      1 kg = 2.204 lbm = 32.15 oz (troy) = 35.27 oz (av)
                                                      deg F = ((9/5) x deg C )+ 32
                                                      1m = 1000 mm = 39.37 inch = 3.28 ft = 1.09 yd

                                                      21) What is a "Thumper" ?

                                                      A "thumper" is an extra chamber sometimes fitted to a pot still. It can be as simple as a glass jar with two holes in the lid. The off-take from the still is fed into it, with the pipe running almost all the way to the bottom of the jar; the jar is half filled with liquid (water or mash or tails) so that the vapour from the still will bubble up through it; then the vapour coming off it is collected & cooled as per normal. It acts as a second distilling chamber using just the heat from the vapour, and lifts the purity from 50-60% to 70-80%, hence improving what might otherwise be a very mediocre design. Don't make the thumper too small, and start it off with liquid already high in alcohol.

                                                      22) Can Methylated Spirits be made safe to Drink ?

                                                      No. Methylated spirits (aka meths) is a mixture of ethanol and (poisonous) methanol, with a denturant added to make it foul tasting. There is no effective way of seperating them, be it by distilling, using carbon, or filtering through bread (old wives tale). Do not add meths to anything you ever intend to distill or drink, and don't try using it in any form - it will still be poisonous. Keep it for cleaning and starting the BBQ with. Likewise, you cant "clean up" antifreeze in your still.



                                                      Tony Ackland
                                                      http://homedistiller.org

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                                                    • Tony Ackland
                                                      New Distillers FAQ ****************************************************************** NEW DISTILLERS Frequently Asked Questions (Feb 03) Posted near the 1st
                                                      Message 26 of 29 , Apr 27, 2005
                                                        New Distillers FAQ
                                                        ******************************************************************
                                                        "NEW DISTILLERS" Frequently Asked Questions (Feb'03)

                                                        Posted near the 1st of each month, to the NEW_DISTILLERS newsgroup
                                                        at www.yahoogroups.com

                                                        Please email any additions, corrections, clarifications required,
                                                        etc regarding the FAQ to Tony Ackland
                                                        (Tony.Ackland@...), however please direct any
                                                        general questions to the newsgroup itself.

                                                        *******************************************************************

                                                        1) Is distilling hard to do ?
                                                        2) Is it legal ?
                                                        3) Will it make me blind ?
                                                        4) Whats the difference between a pot still, reflux still, and
                                                        fractionating column ?
                                                        5) How do I get or make a still ?
                                                        6) How do I make a whisky / rum / vodka / gin ?
                                                        7) Should I use sugar or grains ?
                                                        8) Can I use fruit wine ?
                                                        9) How do I make a Turbo-all-sugar wash ?
                                                        10) How do I run a Pot still ?
                                                        11) How do I run a Reflux still ?
                                                        12) Can I use a reflux still to make rum or whisky ?
                                                        13) How do I measure the strength of it & dilute it ?
                                                        14) How do I get rid of that "off-taste" ?
                                                        15) Why do my spirits turn cloudy when diluted ?
                                                        16) How do I flavour/turn the vodka's into something else ?
                                                        17) What web resources are there ?
                                                        18) How do I contact the NEW DISTILLERS news group ?
                                                        19) Can I run my car on it ?
                                                        20) How do I convert between gallons and litres and ....
                                                        21) What is a "Thumper" ?
                                                        22) Can methylated spirits be made safe to drink ?

                                                        *********************************************************************
                                                        *

                                                        1) Is distilling hard to do ?

                                                        Nope - if you can follow instructions enough to bake scones, then
                                                        you can sucessfully distil. To distil well however, will require you
                                                        to understand what you're doing, so read around and get a bit of
                                                        information under your belt before you begin.

                                                        2) Is it legal ?

                                                        Probably not. It is only legal in New Zealand, and some European
                                                        countries turn a blind eye to it, but elsewhere it is illegal, with
                                                        punishment ranging from fines to imprisonment or floggings. This
                                                        action against it is usually the result of either religous beliefs
                                                        (right or wrong), but more generally due to the great revenue base
                                                        it provides Governements through excise taxes. So if you are going
                                                        to distil, just be aware of the potential legal ramifications.

                                                        3) Will it make me blind ?

                                                        Not if you're careful. This pervasive question is due to moonshine
                                                        lore, which abounds with myths of blindness, but few actual
                                                        documented cases. The concern is due to the presence of methanol
                                                        (wood alcohol), an optic nerve poison, which can be present in small
                                                        amounts when fermenting grains or fruits high in pectin. This
                                                        methanol comes off first from the still, so it is easily segregated
                                                        and discarded, and easily observed via changes in the vapour
                                                        temperature. A simple rule of thumb for this is to throw away the
                                                        first 50 mL you collect (per 20 L mash used). Probably the greatest
                                                        risk to your health during distilling is the risk of fire -
                                                        collecting a flammable liquid near a heat source. So keep a fire
                                                        extinguisher nearby.

                                                        The cases where you do hear about people poisoned by "illict
                                                        spirits" have been the terrible situations where adulterants such as
                                                        methanol, antifreeze, battery acid etc have been added to the
                                                        spirits afterwards by unscrupulous sellers (for what misguided
                                                        reasons ??). If you have had a healthy fermentation take place, it
                                                        is infact very difficult to make methanol. The other problems have
                                                        been lead poisoning when people have used lead-based products (ie
                                                        lead solder) when constructing their still, instead of something
                                                        more appropriate for food-grade vessels. The rules should infact
                                                        be "dont buy spirits from an unknown supplier" - but its very safe
                                                        to distill for yourself.

                                                        4) Whats the difference between a pot still, reflux still, and
                                                        fractionating column ?

                                                        A pot still simply collects and condenses the alcohol vapours that
                                                        come off the boiling mash. This will result in an alcohol at about
                                                        40-60% purity, with plenty of flavour in it. If this distillate were
                                                        put through the pot still again, it would increase in purity to
                                                        around 70-85% purity, and lose a bit of its flavour.

                                                        A reflux still does these multiple distillations in one single go,
                                                        by having some packing in a column between the condensor & the pot,
                                                        and allowing some of the vapour to condense and trickle back down
                                                        through the packing. This "reflux" of liquid helps clean the rising
                                                        vapour and increase the % purity. The taller the packed column, and
                                                        the more reflux liquid, the purer the product will be. The advantage
                                                        of doing this is that it will result in a clean vodka, with little
                                                        flavour to it - ideal for mixing with flavours etc.

                                                        A fractionating column is a pure form of the reflux still. It will
                                                        condense all the vapour at the top of the packing, and return about
                                                        9/10 back down the column. The column will be quite tall - say 600-
                                                        1200mm (2-4 foot), and packed with a material high in surface area,
                                                        but which takes up little space (pot scrubbers are good for this).
                                                        It will result in an alcohol 95%+ pure (the theoretical limit
                                                        without using a vacuum is 96.48 %(by volume)), with no other tastes
                                                        or impurities in it.

                                                        5) How do I get or make a still ?

                                                        If you're after a pot still, these are generally home made using
                                                        what-ever you have at hand - say copper tubing and old water heaters
                                                        or pressure cookers. You don't really need any plans for these -
                                                        just follow any of the photos about.

                                                        Reflux stills can be made from plans on the net, or bought from
                                                        several manufacturers. For reflux still plans see
                                                        The photos section at http://homedistiller.org/photos-ns.htm
                                                        for "Offset head" designs, and http://homedistiller.org/photos-
                                                        reflux.htm for general reflux stills.
                                                        Alex's designs at
                                                        http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Distillers/files/OFTS/
                                                        StillCookers http://us.geocities.com/stillcooker/
                                                        Stillmakers "Build a World Class Distillation Apparatus" at
                                                        http://www.Moonshine-Still.com (Free!) or
                                                        Gert Strands : http://partyman.se/Engelsk/default.htm (US$5).
                                                        Ian Smileys "Making Pure Corn Whisky" at http://www.home-
                                                        distilling.com , with full design details.

                                                        For an excellent book on all aspects of still design, see "The
                                                        Compleat Distiller" at http://www.amphora-society.com.
                                                        See the list of "web resources" below for links to sites selling
                                                        ready-made stills.

                                                        For fuel alcohol stills see the Mother Earth Alcohol Fuel manual at
                                                        http://journeytoforever.org/biofuel_library/ethanol_motherearth/meToC
                                                        .html, and the The Manual for the Home and Farm Production of
                                                        Alcohol Fuel by S.W. Mathewson at
                                                        http://journeytoforever.org/biofuel_library/ethanol_manual/manual_ToC
                                                        .html
                                                        Regarding the choice of heating for the still - if you have 240V
                                                        available it is usually easiest to control & safer (particularly
                                                        with internal elements). Gas can be used, but more care is needed to
                                                        keep the collection container further away and not letting it
                                                        overfill.

                                                        For more details on design, see http://homedistiller.org/designs.htm
                                                        and http://homedistiller.org/refluxdesign.htm.

                                                        6) How do I make a whisky / vodka / rum / gin ?

                                                        Whiskey : Heat 4 kg cracked or crushed malt with 18 L of water to 63-
                                                        65 °C, and hold there for 1-1.5 hours. Heat to 73-75 °C, then strain
                                                        off and keep liquid, using 250 mL of hot water to rinse the grains.
                                                        Cool to below 30 °C (should have an initial specific gravity of
                                                        1.050). Add hydrated yeast & leave to ferment (maintain at 26 °C)
                                                        until airlock stops bubbling and final SG of around 1.010. Let
                                                        settle for a day, then syphon carefully into a pot still. Discard
                                                        the first 50 mL's, collect the next 2-3L of distillate or until you
                                                        start noticing the tails coming through. Many people also have
                                                        sucess starting with a beer-kit instead of using grains.

                                                        Vodka : dissolve 5 kg of sugar & 60 g of nutrients in 20 L of water,
                                                        cool to below 30C and add hydrated yeast. Leave to ferment at 25 °C
                                                        until below an SG of around 0.990, then settle for a day. Syphon
                                                        into a reflux or fractionating still, and collect as per usual.

                                                        Rum : as per vodka, but use some brown sugar or mollasses, to give
                                                        an initial specific gravity (SG) of around 1.060 - 1.070. Run
                                                        through either a pot still, or a de-refluxed reflux still.

                                                        Gin : make a very pure vodka, then add the following essence. Simmer
                                                        35 g of juniper berries in 350 mL of 50% vodka for ten minutes with
                                                        the lid on, let cool overnight, then filter through coffee filters.
                                                        Use 5-10 mL of this essence per bottle of vodka.

                                                        When doing any fermenting, take a lot of care to ensure that any
                                                        items used are clean/sterile (soaking them in a water + bleach (10
                                                        mL per litre) ), or else the wash can start growing other things.
                                                        Use a closed fermenter with an airlock too, to let the CO2 out
                                                        without letting wild yeasts, bugs etc in. For more information about
                                                        fermenting, see beer or wine homebrewing sites.

                                                        7) Should I use sugar or grains/fruit ?

                                                        It depends on what sort of still you have, and what you are trying
                                                        to make. If you have a reflux or fractionating still, only use
                                                        whatever is cheapest (usually sugar), as the refluxing will strip
                                                        out all the flavours anyhow. If you have a pot still, and are after
                                                        a bourban or whiskey, then you need to go the grain route, or
                                                        mollasses if after a rum. If you are trying to make a neutral spirit
                                                        for flavouring, go for sugar.

                                                        Basic guidelines for using them are ..

                                                        SUGAR. Wine yeast can use no more than 2.5lbs of sugar/1imp gal or
                                                        2.2lb/1U.S.gal or 1.25kg/5litres of must. This will produce 14%
                                                        a.b.v. Honey and liquid malt extract are 80% sugar so you need
                                                        1.5kg/5l must or mash. Molasses is 50% sugar so you need 2.5kg/5l
                                                        must or mash. Maple syrup is 32% sugar. Carob beans are 45% sugar.
                                                        Sugar beets are 15% sugar Grain malt is 60% sugar (starch converted
                                                        to sugars) so you need 1.5kg/5l mash. Cooked grain contains 60%
                                                        convertible starch so you need 1.5kg/5l mash

                                                        FRUIT - Grapes contain the ideal sugar, water, acid balance. A sugar
                                                        content of 17-23% and a water content of about 80%. 8kg of grapes
                                                        produces 5l of wine.
                                                        Most common fruits (apples, plums, apricots) contain about 10% sugar
                                                        and 85% water. Cherries and figs contain 15% sugar. A fruit mash
                                                        could be 4kg fruit, (400g sugar content), 2l water (3l in pulp
                                                        already), 800g additional sugar.
                                                        Bananas are 17-24% sugar, 75% water. Acid content 0.3%. A banana
                                                        mash could be 4kg of cooked bananas, 2l water (3l in pulp
                                                        already),400g sugar. Add 3lemons/5l for correct pH.
                                                        Dates are 70% sugar, 20% water. Add acid to a date mash.
                                                        Raisins and sultanas have a water content of about 15% and a sugar
                                                        content of 60%, grapes have a water content of 75% and a sugar
                                                        content of about 20%, so using 1.5-2kg/5l of water appears about
                                                        right if we want to reconstitute them.

                                                        ACID - 5g of citric acid (1tsp)/5l must raises acidity by 0.1%. 3g
                                                        of calcium carbonate powder lowers acidity by 0.1%. A pH of 5 is
                                                        0.4% acidity. Winemakers aim for 0.6% acidity. Most common fruits
                                                        are about 0.6% acid content. For distilling, a higher acidity in the
                                                        mash helps to suppress bacteria. A high tannin content doesn't
                                                        matter as we are not making wine. Meaurements are logarithmic, so a
                                                        pH of 4 is 10 times more acidic than a pH of 5.

                                                        YEAST - Brewers (& possibly baker's yeast) can tolerate only 8%
                                                        alcohol. A bottom fermenting lager yeast ferments out all the sugars
                                                        better than a top fermenting ale yeast. A good wine yeast
                                                        (Champagne, in the right conditions, can tolerate 15%a.b.v. (up to
                                                        18%a.b.v. in optimal conditions - no need to use expensive turbos).
                                                        Wild yeasts vary, but some are very low - this is a risky path.
                                                        Whisky distillers often use a combination of yeasts - initially a
                                                        brewer's yeast because they believe it effects the flavor.

                                                        8) Can I use fruit wine ?

                                                        Sure, if you have it available. Again, using a pot still will result
                                                        in a brandy/grappa/schnapps, whereas a reflux still will just strip
                                                        it down to neutral spirit.

                                                        9) How do I make a Turbo-all-sugar wash ?

                                                        The first trick is to locate the "Turbo" yeasts - either try the New
                                                        Zealand sites, or www.brewhaus.com. Then, dissolve 5-6 kg of sugar
                                                        with 2-3 L of boiling water, top up to 25 L with cold water, wait
                                                        until its cooled below 24 °C, and then stir the yeast in, and close
                                                        the lid with an airlock. Keep at 24 °C until the SG has dropped
                                                        below 1.010 Its then possible to add extra sugar (1 kg at a time,
                                                        dissolved in a little water) each time the SG has dropped below
                                                        1.010. You should be able to add an extra 3-4 kg this way over a
                                                        week. It should finish around 0.980 - 0.990

                                                        10) How do I run a Pot Still ?

                                                        See http://homedistiller.org/dtw.htm#use_pot for details. A pot
                                                        still is fairly straight forward to use. Turn it on. Once the
                                                        temperature is up to about 60 °C turn on the cooling water to the
                                                        condensor. Make sure you throw away the first 1 00 mL per 20L wash,
                                                        as this will contain any methanol that might be present. Segregate
                                                        the distillate into 500 mL lots as it comes off. Only keep (for
                                                        drinking) that which doesn't contain fusels (smell off) - probably
                                                        below about 92 ° C, however you should keep distilling past here,
                                                        untill about 96 ° C, as this fraction, although high in tails and
                                                        not good for drinking this time, can be added back to the next wash
                                                        and cleaned up OK then.

                                                        11) How do I run a Reflux / Fractionating Still ?

                                                        See http://homedistiller.org/dtw.htm#use_reflux for details +/or
                                                        variations. It is best to first equilibriate the column under total
                                                        reflux for 10 minutes or so. This will concentrate up the foreshots
                                                        so that they can be removed first. Collect them one drip at a time,
                                                        for approx 50 mL per 25L wash, and throw away. You can then collect
                                                        the remaining run at a quicker rate. Adjust the reflux ratio (the
                                                        ratio of how much of the total vapour is returned as reflux) by
                                                        varying either the rate of collection or rate of cooling water
                                                        (depending on still design) to maintain the purity you want. You can
                                                        judge the purity by measuring the vapour temperature. Target around
                                                        78.2 - 78.4 °C . Towards the end of the run it will be hard to get a
                                                        high enough reflux ratio to maintain the high purity / low
                                                        temperature. When the temperature has nudged up to around 80 °C quit
                                                        collecting for drinking, and collect the remainder as tails (for
                                                        redistillation in the next run) up to around 96 °C .

                                                        12) Can I use a Reflux Still to make Rum or Whisky ?

                                                        Yes you can. To do so, you need to carefully monitor the various
                                                        transitions between the foreshots, heads, middle run, and tails, and
                                                        time the collection of the middle run precisely. The reflux still
                                                        allows you to more precisely judge the changes between the various
                                                        stages, and hence target them accurately. A typical rum or whisky
                                                        would be obtained by discarding the foreshots, then collecting the
                                                        heads, middle run, and then begin the tails, until the purity has
                                                        dropped to around 58-60% (82 °C). By altering when to start
                                                        collecting, and how late to time the final "cut", various flavour
                                                        profiles will result. You'd collect it faster and at a slightly
                                                        lower reflux ratio than for a neutral spirit, as you want the
                                                        flavour present.

                                                        13) How do I measure the strength of it & dilute it ?

                                                        You need a hydrometer. This is a wee float, with a scale inside it.
                                                        The more alcohol that is present, the lighter the density of the
                                                        liquid, so the hydrometer sinks a bit lower. You then just read off
                                                        the scale how much alcohol is present. You need a seperate
                                                        hydrometer for measuring the density of the mash, as this is
                                                        generally > 1.0, whereas the spirit is < 1.0, and they can't
                                                        accurately do both ends of the scale.

                                                        14) How do I get rid of that "off-taste" ?

                                                        That "rough moonshine edge" or "off-taste / wet cardboard smell" is
                                                        due to impurities such as the higher order alcohols, known as
                                                        cogeners or fusel oils. These will be present more when using a pot
                                                        still, less if using a reflux still, and just about absent if using
                                                        a fractionating column. So one way is to use a taller packed column
                                                        and increase the amount of reflux occuring. They can also indicate
                                                        that you've tried to collect too much of the alcohol, and have run
                                                        into the "tails"; so finish collecting a little bit earlier next
                                                        time. Soaking tainted alcohol with activated carbon for a week (or
                                                        even months) will help remove some of this flavour - this is known
                                                        as "polishing" the spirit. I'm also suspecting that you need a
                                                        little bit of copper somewhere in the still where it can come in
                                                        contact with the vapour. The copper helps catalyse some of the
                                                        sulphur, esters & organic acids, reducing their odour & taste.

                                                        15) Why do my spirits turn cloudy when diluted ?

                                                        With neutral spirits, either you have pushed 'tails' into your
                                                        product (eg collected too much product from the still - quit earlier
                                                        next time), or you are using poor tap-water (high in calcium
                                                        carbonate). If it happens when diluting your gin, sambuca or the
                                                        like, its because there is too little alcohol/too much oil present
                                                        and the oils are no longer dissolved. Either drink it cloudy or
                                                        increase the % alcohol present.

                                                        16) How do I flavour/turn the vodka's into something else ?

                                                        There are now many commercial flavourings available, which turn
                                                        vodka or neutral alcohol into pretty decent gin or whiskey, or all
                                                        manor of liqueurs. See the commercial sites, like Des Zines
                                                        http://homepages.ihug.co.nz/~topkiwi or Ray Toms
                                                        http://moonshine.co.nz/ for details. Or you can soak it with oak
                                                        chips and make whiskey, or soak fruits in it to make your own
                                                        liqueurs. There are many websites describing how to make liqueurs -
                                                        see http://homedistiller.org/liqueurs.htm or
                                                        http://www.guntheranderson.com for a starting point.

                                                        17) What web resources are there ?

                                                        For more details, see :
                                                        Tony Ackland's http://homedistiller.org
                                                        Aaron Smiths's http://www.go.to/distillation
                                                        Steve Spence's http://webconx.green-trust.org/ethanol.htm
                                                        StillMaker's http://www.Moonshine-Still.com
                                                        Biofuels Library http://journeytoforever.org/biofuel_library.html

                                                        18) How do I contact the NEW DISTILLERS news group ?

                                                        Both the NEW DISTILLERS and the DISTILLERS news groups are available
                                                        via YahooGroups, at http://www.yahoogroups.com . NEW DISTILLERS is,
                                                        as the name suggests, intended for those of you new to distilling
                                                        and after simple, straight-forward answers to questions, whereas the
                                                        DISTILLERS group discussions are a bit more advanced, throwing in
                                                        bits of design philosophy, theory, and alternative ways of achieving
                                                        the results. Both tend to overlap to some extent.

                                                        19) Can I run my car on it ?

                                                        You can run your car on alcohol over about 80% purity. Because any
                                                        water present will seperate out in the presence of the gasoline (and
                                                        become a problem), you either need to exclusively use the alcohol,
                                                        or dry it right out (eg 99%+ purity) if using it to mix with
                                                        gasoline. See Steve Spences site for more details, the Mother Earth
                                                        Alcohol Fuel manual, or the The Manual for the Home and Farm
                                                        Production of Alcohol Fuel. In addition, in the USA, you can get
                                                        a "small fuel producer" permit, which allows small scale distilling
                                                        for "motor fuel" purposes. A nice advantage is that they don't
                                                        require denaturing for "fuel" used on the premises. The regulations
                                                        are posted at http://webconx.green-trust.org/ethanol.htm

                                                        20) How do I convert between gallons and litres and ....

                                                        To convert between SI & Imperial units, multiply the first unit by
                                                        the conversion factor to get the second. Divide back to do it in
                                                        reverse .eg 1L = 0.264 US gal, so 20 L = 20 x 0.264 = 5.28 US gal,
                                                        and 20 US gal / 0.264 = 75.76 L

                                                        1 L = 0.264 US gal = 0.221 UK gal
                                                        1 L = 1.057 US qt = 0.880 UK qt
                                                        1 kg = 2.204 lbm = 32.15 oz (troy) = 35.27 oz (av)
                                                        deg F = ((9/5) x deg C )+ 32
                                                        1m = 1000 mm = 39.37 inch = 3.28 ft = 1.09 yd

                                                        21) What is a "Thumper" ?

                                                        A "thumper" is an extra chamber sometimes fitted to a pot still. It
                                                        can be as simple as a glass jar with two holes in the lid. The off-
                                                        take from the still is fed into it, with the pipe running almost all
                                                        the way to the bottom of the jar; the jar is half filled with liquid
                                                        (water or mash or tails) so that the vapour from the still will
                                                        bubble up through it; then the vapour coming off it is collected &
                                                        cooled as per normal. It acts as a second distilling chamber using
                                                        just the heat from the vapour, and lifts the purity from 50-60% to
                                                        70-80%, hence improving what might otherwise be a very mediocre
                                                        design. Don't make the thumper too small, and start it off with
                                                        liquid already high in alcohol.

                                                        22) Can Methylated Spirits be made safe to Drink ?

                                                        No. Methylated spirits (aka meths) is a mixture of ethanol and
                                                        (poisonous) methanol, with a denturant added to make it foul
                                                        tasting. There is no effective way of seperating them, be it by
                                                        distilling, using carbon, or filtering through bread (old wives
                                                        tale). Do not add meths to anything you ever intend to distill or
                                                        drink, and don't try using it in any form - it will still be
                                                        poisonous. Keep it for cleaning and starting the BBQ with. Likewise,
                                                        you cant "clean up" antifreeze in your still.
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